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Vol. XXIX 


JANUARY, 1905 

New York 

No. 1 

Northern Motors for Heavy Tools 

THEY do the work economically, quickly — and stand the 
racket. Then, too, if required, any speed variation 
necessary with one voltage, two wires, many speeds. 


NORTHERN ELECTRICAL MFG. CO., MaStuAr. Madison, Wis., U. S. A. 



B. M. JONES & CO., Sole Representatives 
in the United States, Canada and Mexico 

Best Yorkshire Staybolt Iron 

Axles and Piston Rods 

BOSTON, 159 Devonshire St. 
NEW YORK, 143 Liberty St. 

Page 10 


SIUBI B MS-waia- etmmt t ■ — **« 



Locomotive Appliance Company, Chemical Bldg., St. Louis. Mo. 

C1„ HJt r_ _*. f t-\ 

Sole Manufacturers Smyth Derailers 


Cleveland City 
Forge & Iron Co, 










Oar Booklet, File Filosophy, Seat Free upon Application. 

General Offices: PROVIDENCE, R. I. 











Our Outside Roof Reduces the Height of your Cars 2 Inches and the Width 6 Inches Less than 

Any Inside Roof. Ask for Blueprint. 









Alphabetical Index of Advertisers, Page *1« Advertisers' Classified Index, Page 28. 




is everywhere known as 








We believe this to be the most up- 
to-date Arch Bar Drill on the market 
today. Designed to drive \% inch 
drills to their limit. Easy to operate. 
Made of very best material. 






For Bridge and 
Boiler and Tank 

Manufactured b.y 

Chester B. 
Iron Works 

1115 Market St. 

Catalogue on 


gECAUSE of its durability, sightliness and fire 
resisting qualities — Perfected Granite 
Roofing was given the preference over other roof- 
ing material by some of the largest railroads and 
industrial establishments in the United States. 

It can be laid perfectly smooth over old tin or 
shingles and once laid requires no recoating. 

It is not affected by extremes of heat or cold 
and will not run, warp, buckle, or rust. 

Send for Photo Pamphlet. 


Irving Building, New York. 




Made in one grade only 

Our Guarantee 

*** and every Globe, Angle 
60 degrees and Cross Valve, with 
our monogram on it, has been 
tested with 1,000 pounds water 
pressure and joined tight before 
leaving our works. 

Write for our Valve Book. 

The Hancock Inspirator Co., 


85-87=89 Liberty Street, 
New York City 

22=24=26 So. Canal Street, 
Chicago, III. 


P..„e's Water C..„ m „,. T .„ k FIxfr^B^, T..v~ ^bitTa-VL WaTr" mZrs 










Security Building 


President Vice President Manager 

O. H. REYNOLDS, Editor O. W. BODLER, Secretary 

Index to Volume XXIX. 

January to December, 1905, 

Issue. , Pages. Issue. ^ Pages. Issue. Pages. Issue. Pages. 

January 1 to 44 April Ill to 142 July 223 to 266 October 33 1 to 394 

February 45 to 78 May 143 to 174 August 267 to 298 November 395 to 426 

March 79 to no June 175 to 222 September 299 to 330 December 427 to 474 

Illustrated Articles Indicated by Asterisk 

*Acme White Lead & Color Company 164 

A Drawing Office Need 331 

*Air Hoist and Cranes 449 

Air Pump Rack 163 

*Ajax Universal Forging Machine 351 

* Alternating Current Series Motor ; 99 

The Andrews Cast Steel Truck Frame 48S 

*Anti Friction Metal 164 

*A New Water Tool Grinder 258 

*A New Car Jack 412 

* A New Turret Screw Machine . . 94 

*American Railway Appliance Exhibition 105-130 

*At the Manhattan Convention 236 

*A Motor Driven Speed Lathe 421 

*A Rapid Production Verticle Turret Lathe 124 

*Ash Pan Openings . . 430 

*A Variable Exhaust Nozzle 322 

Award of Medals of Honor 260 

*48 and 54 Inch Band Resaw 323 

*Bard Adjustable Bushing 258 

*Bracket Arch Cast Iron Car Wheels 281 

Brake-in-Two of Long Trains, Passenger and Freight, at 
Slow Speeds, When Releasing Brakes and Methods of 

Prevention 341 

*Ball Bearing Locomotive Jack 205 

*Barber Rolling Bearing Truck, 150,000 lbs. Capacity 254 

*Bickford Universal Radial Drill 451 

Birthday Celebration on The Erie 441 

*Bolt Straightening Machine 430 

*Mr. C. L. Bretz, General Manager C.,& P. R. R. C 48 

*Brush, The Rubberset 351 

*The Bohn Refrigerator Car 322 

*Mr. R. H. Bowron, G. M\, C, H. & D 332 

*Burgess Rail Anchor '. 135 

*The Butcher Fluid Pressure Steam Auxiliary Attachment 

for Driving Brakes 441 

*Mr. Edgar E. Calvin, General Manager Oregon Railroad & 

Navigation Co 2 

*Car Dining for the C. B. & Q. Ry 11 

*Cars. Erie Refrigerator, Steel Substructure 279 

*Car Refrigerator. The Bohn 322 

*Cars. Motor Car. The Ganz & Co 3 

*Car Motor, Union Pacific No. 1 274 

*Car Motor, Union Pacific No. 2 404 

Cars, Steel Passenger ' 413 

*Cars, New Steel, for the Metropolitan West Side Elevated 

R. R 126 

*i50,ooo lbs. Steel Flat Car, P. & L. E. Ry 313 

*Cast Steel Trucks 98 

*Central Vermont Two-Cylinder Compound 280 

*Chuck for Turning Eccentrics 309 

*Cleaning Crown Sheets with a Sand Blast : 102 

*Columbia Sander . . . . 257 

*A Combination Stock and Drop-Bottom Dump Car 430 

Committee on Location of the Next Meeting of the M. M. 

and M. C. B. Convention 310 

Communication from a Railroad Apprentice 97 

♦Compound Mogul with Superheater, M., St. P. & S. S. 

M. Ry 347 

Dearborn Laboratories 254 

Dependable Hydraulic Jacks 351 

Detroit Five-Feed Locomotive Lubricator 205 

♦Device for Centering and Boring Driving Wheel Boxes. . 66 

♦Device for Regulating the Braking Power of Cars 52 

*Dining Car for the C, B. & Q. Ry 13 

*Dissolved Acetylene Gas Under Pressure 415 

Drawing Office Need 331 

♦No. 20 High Duty Drill 448 

♦Drifting Valve 128 

*Duff Roller Bearing Screw Jacks 255 

Efficiency of Machine Tools 331 

♦Eight Wheel Passenger Engine with Superheater — D., L. 

& W. R. R 250 

Electric Tool Drives 299 

♦Electric Locomotive and Train, on Test Track near Sche- 
nectady, N. Y 252 

Employment and Preparation of Firemen 67 

*Engine and Car Replacer 259 

♦Erie Refrigerator Car — Steel Substructure..... 279 

♦Extra Heavy Outside Moulder 135 

The Falls Hollow Staybolt 256 

*The Farlow Draft Gear Attachments Combined With the 

Westinghouse Friction Draft Gear 292 

Fay & Egan Building and Addition 205 

Felspar Roofing 22 

*Fire Alarm Systems 99 

♦Mr. Thomas Fitzgerald, General Manager, B. & 80 

* Forging & Coupler Pocket Machine 92 

♦Forty-two Inch Boring & Turning Mill 93 

♦Four Cylinder Balance Compound — Oregon Railroad and 

Navigation Company 249 

*Mr. James L. Frazier, G. M., Cal. N. W. Ry. Co 144 

♦Ganz & Co. Motor Car 3 

*Garvin Automatic Tapper with Electric Drive 257 

*Garvin No. 14 Plain Milling Machine 450 

*Garvin Milling Machine 209 

♦Gasoline Electric Motor Car 153 

Grease as a Lubricant 333 

♦Grinder, A New Water Tool 258 

♦Grinding Machine as a Stock Remover 211 

♦Grindstone in Pere Marquette Shops 161 

♦Grinding Machine, No. 7 166 

♦Mr. J. M. Gruber, General Manager C, B. & Q 112 

♦Hancock Valves 22 

♦Hollow Chisel Mortiser 414 

Hospital on Wheels 433 

♦Mr. James E. Hurley, G. M., A. T. & S. F 268 

♦Ideal Emergency Coupler 205 

Improvements of Locomotives 175 

Improvements of the Locomotive 396 

♦Increased Repair Capacity on the Erie 251 

♦Independent Pneumatic Tool Company 256 

♦Index Center, Stockbridge No. 2 103 

♦Interurban Electric Traction System Alternating Current 

vs. Direct Current 59 

International Railway Congress 177 

♦Lake Shore Switcher in Service 413 

♦Lamps, New Printch Mantle 208 

♦L. & N. Shops at South Louisville 397-441 

♦The Landis No. 3 Universal Grinding Machine 450 

Lackawanna Railroad New Ferry Boats 104 

♦Landis Bolt Cutter 214 

Latest Makes of Lubricators — Their Operation and Main- 
tenance 335 

♦Lathe, A Rapid Production Verticle Turret 124 

♦Lathe, No. 3 Hollow Hexagon Turret 19 

♦Lathe, Hollow Hexagon Turret No. 3 19 

The Locomotive Fire Box 428 

♦Locomotive Jack, Ball Bearing 205 

♦Cole Balance Compound for the P. R. R 429 

♦Locomotive, Freight, Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type 8 

♦Locomotive, Pacific Type with Superheater, Erie Railroad. . 202 

♦Locomotives, New York Simple Comolidation 203 

♦Locomotive, Ten-Wheel C, St. P. M. & O. Ry 310 • 

♦Locomotive, Lehigh Valley Ten Wheeler 345 

♦Locomotives 2-6-2 Type for the Chicago & Western Indiana 84 

♦Locomotives, 4-6-2 Type for the C, M. & St. P. Ry u'6 

♦Locomotive. Two-Cylinder, Central Vermont 280 

♦Locomotives, Compound Mogul with Superheater, C, M. 

St. P. & S. S. M. Ry 347 

♦Locomotives, New Compound Express Locomotive for the 

Great Northern Ry. of England 413 

♦Locomotive. Eight Wheel Passenger Engine with Super- 
heater, D., L. & W. R. R 250 

♦Lehigh Valley Ten-Wheel Locomotive 345 

♦Locomotive, Ten Wheel Passenger for the Deleware Lacka- 
wanna & Western R. R 410 

♦Locomotive. Ten Wheel Switcher, L. S. Ry 278 

Locomotive, Improvements of the 396 

Locomotive Improvements 175 

♦Locomotive Water Stays 407 

Machine Tool Output 299 

♦Machine Shop Appliances, New 207 

Manhattan Conventions 223 

Manipulating Tool Steel, Including High Speed Varieties.. 305 

Master Car Builders' Standards 347 

♦Master Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' Convention. . 133 

♦McGrath Pneumatic Turntable Motor 215 

Meeting Place of the American Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion and Master Car Builders' Association 14 

♦Merrit & Company Lockers 164 

♦Mr. Henry Miller, G. M. Wabash R. R 300 

♦Miller Anchor for Wrecking Purposes ." . 23 

Modoc Car Cleaner , • 35 1 

♦Motor Car, The Ganz Co 3 

♦Motor Car, Union Pacific, No. 1 274^ 

♦Motor Car, Union Pacific, No. 2 404 

♦New Angus Shops, Canadian Pacific Ry 113-156-282 

♦New Boiler Shops, C, St. P., M. & O. Ry., St. Paul, Minn. . 311 
♦New Compound Express Locomotive, Great Northern Rail- 
way, of England 4 J 3 

♦New Fay & Egan Planer 420 

♦New Improved Detent Motion for American Thompson 

Indicator 212 

♦New Machine Shop Appliances 207 

♦New Planer, Matcher and Jointer 256 

♦New Printsch Mantle Lamps 208 

♦New Roundhouse of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 

at Elkhart, Ind 49-8i 

♦New Shops for the Pere Marquette at Grand Rapids 54-86 

♦New Steel Cars for the Metropolitan West Side Elevated 

Railroad 126 

♦New York Central Simple Consolidation Engine 203 

New York Railroad Club .- 346 

♦Some Newton Machine Tools 452 

♦North, McSweyn Cylinder Relief Valves 307 

♦Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type of Freight Locomotive 8 

♦No. 3 Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathe 19 

♦No. 2 Stockbridge Index Center 103 

♦No. 146 Band Rip and Resaw ■ 322 

Notes of the Omaha Shops 406 

♦Nozzle A. Variable Exhaust 322 

Officers of the Chicago Car Foremans' Club 406 

♦Pacific Type Engine with Superheater, Erie Railroad 202 

♦Pennock Iron Binding Machine 292 

♦Albert J. Pitkins 440 

Piece Work in Railroad Shops 276 

*Planer, New Fay & Egan 420 

* Planer, Matcher and Jointer, New 256 

-"Pneumatic Device for Controlling the Quantity of Water in 

a Hydraulic Accumulator 162 

Pneumatic Track Sanders 335 

Poldi Tool Steel 448 

♦Portable Tools 211 

♦Power Circular Saw Bench 167 

Proceedings .of the Fifth Annual Session of the Chief Joint 

Car Inspectors' and Foremans' Association of America . . 26 
Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Session of the Chief Joint 

Inspectors' and Car Foremans' Association of America. . 459 
Proceedings of the Thirty-eighth Annual Convention of the 

M. C. & L. P. A 353 

Program Test with Special Fifty Car Train at West 

Seneca, N. Y 402 

Railroad Transportation at the Worlds Fair 65 

♦Railway Appliances at Washington 189 

Railway Mechanical Training as Viewed by a Technical 

Graduate 11-71 

Railway Storekeepers' Association 127 

♦Reduction Loss Caused by Clearance in Locomotion and 

Other High Speed Engine Cylinders 281 

Reliable Iron for Car Wheels 268 

♦Ridgeway Boring and Turning Mill 159 

Roofing Felspar 22 

♦Roundhouse, the New Roundhouse of the Lake Shore & 

Michigan Southern 49-81 

♦Rubberset Brush, The 7 351 

♦Sand House and Appliances .' 145-269-301-436 

Slide Valves vs. Piston Valves 339 

♦Mr. Theodore P. Shonts, Chairman Isthmian Canal Com- 

mision 176 

♦Shops, New Angus, Canadian Pacific Ry 113-156-282 

♦Shops, at South Louisville, L. & N 397 

♦Shops for The P. M. at Grand Rapids, New 54-86 

♦Shops. New Boiler, C, St. P. M. & O. Ry., St. Paul 311 

Some Conventionalities 248 

♦Some Money Saving Schemes on the M. & St. Louis R. R. . 434 

♦Standard Bolt Cutters 22 

Stay Bolts, Braces and Flat Surfaces, by R. S. Hale 16 

Stealing Locomotive Repair Parts 152 

Steel Passenger Cars 413 

Subjects for the Next Annual Meeting of the Traveling 

Engineers' Association 16 

Superheat and Lubrication .....' 395 

Superheated Steam for Locomotives 331 

*Supcrheating Ten-Wheel Engine C, St. P., M. & O. Ry. . 310 

*Systcms of Electrical Distribution 119 

♦Taps & Dies 72 

The American Street Railway Association 411 

The Brooklyn Navy Yard 350 

♦The C, B. & Q. Ry. Dining Car 11 

♦The Exhibition of the Wcstinghouse Companies at the 

International Railway Exhibition 216 

*The Grinding Machine as a Stock Remover 211 

♦The Hatchet Planimeter 348 

The Magnet in Shop Work 395 

The Mechanical Stoker 337 

The "R. A." or Ajax Vestibule Diaphragms 72 

The Piece Work System 267 

The Traveling Engineers' Association 309 

♦The Traveling Engineers' Convention 333 

♦The Traveling Engineers' Boat Ride 345 

♦The Railroad Y. M. C. A 95 

♦Three Foot Arm Combination Radial Drill 166 

The Third Man on the Locomotive 333 

The Thirteenth Annual Convention of the National Master 

Blacksmiths' Association 305 

♦The Thirty-eighth Annual Convention of the Railway 

Master Mechanics' Association ( . . . . 225 

♦The Thirty-ninth Annual Convention of the Master Car 

Builders' Association 231 

♦Threads for Grease Cup Plungers 150 

♦Trailing Trucks 65 

♦Turret Screw Machine, A 94 

♦Turret Tool Holders 449 

♦Twenty- four Inch Shaper 167 

♦Twenty-four Inch by Eight Foot American Lathe 259 

♦Twenty Inch Crank Shaper 206 

♦Ten Wheel Passenger Locomotive, Delaware, Lackawanna 

& Western, R. R 410 

♦Ten Wheel Switcher for the Lake Shore 278 

♦Union Pacific Railroad Motor Car No. 1 274 

♦Union Pacific Motor Car No. 2 404 

♦Universal Safety Tread 103 

♦ Vacum Cleaning 324 

♦Valves, North, McSweyn Cylinder Relief 307 

Visit of Engineer Delegates to the Schenectady Works.... 203 

The Walschaert Valve Gear 427 

Water Purification for Locomotives 253 

Welding Cast Steel Locomotive Driving Wheels 7 

What Devices for an Arrangement of Engines and Tenders 

will Lighten the Work of the Engineer and Fireman?. . . 334 

♦Wheel Boring 213 

♦Westinghouse Single Phase Railway System 316 

♦Westinghouse Compound Pump 314 

Wreck on the New York Elevated 349 


January, 1905. 


Established 1878. 


Published by the 

BRUCE V. CRANDALL, President. 
O. W. BODLER, Editor. 

CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Building, 
305 Dearborn Street, Chicago 


Harrison 3357 
I Automatic 7357 

Eastern Office: Room 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

- Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 
A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, free of 

postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 



No. 1. 


Editorial 1 

Mr. Edgar E. Calvin, General Manager-/ Oregon Railroad & 

■ Navigation Co 2 

The Ganz & Co. Motor Car 3 

Welding Cast Steel Locomotive Driving Whe.els 7 

Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type of Freight Locomotive 8 

Railway Mechanical Training as Viewed by a Technical 

Graduate ' 11 

Dining Car for the C, B. & Q. Ry 13 

Next Meeting Place of the American Railway Master Me- 
chanics' Association and Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion .".... 14 

Threads for Grease Cup Plungers 15 

Subjects for the Next Annual Meeting of the Traveling- 
Engineers' Association 16 

Stay Bolts, Braces and Flat Surfaces, by R. S. Hale 16 

No. 3 Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathe 19 

Personals 21 

Felspar Roofing 22 

Standard Bolt Cutters 22 

Hancock Valves 22 

The Miller Anchor for Railway Wrecking Purposes ..23 

Notes of the Month 24 

Technical Publications 26 

Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Session of the Chief Joint 

Car Inspectors' and Foreman's Association of America. .26 
Paint Department . . 41 

WITH this issue we begin the publication of 
an index of all important articles appearing 
in the leading railway and mechanical journals which 
are of interest to those connected with railway mo- 
tive power and rolling stock department. This index 
will be found this month on page twenty of the ad- 
vertising pages, and it contains references to articles 

found in the current issues of nearly fifty publica- 
tions. There has been no attempt made to make a 
digest of various articles published during the* past 
month, but simply a descriptive index giving the title 
of the article, the name of the author, an abstract 
in a few words, when and where published and the 
number of words contained. There is now being pub- 
lished every month such a mass of material relating 
to general railroading and mechanical engineering 
that it is almost impossible for the average reader 
to find the time to keep posted on all that is being 
published, and we shall attempt in this index to do 
the reading for our subscribers, and present to them 
in condensed form everything that is published rel- 
ative to the field of the "Railway Master Mechanic." 

ONE of the problems of great interest to railway 
officials is the reduction of operating expenses for 
passenger traffic on branch lines. Several attempts have 
been made to put in cars gasoline engines direct connected 
to a generator, and the power transmitted to the wheels 
by means of motors. This system seems very simple but 
thus far the attempts have been unsuccessful. Other ex- 
periments under consideration are to couple the gasoline 
engine directly to the axle, requiring special means of 
regulating the speed. The chief difficulty encountered 
seems to be that the gasoline engine does not respond 
to great variations in power or speed. For this reason 
experiments have been made with storage batteries in 
connection with the engine and generator to take the 
peak of the load in starting or ascending grades. 

Foreign roads have taken the initiative in this class 
of traffic by introducing a small car propelled by steam. 
Included in this issue is a description of such a car ; hav- 
ing a tubular boiler which is fired by coke or charcoal. 

It appears that a better arrangement would consist of 
an automobile flash boiler in connection with the steam 
engine. The speed of the steam engine can be controlled 
easily and variations of power do not effect it to such 
an extent as the gasoline engine. 

♦ • » 

THE fifth annual convention of the Chief Joint 
Car Inspectors and Car Foremen's Association 
was held last fall in the Transportation building at 
the St. Louis Exposition. This meeting was very 
largely attended, and the discussions were exceed- 
ingly interesting. The field for an association of this 
kind is of , course unquestioned and its opportunity 
for useful and practical work is almost unlimited, 
so that now, with a change of name to include the 
car foremen, its scope is still further widened. This 
association should be of valuable assistance to the 
Master Car Builders' Association in many ways, as 
it will bring together the men who come directlv 
in constant contact with the different kinds of con- 
struction and conditions that prevail in car work, giv- 
ing them a chance to express their views and ideas, 
and from this many valuable points may be gathered 


January, 1905. 

by the heads of the different car departments through- , the work proceeds systematically. If it is supposed, how- 
out the country. Many valuable suggestions are often ever, that certain parts are ready to be replaced, and 
made by foremen in charge of construction and re- when they are about to be applied it is learned that they 
pairs, and where they can come together to express have been surreptitiously removed, confusion follows, 
their opinions freely it is possible for them to be of One or more machinists will waste time looking for that 
real service not only to their superior officers, but which has been lost, and when it is realized that it cannot 
the discussions will be instructive to the members be found an order is issued for another. It is probable 
themselves. As being of interest to readers and as that the new piece will require more or less machining 
a means of making this association better known to and a further loss of time ensues, possibly delaying other 
the railway world in general, we are publishing in work depending upon the piece in question. 

If, instead of depend- 
ing on other engines for 
covering spoiled work or 
providing lost and brok- 
en parts, the pieces were 
ordered as known to be 
required, they could be 
machined and provided 
in the usual order of 
things. By so doing the 
system of repair need not 
be disturbed, and engines 
will not be delayed while 
waiting for a missing 
part whose absence is not 
discovered until the loco- 
motive is nearly ready to 
leave the shop. 

Of course "robbing" 
engines in the back shop 
to provide parts for a lo- 
comotive in the round- 
house is not inconsistent. 
It is important that an 

full elsewhere in this is- 
sue the report of the fifth 
annual convention of the 
Chief Joint Car Inspec- 
tors and Car Foremen's 



THE surreptitious re- 
moval of engine 
parts to be applied to an- 
other locomotive of the 
same class standing in 
the shop, should be dis- 
countenanced by the mas- 
ter mechanic, and his po- 
sition in this regard 
should be- made known 
down the line to the gang 
foremen. It is not un- 
common for a machinist 
to ask another where 
such and such a part is, 
say for the 950. The re- 
:ply will be, "I don't 
know. But you know 
where to get one. Steal 
it off the 953 in the next 
gang." Sometimes the 
parts are "stolen" from 
another engine in the 
same gang. And so it is 
that a number of minor 
parts are misplaced, such 
for instance as braces, 
hand rail columns, flag 
brackets, cylinder heads, 
casings, new bolts from 
the blacksmith shop, etc. 
The mere removal of 
the parts does not con- 
stitute a loss to the company in so far as the ma- 
terial is concerned, for lost or broken parts must be re- 
placed. The loss and inconvenience is felt when the 
"robbed" engine is being assembled and it is learned at 
the last minute that some of the pieces are missing. 

Me. Edgab E. Calvin, 
General Manager, Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company. 

Mr. Calvin was born October 16, 1858, at Indianpolis, Ind. He entered railwa 
service in 1873. since which he has been consecutively, to 18"i5. telegraph operator, 
Indianapolis, Cincinnati & LaFayette Ed; at school during 1876; April, 1877 to 
March 1882, telegraph operator and station agent, Union Pacific By.; April, 1882 
to June 1, 1887, train dispatcher, conductor and trainmaster, same road; June 1, 
1887 to Feb. 22. 1891 division superintendent Missouri Pacific By.; Feb. 22, 1891 to 
June 1, 1895 superintendent Idaho division Union Pacific System; June 1, 1895 to 
March 16, 1897, general superintendent International & Great Northern Ed. ; 
March 16, 1897 he was appointed general superintendent of the Oregon Short Line 
and assitant general manager of the same road on May 15, 1903. In March, 1904 
Mr. Calvin was appointed general manager of the Oregon fiailroad and Navigation 

engine should be hurried 
out of the roundhouse as 
soon as possible to make 
thorough repairs, for it 
is on the road that an en- 
gine earns interest on the 
capital invested. How- 
ever, when an engine in 
the shop is "robbed" for 
a roundhouse job, care 
should be taken to re- 
place the piece or pieces 
immediately from the 
storehouse, so that what- 
ever drilling or other ma- 

chining necessary may be 
done without delay to the engine in the shop. For 
instance, if the 950 blows out a cylinder head and the 
953 is undergoing general repairs, when the former is 
brought into the roundhouse, it is perfectly consistent 

to take a cylinder head from the gz-z, but another cast- 
When making repairs, those parts which are to De re- - ; yDJ ' 

newed are provided for and those which may be used in & shouId be ordered immediately in order to drill it 
again are put aside until the engine reaches that stage in and turn it to size to obviate delay in the shop on 
its rebuilding at which they should be applied. Thus account of the removal. 

January, 1905. 


The Ganz & Co. Motor Co. 

)T is generally known to the management, who 
are in a position to know, that the local and 
small railroads arc maintained only at a great 
sacrifice. One of the chief factors is that it 
is unfavorahle to run trains consisting of 
locomotive, tender, mail and baggage cars 
and at least two coaches, bringing the weight 
per passenger to three and often five or six 
tons. In order to make the branch a paying- 
investment, relief must be sought in some way. This is 
accomplished ,partly through the reformation of opera- 
tion, and the introduction of proper vehicles. 

From experience the following means- are recom- 

is sometimes provided with mail and baggage room, they 
put a steam motor with boiler of greatest strength and 
reliability and least weight. This makes the source of 
power a part of the car and its weight is hardly noti- 

This motor car system embodies all the technical ad- 
vantages, that are suitable for the attainment of the fixed 
goal. Its principal points are quoted in the following: 

1. The motor is a reversible 35-horsepower two- 
cylinder compound and provided with simple control. 

2. The compound construction makes it possible for 
the most economical distribution of steam. The motor 
can, however, be started as two simple engines by means 

Fig. 1. — Ganz & Co., Motor Car. 

mended' principally in reference to the enlargement and 
stability in the transportation of passengers : 

1. The adoption of a good time table in which the 
chief importance is not the increase in the size of trains, 
but to suit the local conditions. 

2. To increase the number of trains. 

3. To reduce the fare as much as possible. 

The present system of handling as large trains as 
possible is encountered in the first claim. It will necessi- 
tate such means of traffic in which the total weight is 
as small as possible, the machinery is simple and econom- 
ical, the attendance does not require special trained men, 
and finally that the whole outfit is suitable and sufficiently 
reliable to be able to reel off the necessary speed in the 
transaction of passenger, baggage and mail traffic. 

These fundamental principles were borne in mind in 
the construction of the Ganz & Co.'s motor car system, 
which consists of the following : On a light coach, that 

of a simple valve, which is of great advantage in start- 
ing, ascending grades or in cases where extra power is 

■ 3. The motor is enclosed in a closed, dust proof, cast 
iron box, which serves as an oil reservoir at the same 
time. This makes it possible for all parts of the engine 
subject to friction to run in an oil bath. From this the 
following advantages are obtained : 

a. The wear and tear is very small. 

b. The amount of oil used is small, so that it is suffi- 
cient to replace the supply monthly. The first filling 
takes about 44 pounds and the amount replaced averages 
from 10 to 12 pounds per month. We note here that 
the oiling of the cylinders is by menas of a separate pres- 
sure pump and the consumption is also small, namely, an 
average of .00725 to .0169 pound per mile. 

c. The motor is protected from all incompetent man- 
ipulation. After regular handling in transit it needs no 


January, 1905. 

January, 1905. 


inspection or other operations. It has been fully demon- 
strated that the motor needs not more than one thorough 
inspection per month. 

4. The motor housing is fastened to the axle so that 
it forms with it a solid construction. It is hung to the 
truck on the side of the vibrating parts of the cylinder. 
After loosening the latter, except for the piping, the 
motor together with the axle can be put in or out like 
an ordinary axle. 

5. On cars with single trucks the above connection 
of motor, namely, their patented system, makes it pos- 
sible to arrange the latter to curve just as easy as with 
the ordiary direct connected axle. This is due to the 
fact that in such equipment the customary simple spring- 
rigging can be retained. 

6. Every part of the motor is manufactured exactly 
to caliber so that parts which have become worn or 
broken can be replaced quickly without extra labor. By 
this means the greatest damage can be repaired, in a short 

7. The power is transmitted to the connected axle 
through two pair of separate maintained gear wheels ; 
through which : 

a. The even running of the equipment is insured, in 
that with this arrangement the wheels on the connected 
axle receive an even rotation, not like machines with the 
locomotive system, whose transmission of power works 
with fits and starts on the wheels of the connected axle, 
and brings forth the damaging pounding motion. Those 
which receive motion by fits and starts raise the amount 
of power consumed and are therefore of the kind that 
entail loss through the absence of the even speed insured 
by the geer teeth transmission. 

b. Through the even speed of the equipment, the de- 
mand on the track is noticeably reduced — in comparison 
to the locomotive system — which reduces the cost of 
maintaining the track to a great extent. 

c. It is also noted that according to the last advant- 
age, the weight previously allowed on axles for local 
trains can confidently be incresaed. 

d.. A large fluctuation in the limit of tractive effort 
and speed is insured. With small load, as for instance 
only passengers, it can pull the car with greater speed, 
while with heavier loads and slower speed it develops a 
greater tractive effort. 

e. It is possible to make the car smaller and make 
more trips. By this means the weight is reduced consid- 
erably in proportion to the regular machines. The regu- 
larity of motion of the parts overhanging the trucks is 
also afforded through the smaller car and the above em- 
phasized even speed is advantageously influenced by 
these means. 

f. The small weight of the motor, about 1,650 pounds, • 
makes it possible for favorable distribution of weight on 
the axle, so that the allowable limits are never exceeded. 

The boiler of the car corresponds not only in respect 
to the production of steam ; but the same has proven' it- 
self the most advantageous and suitable among the avail- 

Fig. 2. — End Elevation Ganz & Go's Motor Car. 


Seating capacity II class 9 

Seating capacity III class 20 

Total 29 

Total weight, without water and coal 29,500 pounds. 

Horsepower. 35 

Feed water for 43.5 miles, about 264 gallons. 

Fuel— coke or charcoal— about 220 pounds. 

Fuel used per mile, about 5.3 to 6.8 pounds. 

Maximum speed on level 34 miles. 

Maximum speed with 30-ton load on level.' 15.5 miles. 

Maximum grade with single car. 30 per cent. 

able motor car boilers. The main fetaures of the same 
for the operation of motor cars are summed up as fol- 
lows : 

1. On account of its small dimensions, 32*4 inches 
diameter and 43^ inches high, it takes up little room, 
and can therefore be placed on the motorman's platform, 
taking up very little of the space. The boiler has a great 
capacity for steam production, so that it furnishes steam 
in sufficient quantity even in the greatest emergencies. 

2. The attendance while working is very simple on 
account of its small size and suitable construction ; as 
is also the firing which is done from the top. With suit- 
able fuel, coke or charcoal, the grates are easily cleaned 
by means of shakers. The grate is lowerable and adjust- 
able, so that it can be cleaned quickly even when fuel 
with larger residue than the above mentioned is used. 

3. The boiler is removed as easily as the motor. Af- 
ter loosening the screws in the floor and opening the 
hinged side wall, it can be put on the floor or exchanged 
in a short time. The boiler has every detail made ex- 
actly to caliber like the engine, so that parts which be- 
come damaged can be replaced quickly and without 
much labor. 


January, 1905. 

4. On account of its small size a high working pres- 
sure can be maintained with safety, which makes it pos- 
sible to make the most economical use of the fuel and 

5. The cleaning and washing of the boiler is easily 
and quickly performed. First, on account of the short 
flues, quick circulation prevents the collection of mud 
and scale. Then the boiler is provided with a construc- 
tion at the mouth of the feed pipe by means of which 
the water jet of the feed pump, can be made to blow out 
the remote mud. > 

6. It is a noticeable feature in the construction as 
well as safety, that the boiler is not constructed with 
rivets, but is put together with anchor screws. By 
loosening the screws any part can be removed or made 

floor is covered with linoleum. The side walls are pro- 
vided with parcel racks. The third class compartments 
have latticed seats, walls and ceiling of two different 
natural colored, varnished wood. The floors are painted 
and the parcel racks are made of wooden slats. Further 
the car has steam heat, acetylene or gas light, super- 
structure windows or torpedo ventilation, conductor and 
signal bells, signal lamp and steam whistle. 

This motor car system, with the technical advantages 
brought out is, according to ail trials, perfectly reliable 
and corresponds with the above formulated claims at' 
follows : 

a. The motor car can, on account of its capacity, 
with a light coupled trailer outside of its own weight, 
readily carry 100 to 150 passengers, their baggage and 
the first class mail. 


Average number of 
Year. per dav. 

1899 35 

1900 • 113 

1901 127 

1902 170 



Beginning July 27. 
One train each way per day. 

One train each way per day and two market trains per week. 
Since May 1, motor trains; one train each way per day and two market trains 

weekly; since October 1, cheaper fare and two trains each way per day. 
Two trains each way per day and two market trains per week. 

7. The boiler is fed by means of steam pumps, one 
of which is held in reserve. The advantage of this feed 
is that it can be regulated on a continuous run according 
to the amount of water used. It, therefore, is superflu- 
ous to start the pumps before starting, in order to regu- 
late the height of the water. 

For the average material consumed in the operation of 
this system we give the following data : 

Fuel on single motor car 5.3 to 10.6 pounds per mile. 
Fuel on double motor car, 8.8 to 14. 1 pounds per mile. 
Water on single motor car, 3.1 gallons per mile. 
Water on double motor car, 6.2 gallons per mile. 
The water storage is generally sufficient for 37.5 to 
43.5 miles. 

The maximum speed varies from 34 to $2}i miles per 
hour on the single car type according to the gross weight. 
The maximum grade it can overcome is 40 per cent. 

The interior arrangement and furnishings of the car 
are followed out with the idea of simplicity, beauty, and 
solidity. The principal equipment consists of Griffin or 
Tyres wheels, raisable windows provided with counter 
weights, hand brakes with eight brake shoes ; eventually 
both cars will be equipped with automatic or non-auto- 
matic air brakes. The motor regulation apparatus can 
be operated from both ends. 

In the I and II class compartments cane seats are up- 
holstered with horse hair and covered with moquette, or 
are provided with removable cushions on cane seats. The 
walls and ceiling are covered with varnished veneer. The 

b. The cost of trainmen and maintenance of rolling 
stock are reduced to a small amount. The cost of opera- 
tion on the mileage basis is about one-fourth that of the 

c. The weight of the car together with the trailer is 
about 20 tons. 

d. The weight of the motor equipment is very small 
but nevertheless the trains can easily travel 25 to 30 
miles per hour and 75 to 100 miles per day. 

e. In order to reduce the cost of maintenance and 
to avoid any increase in weight on the interior finishings 
of the car, everything is made simple, but pretty and 
substantial. This motor car system was adopted by 
many foreign local railroad managements on account of 
these projected claims, and since this system, owing to 
its superiority, has proven itself worthy of this trust by 
experiments carried out, other roads have introduced the 
steam motor car system partly for passenger and partly 
for express traffic. 

Owing to the complaisance of these roads we are 
able to present data from experience of the practical 
results of the system as well as on the improvement 
in traffic ; also on the decrease of operating expenses 
which we quote below : 

Table I contains comparative data on the number of 
passengers carried on the Rovacshaza-Bekescsaba branch 
of the Alfoldreko line of the locomotive train and the 
motor car system which was introduced later : 


April to August, 1902 

April to August, 1903 

Increase in 1903, 40,306. 


Number of Passengers. 

From Arad. 

From Pescka. From Battonys. 



12,230 6,730 



25,105 14,009 


January, 1905. 



y Csaba 

Branch. Kovacshaza. 

Number of trains per day. . Two trains each way per day and 

twice a week three trains. 

Amount of traffic with mo- 
tor car 2 

Weight of motor, car 12 tons. 

Max.. attached weight and 4 cars at 5 tons or 20 tons. 

the number of cars 

Total weight of train 32 tons. 

Total seating capacity 94 

Operating cost without 

crews, per mile 3% cents. 

Cost of crew, per mile 1% cents. 

Fare per mile, I, II and III Up to 6*4 miles 4 cents, 6% miles 

class or more 2 cents. 

No. of passengers per day 288 

Maximum grade 6 per cent. 

Distance operated 30% miles. 






24 trains each way 


Two trains each 
way per day. 
1 steam motor car, 
1 benzine motor 

Week days 16 
Holidays 22. 


12 tons. 
3 cars at 5 tons or 
15 tons. 

27 tons. 

car in reserve. 
13 tons. 
1 car 7 tons. 

20 tons. 

13 tons. 
1 car 4.5 tons. 

17.5 tons. 

3% cents. 2% cents. 
1% cents. 2% cents. 
Up to 6% miles 4 cents, 
Q% miles or more 2 cents. 

800 200 
10 per cent. 3 per cent. 
9.3 miles. 93 miles. 

3% cents. 
2.9 cents. 
1 class 1.2 cent 
2d class .5 cent. 
25 per cent 
10y 2 miles. 

Table II shows the improvement of passenger service 
on the Arad-Battonya branch of the Arad-Csanader 
Railroad : 

These figures deal only with passengers traveling be- 
tween the three stations mentioned, the through passen- 
gers not being counted. In the first five months of the 
year 1903 the passenger traffic increased 106 per cent in 
comparison to the same time of the previous year, while 
the fare with the motor car was reduced 50 per cent. The 
management of the above road consider the expenditures 
as a business proposition, and the amortization of the 
capital invested in the motor car was considered a splen- 
did point, so that the equipment on the line was immedi- 
ately increased. 

trains can be increased, which is impossible with the loco- 
motive on account of the greater expense. 

The motor car can also be used instead of the present 
accommodation freight. The present trains of that class 
go very slow, are used very little and cause considerable 
expense. There are amongst them some trains that con- 
nect with trains on the main line, which seldom carry 
more than 8 to 10 passengers. With half the cost,' two 
motor trains could handle the same traffic and maintain 
a greater local interest. 

The motor cars can also be used in connection with 
the fast trains on the main line to good advantage. They 
could collect passengers between the regular stops of the 
fast train and deposit them at the regular stopping 

Weight of car 

Seating capacity 

Distance covered per day, miles 

Cost in cents of maintenance per mile 

Cost in cents of oil per mile 

Total cost in cents of material. ..... 

Depreciation per mile in cents. 





izine Mo tor. 

Steam Motor. 


Steam Motor. 



























. The fact that the operating expenses of the motor car 
system are small, will be seen from the data in table III 
which was collected from actual practice : 

In table IV we give figures published in the "Zeitung 

des Vereins deutscher Eisenbahnverwaltungen," of the 

Wurtembergishen state roads for comparison with the 

Ganz system: 

These figures show the advantage of this system over 

others in regard to the work accomplished, and material 
used, especially the latter in comparison to the passen- 
gers per mile. 

The data produced here shows without a doubt that 
the motor car system increases the local traffic. There 
are numerous small roads and branches that can transact 
all their passenger and express traffic with one car. Un- 
der such conditions the car could possibly take a freight 
car daily by which means considerable can be saved. 

With the operation of this class of equipment the local 

places. By this means the number of station stops of 
the fast train could be reduced, which is of great im- 
portance. The inconvenience of changing cars from the 
motor car would be done cheerfully if time could be 
gained by having less stops on the fast train. 

•♦ * ♦- 

Welding Cast Steel Locomotive Driving 

CAST steel locomotive driving wheels having 
broken spokes can be welded in the following 
manner: Clamp the broken section in position and cut 
a "V" shaped piece out of each side of the spoke where 
it is broken. Then set in a piece wrought iron and weld 
it on one side of the spoke. When this part of the weld 
is complete, turn over the wheel and place another "V" 
shaped piece of wrought iron in the spoke and weld it 


This simple scheme has been worked very successfully 
and saved scrapping a large number of wheels. 


Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type of Freight Locomotive 

THE Northern Pacific recently received a lot of four- be used accounts for the diamond stack and petticoat 

teen 2-8-2 or Mikado type of freight locomotives pipe which are used with horizontal netting. As would 

from the Brooks works of the American Locomotive Com- be expected, there are some original ideas worked out 

pany. These engines are in accordance with the design in the boiler by Mrf Van Alystine who made some in- 

of Mr. D. Van Alstyne, superintendent of motive power, vestigations as chairman of the boiler design committee 

Fig. 1. — Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type of Freight Locomotive. 

to suit the special conditions of service and fuel. The of the Master Mechanics' Association. The boilers are 

record of performance thus far has been more than sat- JS 3 A inches diameter and have 374 2-inch tubes spaced 3 

isfactory in the high speed freight work, for which they inches centers, leaving a bridge I inch wide. The water 

were designed. spaces at the mud ring are 4 inches wide at the sides and 

The sparking characteristics of the bituminous coal to back and ^/z inches at the front and widen rapidly 



Fig. 2. — Sections of Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type of Freight Locomotive. 

January, 1905. 




January, 1905. 

Fig. 4. — Sections of Boiler and Locomotive of Northern Pacific 2-8-2 Type of Freight Locomotive 

January, 1905. 



toward the crown sheet. These are factors that are be- 
lieved to be very influential in their influence on the 
steaming capacity of a boiler, as well as the life of the 
same, since they have an intimate connection with circu- 
lation on which the success of the boiler depends. 

There are two 9^-inch air pumps, both located on the 
left hand side. Cast steel is used in the driving wheel 
centers, driving boxes, equalizers, frame braces and 
many other parts in accordance with a modern practice. 
Although they are not the heaviest engines in the world 
they weigh 259,000 lbs. of which 196,000 lbs. is on 
drivers. _ ■ 

The general dimensions are as follows : 

Guage 4 ft. 8% in. 

Weight in working order 259,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 196,000 lbs. 

Weight engine and tender 405,500 lbs. 

Tender capacity, water 8,000 gal. 

Tender capacity, fuel 12 tons. 

Fuel Bituminous Coal. 

Engine type Simple. 

Cylinders, diameter 24 in. 

Stroke, length 30 in. 

Wheel base, rigid .16 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, total. 34 ft. 9 in. 

Wheel base, engine and tender 63' ft. 1 in. 

Heating surface, tubes 3,798 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, fire box 200 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, arch tubes 9 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 4,007 sq. ft. 

Grate area 43.5 sq. ft. 

Journals, driving, main . .10 x 12 in. 

Journals, driving, others 9% x 12 in. 

Journals, engine truck 6% x 12 in. 

Journals, trailing truck 8 x 14 in. 

Journal?, tender truck 5% x 10 in. 

Boiler, type. . . . ( Extension Wagon Top. 

Boiler, pressure 200 lbs. 

Boiler, outside diameter, first ring 75% in. 

Fire box, length 97 in. 

Fire box, width 66 in. 

Fire box sheets, crown 14 in. 

Fire box sheets, tube % in. 

Fire box sheets, sides and back % in. 

Fire box, water space front, 4% in.; sides and back, 4 .in. 

Crown stays Radial, 1 in. 

Tubes , 374 2-in. No. 11 

Tubes, length < 19 ft. 6 in. 

Valves, type Piston. 

Valve travel 5% in. 

Boxes, driving Cast steel. 

Brake, driver „ American and water. 

Brake, tender Westinghouse. 

Air pumps Two 9%-in. 

Air reservoirs Two 60,000 cu. in. capacity. 

Engine truck Radial. 

Trailing truck ... . .Player radial. 

Exhaust pipe Single. 

Grate, style Rocking. 

Piston rod, diameter 4*4 in. 

Piston packing Snap ring 

Wheels, driving, diameter 63 in. 

Wheels, driving, material Cast steel. 

Wheels, engine truck Boise plate. 

Wheels, trailing truck, diameter 45 in. 

Tractive effort 46,600 lbs. 

Ratio weight on drivers to tractive effort 4.2. 

Ratio tractive effort to total heating surface 11.7. 

Ratio total heating surface to fire box heating surface 20. 

Ratio total heating surface to grate area 92.1 

Ratio fire box heating surface to grate area 4.6. 

Ratio of total heating surf ace to volume of both cylinders. 255. 

Ratio of grate area to volume of both cylinders 2.77. 

Ratio of total heating surface to weight of one cylin- 
der full of steam at boiler pressure 1,085.9. 

■+ • » 

Railway Mechanical Training as Viewed by a 

Technical Graduate. 

ON page 489 of our December issue we published 
a letter signed by "Q" on the above subject. In 
accordance with his suggestion several railway officials 
have sent in* communications which we give below: 
Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

Dear Sir — Referring to ''Railway Mechanical Train- 
ing as Viewed by a Technical Graduate," in the Decem- 
ber issue. of the Railway Master Mechanic, I believe that 
your correspondent has the right idea regarding special 

It is unfortunate but nevertheless true that too many 
of the above class regard themselves in need of the hot- 
house care. 

So much has been written on this subject that I do 
not care to express myself at length, but briefly I am 
not in sympathy with too much special attention. 

The technical graduate may be presumed to be better 

equipped for the railway service than many others, and 
no matter where he is placed, if of the right material, 
he will make a way for himself. Experience handed out 
with precision is usually not of the right kind, and I 
think it better for the apprentice to learn to pick up ex- 
perience by his own efforts. The opportunity may be 
given him but he should learn to see it himself and take 
advantage of it. 

The technical graduate of fifteen years ago had no 
such opportunities as are given today, but he looked for 
chances and took them. 

We have several graduates working now but have 
no special course of instruction for them. They are 
naturally drifting into the work most suited to them, 
and as their ability to assume increased responsibilities 
becomes apparent such duties are assigned to them. 

It does not seem advisable to spoil a good office man 



January, 1905, 

in order to make a poor shop foreman or vice versa. 

Naturally I believe in the technical graduate. Some 
are good, probably the majority, and some are not suited 
to railway work, but we must learn that by experience. 
Give the good ones an opportunity to show what they 
can do and advance them as rapidly as consistent. It 
is for them to make the showing, for I do not know of 
any prescribed rules for making mechanical superintend- 
ents. Yours truly, 

T. A. Foque. 
Mechanical Superintendent M., St. P. & S. S. M. Ry. 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

Dear Sir — The writer's experience in this line consists 
of a three years' apprenticeship to the machine trade in 
the locomotive shops, two years at a technical school, 
graduating, and ten years as Engineer of Tests and Su- 
perintendent of Motive Power. 

I am inclined to think that in the mind of many that the 
value of a technical graduate is over-estimated, certainly 
in the minds of the majority of technical graduates. The 
essential differences are these : that the non-technical 
man has usually an untrained mind; has no knowledge, 
or at least but slight knowledge, of the laws of nature 
and hence the laws governing the apparatus which he 
handles and the conditions of the problems which he is 
called upon to solve. On the points of energy, capacity 
for intellectual development, and that peculiar character- 
istic denominated or called horse-sense, the one seldom 
has much advantage over the other. We have here five 
points, on the first two of which a technical graduate 
excels. This should make him over 66 per cent better 
than the non-technical man. However, these two points 
seldom show to their full value at the beginning of a 
career, but it is after years of training, where the techni- 
cal man has had ample opportunity to familiarize himself 
with the problems which he has to handle, that his trained 
mind and thorough knowledge of nature's laws becomes 
more valuable. The failure to realize this has been the 
cause of a large number of technical men becoming dis- 
couraged, throwing up the sponge, and going into those 
lines of work which were more lucrative and where the 
men had an easier means of earning a livelihood. A non- 
technical man, however, is not subject to such discour- 
agement, as he realizes that he does not know it all and 
accepts thankfully what little may come to him, where- 
as the technical man too frequently thinks- that he is 
•omniscient and becomes too readily discouraged and 
disgusted when he finds others have not the same 
exalted opinion. Very truly yours, 

L. S. Randolph, 
Consulting Engineer, Blacksburg, Va. 

♦— » 

Editor of the Master Mechanic — The letter which was 
signed "Q" in your December issue expressed views 
which should start all motive power men thinking once 

more. So much has been said and so little done about 
the special apprentice that it is enough to disgust and 
discourage those who are deeply interested in this all- 
important subject. 

Being a technical graduate, the writer feels free to 
say that many of our technical schools are responsible 
for a certain set of fools, "soreheads" and combinations 
of the two who disgust railroad men of all degrees, and 
prejudice them against college men as a whole. I think 
this is due to the fact that these schools do not employ 
engineers but mere theorists — "paper" men. 

Every man who enters college should be taught from 
•the time he registers as a freshman until he is presented 
with his diploma that when he shall have graduated he 
has only just begun, that he has merely learned how 
to learn. The courses should combine as much practical 
work, practical application of theory as possible. Sum- 
mer work in railroad shops should be interpolated where 

When the man enters the special apprentice course of 
some railroad, he should study well his fellow workmen, 
and while treating all courteously and cheerfully, giving 
them the benefit of his training when requested by them 
to work out some little problem and the like, he should 
ever bear in mind that he is working for advancement 
and never do or say that which might some day be 
thrown up to him to his detriment. He should become 
as proficient a mechanic as possible, and furthermore bear 
in mind that there is not one man in any shop organiza- 
tion from whom he cannot learn something. During his 
spare time he should keep apace with events in his pro- 
fession by reading technical literature. He will soon find 
himself in a position where he can offer valuable sugges- 

Railroads can always find test laboratory men, and I 
will agree with "0" that the test department (while an 
essential and indispensable adjunct to the organization 
of every railroad) is a sidetrack for an ambitious man. 
A few weeks or months in the laboratory is sufficient, 
and if the railroad has enough special apprentices it will 
not be necessary for any one man to stay very long there. 

Railroads want men with executive ability and initia- 
tive, and the places to develop these attributes are in the 
machine and car shops first and the roundhouse after- 
wards. Good roundhouse and general foremen are scarce 
and their lives are never beds of roses ; but if a man 
wants variety, excitement, hard work and one continual 
test of his patience, let him take a roundhouse. If he 
pulls out creditably, his chances are good ; if not, he had 
better enter other business. 

Occasional consultations with one's superior officers are 
fruitful in that the foremen or master mechanic can 
ascertain what the apprentice most needs. A railroad 
needs technical men with practical experience, and these 
men are the more valuable to their company if they have 
received their training at least in part with that company. 
Almost all of the railroads do not give enough attention 
to the training of their men. They should offer sufficient 

January, 1905. 



inducements to keep their men and special inducements 
to their highly efficient ones. It is wrong for a mechan- 
ical superintendent who has lost a good foreman or 
master mechanic to say : "Oh well, he was not much 
good anyway!" My observation has convinced me that 
many grave errors have been committed by officials let- 
ting first class and well trained material slip away from 
them for want of taking proper care of their bright and 
efficient men. 

If a road decides to adopt the system, why not let the 
assistant mechanical superintendent or the mechanical en- 
gineer (preferably a man who has gone through it him- 
self) be responsible for special and regularly indentured 
apprentices? While his position in the matter would be 
advisory for the most part, he could arrange courses, re- 
ceive periodical progress reports, and be in constantly 

close touch with the situation. Foremen and master me- 
chanics would then know that some one particular man 
was watching the matter closely and they would nec- 
essarily hold up their ends or be made to answer for it. 
Why is all this trouble necessary, you ask, and what 
good will ensue ? The answer lies in the answers to sev- 
eral questions. Have all railroads enough supervision so 
that they are as economically operated as it is possible 
for them to be? Is not a railroad a commercial propo- 
sition? Should not operation be based upon the prin- 
ciples of economics? Should not the very best talent 
occupy the positions of responsibility? Is it not economy 
to provide for the future? Can men be well trained 
without a system of training? 

Yours truly, "R. R." 

■♦ » » 

Dining Car for the C. B. & Q. Ry. 

THE Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway have 
recently added four new dining cars to its com- 
missary department. Two of these cars were "built by 
the Pullman Company and are illustrated herewith. 
The general appearance of the outside is shown in 

wheeled trucks. They are painted a standard Pullman 
color with a single broad gold stripe around the bottom 
and small gold lettering. There is no fancy gold scroll 
work of any description on the outside. 

Figure 2 gives the floor plan. The tables are arranged 

Figure 1. The most noticeable feature about this is the to seat four persons at the tables on one side of the 

Fig. 1. — Dining Car for the C, B. & O. Ry. 

low broad windows set high above the floor line and aisle and two on the other, giving a total seating capacity 

the design of small art glass windows. for 30 persons. The general arrangement of the kitchen 

The cars are 70 feet long over sills, and are of stand- pantry, dining room and aisles is not materially different 

ard Pullman construction with cantilever truss and con- from that usually used in dining rooms, 

tinuous blocking, wide vestibules and standard six- Figure 3 gives a view of the interior of the dining 

Fig. 2. — Floor Plan of Dining Car for the C, B. & O. Ry. 



January, 1905. 

Fig. 3. — Interior View of Dining Car for 
the C, B. & Q. Ry. 

room looking towards the kitchen. The rich appearance 
of this room is clearly shown in this illustration. It is 
almost identical in general features with the interior of 
the cafe-smoking car exhibited by the Pullman Company 
at the World's Fair, which received much favorable com- 
ment. The principal differences in the two designs is in 
the plain walls and elimination of the small lights over 
the table in the Burlington car. 

The upper deck, as can be seen, is of the square flat 
beamed design in natural wood with a dead rubbed fin- 
ish. The lower deck and side walls to the top of the 
wainscoting are in solid burnt orange color and are only 
relieved by the two natural wood ornamental braces 
coming down between the windows. The wainscoting 
rises high between the windows and is in a very plain 
panel effect. Between each of the windows above, the 
wainscoting is located a lamp of art glass and verde 
antique metal work. The lamps in the upper deck are 
also of the same design in a square effect. The bottoms 
of the windows are set some six or eight inches higher 
than has been customary and niches are provided below 
each window, which add materially to the area of the 
table. This arrangement of windows is perfectly satis- 
factory, allowing a clear view to the outside, and pre- 
vents the whole table and its array being visible from 
the outside. 

, All the woodwork is of English oak, dead rubbed and 
having very few mouldings or carvings. The chairs are 
upholstered, seat and backs, in leather and are of a very 

plain square design. The floor is covered with a figured 
Wilton carpet and rubber tiling on the platforms and 

The car is lighted by the A. & W. acetylene system 
and carries an 8-cell storage battery to supply current 
for the kitchen and refrigerator lights and for electric 

«» » » 

Next Meeting Place of the American Railway 

Master Mechanics' Association and Master 

Car Builders' Association 

THE annual conventions of the American Railway 
Master Mechanics' Association and the Master Car 
Builders' Association for the year 1905 will be held at 
Manhattan Beach, Long Island, New York. 

The Master Mechanics will meet on Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday, June 14, 15 and 16, and the Mas- 
ter Car Builders on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, 
June 19, 20 and 21, 1905. 

Headquarters will be at the Oriental Hotel. The man- 
agement of the Oriental and Manhattan Beach Hotels 
has made the following rates for members of the Asso- 
ciations* their families and guests : 

Single room, one person, without bath, $3.50 per day; 
double room, one person, without bath, $4.50 per day; 
double room, two persons, without bath, $3.75 per day, 
each ; extra large double room, two persons, without bath, 
$4.75 per day, each ; single room, one person, with bath, 
$5.00 per day; double room, one person, with bath, $6.00 
per day ; double room, two persons, with bath, $5.00 per 
day, each ; extra large double room, two persons, with 
bath, $6.00 per day, each. 

The Brighton Beach Hotel, located a short distance to 
the west of the Manhattan and Oriental Hotels, and oper- 
ated under a separate management, will also co-operate 
in every way to take care of the members, and has 
named the same rates for rooms as the other two 

The Marine Railway runs irom the Manhattan Hotel 
direct to the Brighton Beach Hotel, and during the con- 
ventions the members and friends will be carried free 
between these hotels. 

During the period the two conventions are in session 
the Oriental Hotel will be reserved for the exclusive use 
of the members of the two conventions and their guests, 
including the members of the Railway Supplymen's As- 
sociation. While the Manhattan Hotel cannot be given 
exclusively to the convention, practically all of the rooms 
will be reserved,' and one of the large dining rooms will 
also be set aside for their use. The distance between 
the Oriental and Manhattan Hotels is about fourteen 
hundred feet. An electric car runs between them from 
early in the morning until 12 o'clock at night for the 
accommodation of their guests, free of charge. 

January, 1905. 


Applications for rooms should be made to The Man- 
hattan Beach Hotel & Land Co., 192 Broadway, New 
York City. The committee on arrangements .would spe- 
cially request the members to apply at once for their 

The joint committee of arrangements consists of 
Messrs. Charles W. Martin, Jr., Wm. Mcintosh and A. 
E. Mitchell. 

♦ » » 

Threads for Grease Cup Plungers. 

PRESENTED herewith are the line drawings of 
two main rods grease cups, which are shown to- 
gether to direct attention to the number of threads 
used per inch on the circumference of the plungers. 
The cup shown by Fig - . 1 has been designed by the 
Mexican Central Railway in order to supplant the use 
of brass in this connection, as removable parts when 
made of such material are stolen from locomotives at 
a rate which makes the use of brass unprofitable. 
This cup has been designed so that the change "could 
be readily made on old locomotives, and with new loco- 
motives, where the cup is forgel on the rod, the same 
plunger is to be used. It will be observed that there 
are twelve -threads per inch on the plunger -and the 
inner wall of the cup. Fig. 2 presents a design of 
grease cup arranged as standard by the C, B. & Q. 

Y — * 

Railway, after a careful consideration by the several 
master mechanics of this road and the systems under 
its management, as to the number of threads which are 
the most practical in this connection. It will be no- 
ticed that the cup is forged to the rod, and the Bush- 
ing with a hexagonal head is screwed into the cup, the 
thread in this case being a 1V/1 per inch, as the re- 
moval of the bushing is infrequent as compared with 
the number of times which it is necessary to turn the 
plunger. On the plunger there are eight threads per 
inch, which is a much coarser thread than has hereto- 
fore been generally used in such instances. A locomo- 
tive using this cup is supplied with such a wrench as 
that shown in Fig. 3. At one end is a socket for re- 
moving the bushing when necessary, and at the other 
end is a Y -inch square lug which fits the opening in 
the top of the plunger for turning the same, when it is 
desired to force the grease. 

A comparison of these two suggests the opinion that 
the design of the C. B. & 0. is the more practical, and is 
worthy of attention, inasmuch as the coarse thread has 
the advantage over the finer thread. With the coarse 
thread the wear is not so great, the thread is not so liable 
to cross, when replacing the plunger hurriedly, and when 
the engineer's fingers may be cold. A further advantage 
is the fact that it is not necessary to give the plunger as 


A, A 

8 Thread 5 Per Inch 

2. P/pe-Threod 
//£ Threads Per 

Fig. 1. — Threads for Grease Cup Plungers. 

Fig. 2. — Threads for Grease Cup Plungers. 



January, 1905. 

Fig. 3. — Threads for Grease Cup Plungers. 

great a number of turns when lowering the same; and 
when but a few turns are necessary to lower the plunger a 
given distance, it is an easy matter for the engineer to re- 
member that a fraction of a turn, or such and such a small 
number of turns will supply the proper amount of grease 
to run him to his next stopping place. 

♦ » » 

Subjects for the Next Annual Meeting of the 

Traveliug Engineers' Association. 

The subjects selected by The Traveling Engineers' Associa- 
tion to be discussed at their next annual meeting are as fol- 


1. Is the third man necessary on the large type of modern 
locomotives? If so, in what capacity? W. J. Crandall, N. Y. 

C. & H. R. R. R., chairman. 

2. Grease as a lubricant for all bearings on a locomotive. 
J. A. Talty, D. L. & W. R. R., chairman. 

3. What Devices for and Arrangement of Engines and 
Tenders will Lighten the Work of the Engineer and Fireman? 

D. D. Kessler, D. L. & W. R. R., chairman. 

4. Bell Ringers, Air Sanders and Other Devices Operated 
by Compressed Air; Their Care and Arrangement to Get the 
Best Results. P. J. Langan, D. L. & W. R. R., chairman. 


1. Electric Motors, and Instructing the Men to Handle 
Them. E. F. Miller, C. & S. S. Elev. 

2. Injectors; Modern Practice. S L. Kneass, William Sel- 
lers' Manufacturing Company. 

3. The Latest Makes of Lubricators; Their Operation and 
Maintenance. C. G. Potter, L. E. & W. 

4. The Mechanical Stoker. C. A. Kraft, C. & 0. 

5. The Piston Versus the Slide Valve. W. J. McCarroll, 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

Topical Discussion: 
What System will Enable the Road Foreman of Engines 
to Keep the Best Record of Tire Wear? 


■» » » 

Staybolts, Braces and Flat Surfaces. 

A Discussion of Various Rules and Formulae. By R. 
S. Hale, Boston, Mass., presented before the A. S. 
M. E., Dec, 1904. 


i. The problem of the support of flat surfaces arises 
in the design of the fireboxes of locomotive and upright 
boilers, in the design of the combustion chambers of 
Scotch marine boilers and in the design of the heads 
above the tubes in horizontal tubular boilers of all classes. 

2. The stress on the staybolts is in general a direct 

pull. In the case of. diagonal braces the actual stress 
may be reduced in figures to an equivalent direct pull 
by considering the angle between the brace and the plate. 
In the case of short stays there is a bending action due 
to differences in expansion of the inside and outside plate 
which causes special stresses which will be considered 

3. The maximum working stress permitted in stay- 
bolts is as follows : 

United States rule, 6,000 pounds per square inch. 

British Board of Trade, 9,000 pounds per square inch. 

British Lloyds, 8,000 pounds per square inch, if V/ 2 inch 
diameter or less. 

British Lloydb, 9,000 pounds per square inch, if over V/ 2 inch 

German Lloyds, 1-7 of tensile strength. For 60,000 pounds 
this is 8,560. 

Bureau Veritas, - — of lower test limit, then add % inch 
for material of 60,000 pounds; this is 10,400 on net 
section and about 8,300 on the gross section of a 
1-inch stay. 

Hartford Boiler Insurance Company', no official rule, but in 
the Locomotive of September, 1893, recommends 
7,500 on long stays, and in same paper, March, 
1892. recommends 4,800 on short stays. 

None of these rules,. except the practice of the Hart- 
ford Co., take any account of the difference in stress be- 
tween short and long braces. Some of them allow a 
greater stress on large braces, as, for instance, Lloyds and 
Bureau Veritas. 

4. Now, in short braces, such as those in locomotive 
fireboxes, the difference in expansion between the inside 
and the outside sheet bends the stays and induces severe 
stresses in addition to the direct pull due to the steam 
pressure. As a result, such staybolts are frequently 
found broken close to the outside plate. 

5. Further, as is well known, excessive stress and 
strain makes the metal more liable to corrosion, and these 
short bolts are frequently found corroded and wasted. 

6. In boilers with long braces such as the ordinary 
horizontal tubular boilers we very seldom find any cor- 
rosion. However, an allowance for corrosion would ap- 
pear excellent practice, even if corrosion appear but sel- 
dom, and the rule of the Bureau Veritas, by which the 
stress is computed on the net area that will remain after 
Y% inch (1-16 inch on each side) has been wasted, is 

, an excellent one. For long braces where there is no bend- 
ing action, say braces of 2 feet and over, there would 
appear to be no reason why the stress should not be as 
great as that allowed on similar metal in boiler plates. 
In boiler plates a stress of 12,000 or more is allowed be- 
tween rivet holes, and from 7,000 to 11,000 in the body 
of the plate. It would, .therefore, appear that we can 
safely take 12,000 for long steel braces, or io,ooo v for 
iron. While this allows considerably more pessure than 
has been usual in some cases, the fact that these long 
braces give but little trouble would seem to warrant in- 
creasing the pressure. 

The allowance of }i inch for future corrosion makes 
this agree better with current practice than is apparent 
at first sight. Thus, with a i-inch brace, 12,000 pounds 

January, 1905. 


on the net section, which is %-inch diameter, is 9,200 on 
the gross section, or but little more than is now usual. 
For large braces the proposed rule will allow higher 
pressure than is now customary, but our experience with 
such cases as have come to our notice indicates that it 
will be amply safe. 

7. On short braces the working stress due to tension 
alone should be less in order to leave a margin for the 
bending stress. These braces are usually iron, and if 
we make the permissible stress 9,000 on the net section 
after subtracting 1-16 inch on all sides, on iron braces 
less than 24 inches long, 8,000 if less than 12 inches 
long, 7,000 if less than 6 inches long, and 5,000 if less 
than 4 inches long, we shall get results that will be in 
better accord with present good practice and experience 
than any of the rules stated above in paragraph 3. The 
difference will, at least, take partial care of the stresses 
due to bending. 

The variations above suggested according to length of 
braces are not based on any theory, but are chosen so 
that for very short braces the stress shall be about that 
which locomotive boilermakers have found good prac- 
tice, with stresses on braces of intermediate lengths some- 
thing in proportion. 

In the case of the circular fireboxes of upright boilers 
it must be remembered that the strength of the furnace 
as a flue diminishes the stress on the staybolts. 

8. We may now consider the strength of the plate 
itself,' and this obviously depends on the distance be- 
tween stays and the thickness of the plate. 

9. It also depends somewhat on the diameter of the 
stay, since we can easily imagine an extreme case, in 
which the stays were so large as to diminish appreciably 
the area of plate to be supported. It is obvious, how- 
ever, that for any given method of attaching the stay 
to the plate a change in the diameter of the stay will 
affect the stresses by but a very small amount; hence 
it will be correct to neglect this factor in determining 
the thickness of the plate for any stated method of 
attachment and distance between stays. 

10. The method of attachment, of course, affects 
the safe working pressures. 

11. The theoretical stress, independent of method of 
attachment, or rather for stays of infinite strength at- 
tached at points, has been found by Grashof (Unwin 
Machine design) to be as follows: 

/ = maximum stress 

2 J 

£=pitch, £:=thickness of plate, P=steam pressure; all 
in pounds and inches. 

Since the stress on the bolt itself is given by the for- 
mula : 

4P 2 

f = P : , d being the diameter of the bolt, 


it is interesting to note that for equal stress in bolt and 

plate the bolt should be 2.4 times the thickness of the 

plate, whatever the pitch for the case covered by the for- 

12. The stress on the plate is stated by D. K. Clark 
to be determined as follows: Steam pressure at elastic 

. t 

limit of plate equals 5.700 x — ,p in this case being dis- 

tance between bolts, not between centers. 

Although Clark states this to be the elastic strength, 
yet it appears to be more probable that it is some fraction 
of Clark's idea of the ultimate strength. It would prob- 
ably be as wrong to depend on Clark in such a case as it 
would be to use his theories as to strength of beams in 
designing bridges, instead of using the formulae based 
on the elastic theory, such as the formulae used by all, 
the best engineers in designing every large bridge or 
steel frame building. 

13. The rules used by the various insurance and simi- 
lar bureaus are as follows : 

t 2 
United States, P = C — ; C = 112 for steel plates 7-16 or 

P 2 

P 2 
British Lloyds, P = C — , C = 90 for sereAV stays 7-16 and 

t 2 

t 2 
German Lloyds, P = C — ; 

P 2 

(t + 1) 2 

Board of Trade, P = C , C = 66; 

p 2 — 6 
(t — 1) 2 T 

Bureau Veritas, P = ; T = tensile strength taken 

2p C 
at 25.8 tons, or 60,000 pounds, in following com- 
C = .055 and less 

Hartford Boiler Insurance Co., in Locomotive of 

March, 1892, page 38, advocates D. K. Clark's rule 

with a factor of safety of 3, based on the elastic 

strength. His rule is : 

5,700 T 

P = , T being thickness in inches, p is the net 


pitch— i. e., distance between staybolts and not be- 
tween centers. 

The figures given in the tables following take p as the 
distance between centers in all cases. If it was worth 
while to take account of the difference the figures could 
be corrected accordingly for Clark's formula. 

The constants above given are considerably increased 
for other methods of attaching stays to plates than mere- 
ly screwing in and riveting over. 

14. In tables 1-4 are given the permissible pressures 
by these rules for various thicknesses of plates; for 

pitches, from 4 to 11 3-16 inches. 


Steel Plates. Screw Staybolts Riveted. Pitch, 4 Inches 
Working Pressures. 
British United 
Thickness Board States Bureau British 
of Plate, of Trade. Rule. Veritas. Lloyds. D. K. Clark. 
% 123 

165 112 90 90 107 


5-16 237 175 160 141 149 

% 323 252 250 203 178 

• 7-16 422 343 360 276 208 



January, 1905. 

Steel Plates. Screw Staybolts Riveted. Pitch, 6 Inches. 
British United 

Thickness Board States Bureau British 

of Plate, of Trade. Rule. Veritas. Ldoyds. D. K. Clark. 

14 55 50 40 40 79 

79 78 71 62 99 

108 112 lil 90 120 

1/, 178 214 218 177 158 

% 266 334 360 278 198 

% 372 480 538 400 238 

Steel Plates. Screw Stays Riveted. Pitch, 8 Inches. 

British United 

Thickness Board States Bureau British 

of Plate, of Trade. ,Ru"le. Veritas. Ldoyds. D.K.Clark. 



































Steel Plates. Screw Stays Riveted. Pitch, 11 5-16 Inches 
British United 
Thickness Board States Bureau British 
of Plate, of Trade. Rule. Veritas. Ldoyds. D. K. Clark. 
V4 13 14 11 11 12 

% 26 31 31 25 63 

1/0 1 44 60 61 50 84 

% 65 94 102 78 105 

91 '135 151 112 126 

121 185 212 153 147 


Recent Cases of Bulges Between Staybolts Found by Mu- 
tual Boiler Insurance Company Inspectors. 
Working Pitch of Thickness Pressure 
Pressure. Stays. of Plates. U. S. Rule. 

65 5 5-16 ' 112 




* Small circular firebox. * "Large circular firebox. 

For the cases, marked * or ** the circular form of the firebox 
strengthens the plate against collapse, as was shown in my article in 
the Engineering Magazine. 

The double figures given for the Board of Trade are 
the figures from their rule and the figures from Trail's 
Board of Trade tables for pitches under 6 inches, which 
tables, it is understood, supersede the rules for these 
small pitches. 

It should, of course, be understood that probably none 
of the rules are intended for extreme cases. For pressure 
under 30 pounds various other considerations would, of 
course, enter and for pressures above 250 pounds tem- 
perature changes in the plate would very likely make 
the rules inapplicable. In other words, none of these 
rules are intended for extreme cases, and for ordinary 
working conditions it appears the give results that do 
not differ widely from each other. 

Such being the case, the simplest formula is probably 
the best. Further, there should be a decided preference 
for formulae that agree with the theoretic formulae rather 
than for empirical formulae. Of course, an empiric for- 
mula may represent the results of a few experiments bet- 
































7 x 7% 



41/3 x 5 



6 x 5% 















4% x 5 


ter than a theoretic one, but unless the experiments 
are very accurate the chances are that the differences 
between the empiric and theoretic formulae are due to 
errors of experiment. 

In this connection it may be noted that such experi- 
ments as have been made, notably those of Fairbairn, 
Clark, Wilson, Greig, Eyeth and the Board of Trade 
(see Stromeyer, page 140 for a list of these) are not 
complete enough and apparently are not accurate enough 
" to furnish any rule. This is only what is to be expected 
since experiments on flat plates, if the plates are tested 
to breaking, or even only to bulging, deal with pressures 
and strains far in excess of working conditions and must 
deal with the metal in a more or less plastic state. Ex- 
periments to determine the actual working stress in flat 
plates under ordinary conditions would have to be very 
refined experiments in which the stresses were inferred 
from the measurement of infinitesimal deflections, and 
these experiments have not been made. As stated above, 
the case is very similar to that of iron beams, in which 
the working stresses have to be computed from the elas- 
tic theory, since experiments by testing beams to destruc- 
tion give results which we know are not to be relied upon 
in designing. 

16. Hence, it follows that the theoretic form used by 
the United States, German and British Lloyds, etc., is 

the best, and that working pressure = constant — is 

the form to be adopted. 

17. In regard to choice of constants it is interesting 
to note that on the whole United States rule gives results 
intermediate between the British Board of Trade and the 
Bureau Veritas, although considerably higher than the 
British Lloyds. In order to see if these results were 
borne out by experience I have made up a list of the most 
recent cases in which our inspectors have found plates 
bulged between staybolts, table 5. 

18. It is clear that if weakness caused those bulges, 
all the rules give much too high pressures, but it is more 
probable that these bulges are most of them due to over- 
heating, just as the bulges in the furnaces of internally 
fired boilers, or the bottom plates of horizontal return 
tubular boilers, and that they are not due to weakness 
of design. In other words, they are due to abnormal 
conditions, and are to be prevented by care in the opera- 
tion of the boiler rather than by change in the design. 

19. The proper constant, therefore, is somewhere be- 
tween 90 and 120, and since failure will not cause seri- 
ous accident it would seem wise to use 115 in determin- 
ing the limiting safe pressure, while 100 will give good 
results when designing a new boiler for economically long- 

The United States and Lloyds permit a slightly higher 
constant for thick plates than for thin, and the Bureau 
Veritas rule has this effect. Lloyds rule and Clark's 
have just the reverse effect. I cannot see anything either 
in our experience or the experiments that warrants al- 
lowing proportionate greater pressure on thick plates 

January, 1905. 



than called for by Grashof's formulae, except so far as 
may be desired for corrosion in special cases, where it 
is thought corrosion should be 'specially provided for. 

21. For braces attached by nuts or crowfoot braces 
attached by rivet, it is obvious that a higher pressure can 
be allowed. Lloyd allows about 20 per cent more for 
nuts, United States about 20 per cent more, Board of 
Trade about 25 per cent more, and a constant of 140, 
which would agree with the margin in the other rules, 
is good practice. 

22. For horizontal return tubular boilers the braces, 
when small diagonal braces are used, are attached to 
the heads by" crow-feet and rivets. For this case a con- 
stant of 140 appears to give results in accordance with 
good practice. 

23. For the cases where the stays or braces are in the 
steam space, with fire or hot gases on the other side so 
that the plate and ends of the braces are exposed to over- 
heating, the British Board of Trade diminishes its con- 
stant and the allowable pressure by some 40 per cent. 
The other rules take no account of such cases, but ap- 
parently allow full pressure. Such a flat surface with 
steam on one side could not safely be exposed to the full 
heat of the furnace at any pressure and yet be safe. On 
the other hand, if exposed to comparatively cool gases 
it may be as safe as if it had water on one side, instead 
of steam, but was exposed to the full heat of the furnace. 

It follows, therefore, that no general rule can be laid 
down, but the constant for stays in the steam space, when 
the plate is exposed to the products of the combustion 
on the other side," may have to be reduced according to 
the particular case. 

24. The' foreign rules allow quite an excess of pres- 
sure for various washers, etc. As Stromeyer has shown, 
however, thicker plates are cheaper than such washers, 
and the use of channels or angles as in United States 
practice seems also to be superior. For such construction 
a constant of something like 200 to 250 may probably 
be taken, but the exact amount would so depend on the 
washers, the two pitches, on the shape and dimensions of 
the channels, on the riveting, etc., so that no rule could 
be laid down. 

25. In the above discussion it has been assumed that 
the stays are all pitched in squares. If they are not, the 
British Board of Trade uses the square root of the sur- 
face and the Bureau Veritas the square root of the sum 
of the squares, for the pitch. In general, it seems to 
be assumed that if the pitches differ only slightly an in- 
termediate figure as in these rules may be taken, while 
if they differ largely the case must be specially consid- 
ered. The rule of the British Board of Trade for using 
the square root of surface, i. e., of the product of the two 
pitches if they differ slightly, is simple and probably a^s 
correct as any, within the limit of say 20 per cent varia- 



Comparison of the various rules for working stress 

on stays and braces shows a general neglect of the differ- 
ence between long and short stays. 

For long steel stays, subtracting y s inch from the di- 
ameter, and then allowing 12,000 pounds per square inch 
on net section, remaining gives results which apparently 
will be better than any of 'the present rules. For iron 
stays probably 10,000 should be used. 

For short stays, which arc chiefly iron, where bending 
action comes in, empiric rules reducing stress as length 
of stay decreases may be used. Our knowledge of „ the 
bending stress is not sufficient to warrant the use of a 
more theoretic formula. 


Comparison of the working pressures for pitch of stays 
and thickness of flat plates shows that the complicated 
formulae of some of the rules do not give as good re- 

suits as the simpler formula P — C — , C being taken as 

100 to 115 for riveted stays, 140 for stays nutted or crow- 
foot stays riveted on, and a higher value up to 200 or 
250 for the use of washers or channels or angle bars 
riveted on. 

If the pitches differ by less than 20 per cent use the 
surface instead of f. If the pitches differ by more than 
20 per cent it is a special case. Special cases and unusual 
construction must always receive special consideration. 

The above constants give results indicating the prob- 
able safe pressure for a year or so, until the next exam- 
ination. In designing a boiler for a long life the con- 
stants should be reduced by some 20 per cent or so, just 
as a factor of safety of 4 can sometimes be used tem- 
porarily for the shell of a new boiler, while 5 should 
be used in designing a boiler to be run for a number of 
years without reduction of pressure. 

No 3 Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathe. 

THIS machine is the largest of three sizes of the 
hollow hexagon turret lathe, and is specially 
designed and constructed for using the high-speed tool 
steel to their limit of efficiency. Great strength and 
rigidity, _ ample power, wide range of speeds arid feeds 
instantly changeable, improved "high-speed" turning 
tools, rapidity and convenience of manipulation ; are 
characteristic of the machine. The machine takes bar 
stock up to 3 : >:s in. in diameter through the automatic 
chuck, and turns same any length up to 36 in. The 
swing over the bed is 24 in. The head and bed are cast 
in one piece. The bed is exceptionally deep and wide, 
and the V's unusually large. The cone is geared 3^2 
to 1 and back-geared 13 to 1 ; the back gears being en- 
gaged and disengaged by friction clutches. There are 
twelve spindle speeds, ranging from 18 to 190, in geomet- 
rical progression, 'giving about 100 ft. surface speed on 
diameters from 2 in. to 3H in. The automatic chuck 
and the power roller iced handle bar stock of any 



January, I905. 

shape. The chuck is held in the head of the spindle, 
which is forged solid, thus bringing the chuck jaws close 
up to the front spindle bearing, with a minimum of over- 
hang. The chuck is operated by the long lever in front 
of the head, working through a system of compound 
levers, which give a powerful movement for closing the 
jaws. The jaws are quickly changed for different diam- 
eters of stock, and a single screw adjusts the roller feed 

struction and great rigidity of the tool insure the highest 
degree of accuracy. The holder which carries the cut- 
ting tool swings about a N stud, and can be easily and 
accurately adjusted by means of a screw, while an ec- 
centric lever provides means for quickly withdrawing the 
tool from the work. 

The carriage has 30 in. traverse longitudinally and 
10 in. cross motion, both with four changes of feed in 

1 J&l 



m HgHfl^^ 

. : ' • "' "' 



Fig.. 1. — No. 2, Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathe. 

and the guide fingers. 

The turret saddle slides directly on the bed, elim- 
nating all overhang. It is gibbed to the outer edge of 
the bed ' by the flat gibs throughout its entire length. 
There are four changes of feed in either direction, vary- 
ing from 20 to 100 (revolutions of spindle to feed one 
inch), and screw-cutting feeds for leading-on dies are 
also provided. The feed rack is located on top of the bed 
midway between the V's and is as high up as possible, 
thus obviating all of the torsional strain in usual con- 
struction where the rack is placed at the side of the bed. 
Power quick traverse in either direction is provided for 
the rapid handling of the turret, and for indexing, the 
movements being controlled by the lever in front of the 
turnstile. The independent adjustable stops for each 
face of the turret are located in front of the saddle, where 
they are easy of access for changing and adjusting, and. 
at the same time are well protected from chips and. dirt..'. 

The "Hollow Hexagon" turret is 18 in. across flats,; 
and has a broad bearing on the carriage. It revolves, 
on and is kept central by a large taper bearing with ample 
provision for taking up wear, and its trussed form pro- 
vides an exceptionally rigid support for the tools, resist-. 
ing end thrust as well as torsional strains. The index- 
is nearly the full diameter of the turret, and the lock 
bolt is placed directly under the working tool. 

The tool equipment regularly furnished is adapted for 
a great variety of work, including thread-cutting. The 
universal turners are especially adapted for using "high- 
speed" tool steels, one of the special features of the tool 
being the roller back rest, which eliminates the excessive 
friction due to the high speeds, and the improved con- 

either direction. The longitudinal feeds vary from 
24 to 120 and the cross feeds from 62 to 312 (revolu- 
tions of the spindle to feed one inch), Both feeds have 
adjustable automatic trips. There are two stops, with 
automatic trips, for the longitudinal travel ; and the 
cross feed screw is fitted with a graduated dial. The 
front of the cross slide is equipped with a suitable tool 
post for holding, forming and' turning tools, while the 
rear end carries a holder for cutting-off blades. 

All of the feeds are gear driven, and are quickly and 
easily changed by simply shifting a lever in the feed 
box, which is convenientlv located in front of the head. 

m ~C> 


m w^ 7 ^ 


i • JmF ■ J 


m** .1 


■- ■ **<^B 

- .Hi' t 

* § 


r . fl 

Fig. 2. — No. 3, Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathe. 

January, 1905. 



Fig. 3. — No. 3 Hollow Hexagon Turret Lathe. 

The turret and carriage feeds are independent ,of each 
other. The pan and oil reservoir are of large dimensions. 
A geared oil pump, which operates in either direction, 
delivers a copious flow of oil to the cutting tools for 
both the turret and carriage, through two systems of 
piping. All gears and other revolving parts are covered 
by suitable metal guards. 

The machine shown in the photograph is electrically 
driven by variable speed motor, direct connected to the 
back gear shaft. For belt drive the spindle is equipped 
with a three-grade cone, and a triple friction countershaft 
accompanies the machine. 

The net weight of the machine is about 12^000 lbs. 

This machine as illustrated and described is manu- 
factured by the Warner & Swasey Co., of Cleveland, O. 

■» » » 


Mr. E. W. Fitt, formerly chief draughtsman of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy lines West, has been 
appointed assistant superintendent of motive power. 

The following changes have been made in the ma- 
chinery department of the Illinois Central Railroad: 
M. J. McGraw, master mechanic at East St. Louis, 
has been transferred to Clinton, 111., as master me- 
chanic, vice Mr. P. J. Colligan, resigned ; Mr. Joseph 
H. Nash, formerly general foreman at Waterloo, 
Iowa, succeeds Mr. McGraw as master mechanic at 
East St. Louis. 

Mr. Gustavo Navarro has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power and machinery of the Vera 
Cruz & Pacific, with headquarters at Tierra Blanca, 

Mr. C. H. Quereau, formerly superintendent of 
shops of the New York Central and Hudson River 

Railroad, has been appointed engineer of test with 
headquarters at Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. A. W. Horsey, formerly chief draughtsman of 
the Canadian Pacific, has been appointed mechanical 
engineer of the lines east with headquarters at Mon- 
treal, Can. 

Mr. J. J. Mailor, Jr., has been appointed foreman 
of machine shop of the Ft. Smith & Western at Fort 
Smith, Ark. 

Mr. E. W. Fitt, chief draughtsman of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Ouincy lines West, has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of motive power, with head- 
quarters at Lincoln, Neb. 

Mr. E. E. Davis, formerly assistant superintend- 
ent of motive power of the N. Y. C. & H. R., has 
been appointed superintendent of motive power of 
the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg, with headquar- 
ters at Dubois, Pa. 

Mr. W. H. Kelson has resigned as general store- 
keeper of the Canadian Pacific. 

Mr. J. L. Wigton has resigned as master car builder 
of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas at Sedalia, Mo., 
and has been succeeded by Mr. H. O. Bowen. 

Mr. J. H. Ohlenbocks has been appointed assistant 
master mechanic of the Wabash at Decatur, 111., suc- 
ceeding Mr. Charles B. Hathaway, resigned. 

Mr. J. Markey has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Northern division of the Grand Trunk with 
headquarters at Allendale, Ont., to succeed Mr. N. 
B. Whitsel. 

Mr. W. R. Maurer, formerly with the B., R. & P., 
has been appointed mechanical engineer of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford, with headquarters 
at New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. J. McManamy, formerly traveling engineer of 
the Pere Marquette at Grand. Rapids, Mich., has been 
appointed master mechanic of the Buffalo division, 
with headquarters at Saint Thomas, Ont. 

Mr. J. R. Groves, superintendent of machinery oi 
the Colorado Midland, has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power and car departments of the 
Denver & Rio Grande and Rio Grande Western, with 
headquarters at Burham, Colo., to succeed Mr. F. 
Mertshermer, resigned. 

Mr. W. J. Schlacks, formerly general foreman of 
the Colorado Midland, has been appointed superin- 
tendent of machinery of that road, with headquarters 
at Colorado City, Colo., to succeed Mr. J. R. Groves, 

Mr. T. A. Lawes, formerly superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, has 
been appointed mechanical engineer of the New York. 
Chicago & St. Louis, with headquarters at Cleveland. 
Ohio, vice Mr. J. T. Carrol, who resigned to become 
chief draughtsman of the Lake Shore & Michigan 



January, 1905. 

Mr. Thomas Jackson has been appointed shop su- 
perintendent of the Northern Pacific, with headquar- 
ters at Livingston, Mont., succeeding Mr. W. S. Clark- 
son, who has been appointed general master mechanic. 
Mr. J. E. O'Brien, division master mechanic/ at 
Jamestown, N. D., has been appointed assistant shop 
superintendent at South Tacoma, Wash. Mr. R. P. 
Blake has been appointed assistant shop superintend- 
ent at Brainerd, Minn. Mr. C. S. Larrison has been 
appointed master mechanic of the Dakota division, 
with headquarters at Jamestown, N. D., in place of 
Mr. O'Brien. Mr. A. H. Draper has been appointed 
general airbrake instructor at Saint Paul, Minn., suc- 
ceeding Mr. Larrison. Mr. Mark Purcell has been 
appointed air brake instructor at Saint Paul. 

■» » » 

Felspar Roofing 

Felspar roofing, as manufactured by the Stowell Mfg. Co., 
of Jersey City, N. J., is a ready-to-use roofing intended for 
roofs of business houses, factories, dwellings, farm buildings, 
sheds, etc., either on flat or steep roofs. It is manufactured 
from the genuine imported Fitch Lake. Trinidad asphalt and 
the best fibrous wool felt, saturated with the same asphalt, 
with a top coating of granulated felspar, which renders it 
fireproof against flying embers. 

It will not dry out and become brittle, as coal tar and other 
so-called asphalt roofings do, and is not affected by hail, heat, 
cold, acid, gases, etc., and is insured under same rates as- 
metal or gravel roofs. The cost is very moderate, and as it 
does not require coating or painting as do metal or felt roofs, 
the entire original cost is saved within five years. 

It is put up in rolls of one hundred and eight square feet, 
and the price includes cement and broad-headed nails for 

■» » » 

Standard Bolt Cutter 

The Norwalk Manufacturing Company of Norwalk, Ohio, 
are manufacturing bolt cutters of the style shown in the 
accompanying cut in sizes 1-inch, 1%-iuch, 1%-inch, 2-inch, 
2%-inch and 3-inch single head and 1%-inch double head. 
Their %-inch bolt and pipe cutter is of lighter construction, a 
reasonable priced machine for light work. 

Simplicity of construction combined with best material 
gives the Standard bolt cutter long life and easy, rapid oper- 
ation. The locking device is very simple and positive. The 
machine is equipped with an automatic device to release 

the dies when the desired length of thread is cut. All wear- 
ing parts are constructed of hardened steel. 

The Standard has perfect die mechanism. There are four 
dies to a set, constructed of the best quality of tool steel. 
The head of the die is round, and is proven by experience 
to be unexcelled for the production of perfect work. They 
have a greater area of wearing surface than any other cap 
die manufactured, and are so constructed and perfectly 
fitted that it is impossible for chips or other foreign sub- 
stance to come in contact with the wearing surface. The 
old dies may be re-cut several times, and new ones will be 
furnished at less cost than any other well known die. 

♦ » » 

The Hancock Valves 

The Hancock globe, angle 60° and cross valves are made 
screwed and flanged in sizes up to 3 inches. These valves 
are made of special composition giving great strength and 
resistance to wear, and of one standard only, for all pres- 
sures. Under actual test the bodies will stand a pressure of 
4,000 pounds per square inch without breaking, and are 

Hancock Valves. 

tight with a water pressure of more than 1,000 pounds per 
square inch. They are tested with 1,000 pounds Avater pres- 
sure before leaving the works and guaranteed for 500 pounds 
steam pressure. In order that the valve seat .may be hard 
and durable, the body is made of specially hard and tough 
mixture. The discs are made of a special mixture which does 
not contain any zinc and the spindles of Tobin bronze. Ex- 

Standard Bolt Cutter. 

I [ancock \ ,t alves. 

January, 1905. 



• Hancock Valves. 

perience has demonstrated that a Tobin bronze spidle work- 
ing in a special composition bonnet will not cut under the 
highest steam pressures. 

These valves are made after the same general design as 
the Hancock main steam valves used on locomotives for a 
number of years and found to give perfect satisfaction with 
the high steam pressures carried. From the sketch shown 
herewith _of a 1-inch globe valve, it will be seen that the 
area of the most contracted part is ample and of full size. 
The valves have been designed so that the metal is dis- 
tributed to give uniform strength throughout, and the areas 
have not been reduced or contracted for the purpose of re- 
ducing the weight. 

Attention is called to the way the valve is guided on the 
stem. An inspection of the section will show two collars 
or guides upon the stem which guide the disc nut, thereby 
compelling the disc to always seat- squarely and preventing 
absolutely the disc from cocking. 

The valve seat is flat. This form of seat has many advan- 
tages over any other form used in valves of this character. 
The valve disc has a projection on it which serves two pur- 
poses. In the first place, it acts as a guide when the seat is 
ground, and in the second place, this lip or projection on the 
disc prevents the cutting of the seat by the wire drawing of 
the steam when the valve is cracked or slightly open. 

Again, when the valve is slightly raised from its seat, as 
shown in the illustration, with the lip entering slightly, it 
allows the escaping steam to clean the seat, so that when it 
is seated all dirt and foreign matter has been washed or 
blown completely off the seat. This is a most important fea- 
ture, and experience has fully demonstrated that when the 

valve begins to leak it requires a very little regrinding to 
make it tight. This is accomplished so easily that a tight 
valve can be maintained with little labor and expense. 

The bonnet of these valves are made with a long thread 
engaging the body of the valve, and the shoulder on the 
bonnet is made narrow. By means of this narrow s^at on 
the shoulder it is possible to keep the bonnet tight, and 
when it is desired to unscrew the bonnet it can be easily 
done. This is a decided improvement over the form of bon- 
nets having a'wide shoulder bearing upon a wide surface on 
the top of the body of the valve. 

When it is necessary to regrind the valve to its seat, the 
bonnet is removed, the disc nut unscrewed from the disc and 
a piece of wood can be inserted in the disc, enabling it to be 
ground perfectly, as the projection on the disc guides it, it 
not being necessary to have any special regrinding tools for 
this purpose. 

The tee handle shown has proved to be so much more 
efficient in opening and closing that it has become popular 
among the users of these valves, and the demand is so uni- 
versal that all valves sent out are equipped with it. Its ad- 
vantages are especially apparent on steamships, where there 
are a multiplicity of valves and economy of space is neces- 
sary. The illustration shows the peculiar method of attach- 
ing the handle. The hole is made tapering, with one side 
flat, and the spindle of the valve is also made tapering with 
one side flattened to receive the handle, which is held on the 
spindle by means of a nut. The flattened side holds the 
handle rigidly in its place, and the taper enables it to be 
drawn tightly to the spindle, avoiding absolutely the great 
annoyance of the handle or wheels working loose, which 
must exist when attached by the old means of a square only. 
This method of attaching handles has been most efficient 
and makes a decided improA'ement in the valve. 

The Hancock valves are made by the Hancock Inspirator 
Co., whose general office and salesroom is at 85-87-89 Liberty 
street, New York, with a western branch office and sales- 
room at 22-24-26 South Canal street, Chicago, 111. The factory 
-is at Boston, Mass. 

•» ♦ » 

The Miller Anchor for Railway Wrecking Purposes 

The Miller Anchor Company of Norwalk, Ohio, are manu- 
facturing wrecking anchors that can be set in from thirty to 
forty minutes, eight feet deep, and will stand a strain of 40 
to 50 tons. Two men will set one of these anchors by the 
time chains and lines are ready for the pull. They have been 

Hancock Valves. 

Miller Anchor. 

2 4 


January, 1905. 

Miller Anchor. 


thoroughly tested by the W. & L. E. Ry. and it was found 
impossible to pull them up. 

The auger for setting the anchor has a nine-foot stem, one 
inch in diameter, with adjustable handle. It bores a 12-inch 
hole which is the right size for all of their anchors. 

The accompanying illustration shows an engine attempting 
to pull out one of the anchors. 

The prices are as follows 

No. 6, 10x25 inches, 1%-inch rod 9 feet long. $6 00 

No. 7, 10x30 inches, 1%-inch rod 9 feet long 8 00 

No. 7, 10x30 inehes, 1%-inch rod 9 feet long 10 00 

Auger 5 00 


Notes of the Month 

We are in receipt of a handsome calendar of the Cleveland 
Pneumatic Tool Co., of Cleveland, O. It is a work of art and 
a worthy emblem of the company who take such pains to 
please their patrons. 

The Detroit Graphite Mfg. Co. of Detroit, Mich., have issued 
a pamphlet on "Superior Graphite Paint." This contains 
specifications for painting steel structures, together with a 
list of structures using this paint. 

■» * » 

The Philip Carey Mfg. Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, were 
awarded the gold, silver and bronze medals for superiority 
and general excellency of its magnesia steam pipe and boiler 
coverings. They were also awarded a gold medal on account 
of its magnesia flexible cement roofing. 

Mr. John G. Sanborn, formerly with the Chicago Pneu- 
matic Tool Company, and more recently with the Chicago 
Storage Battery Company, has accepted a position with S. 
F. Bowser & Co., Fort Wayne, Ind., as railway representa- 
tive for their oil house equipment and oil storage systems. 
Mr. Sanborn will make his headquarters in Chicago. 

<♦ » » 

The Miller Anchor Co., of Norwalk, O., are meeting with 
great success with their wrecking anchors, having sold them 
to the following railway companies: W. & L. E., Wabash, 
L. S. & M. S., Union Pacific, C. & N. W., Georgia Ry. Co. and 
the C. & A. of Canada. Other companies are giving them a 
trial. It is impossible to pull one of these anchors out of the 
ground witli a large engine. 

J. A. Fay & Egan Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, manufacturers 
of wood working machinery, announce the opening of their 
new offices in Chicago, in the Railway Exchange Building, 
Suite No. 751. The offices will be in charge of Mr. Everett S. 
Kiger. J. A. Fay & Egan Co., will do all business in this 
territory direct, discontinuing Manning, Maxwell & Moore, of 
Chicago, as their agents. Any who contemplate visiting that 
city are cordially invited to make these offices their head- 

♦ » » 

The Hancock Inspirator Co., of New York, Chicago and Bos- 
ton, have just issued a very interesting catalogue of the 
Hancock valves. It illustrates and describes the globe, angle 
60° and cross valves. These valves have been made for a 
number of years, but this book is the first catalogue in which 
full descriptions and price lists of all the styles and sizes are 
given. These valves are designed and made to meet the 
demand of steam and mechanical engineers for high steam 

— , 

John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard Ave., New York City, manufac- 
turers of the well-known Allen Portable Pneumatic Riveting 
Machines reports the following recent sales : Fehwick Freres & 
Co., Paris, France; John Turbull, Jr., & Sons, Glasgow, Scot- 
land; Cambria Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa.; Middletown Cat 1 
Works, Middletown, Pa.; B. & O. R. R. Co., Baltimore, Md. 
Mr. John F. Allen was the pioneer in the manufacture of 
machinery of this class, and the Allen riveters combine in 
their construction all the latest time and labor-saving im- 

■» « » 

The Duff Manufacturing Company of Allegheny, Pa., were 
awarded a gold medal (the highest award in its class) by 
the superior jury at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. 
Louis, Mo., for their Barrett track and car jacks and the full 
line of Barrett lifting jacks for all purposes. The full line 
Barrett lifting and car jacks and about forty sizes of Barrett 
jacks for all lifting purposes were exhibited in both transpor- 
tation and machinery buildings and the award received em- 
braces many sizes adapted to all classes of work, including 
the Barrett motor armature lift, Barrett pipe forcing jack, 
Barrett automobile jack and the differential screw jacks. 

The Northern Electrical Mfg. Co., Madison, Wis., recently 
received an order for three 150 K. W., slow speed generators 
from the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., of Birmingham, 
Ala. The order was received through J. B. McClary & Co., 
representing the Northern Electrical Mfg. Co. at Birmingham. 
The Tennessee Coal, Iron & Bailroad Co. is the largest of its 

January, 1905. 



kind in the south, and the order was secured in competition 
with all the first-class manufacturing companies, even 
though the prices on Northern machinery were met by com- 
peting manufacturers. The order was awarded after thorough 
examination and careful consideration of Northern machinery 
and given on the basis of superiority. 

♦ » » 

The State Department at Washington has been informed of 
the following appointments of official delegates to the In- 
ternational Railway Congress by the governments named: 

Argentine Republic— Carlos Maschwitz, Engineer; Luis 
Rapelli, Engineer. 

Belgium.— E. Hubert. Administrator of the State Railways, 
member of the International Committee of the Railway Con- 
gress: Gerard, Inspector General, having in charge the gen- 
eral inspection of the electric service of the State Railways; 
L. Weissenbruch, Chief Engineer, Director in the Department 
of Railways, Secretary of the International Committee of the 
Railway Congress. 

Bulgaria.— (1) St. Sarafoff, Manager, represented by his 
assistant for the Traffic Department; (3) the Heads of De- 
partments, ea^rn according to his specialty; the Head of the 
Maintenance Department; the Head of the Transportation 
Department; the Head of the Motive Power Department. 

China.— Chan T'ien-yu, District Magistrate; Kuang Ching- 
yang, District Magistrate; The Taot'ai, K'o Hung-nien; M. 

Denmark.— G. C. C. Ambt, General Director Danish State 
Railways. -One or two other delegates to be appointed later. 

France. — Perouse, Councillor of State, Inspector General of 
Roads and Bridges, Director of Railways at the Ministry of 
Public Works; Colson, Councillor of State, Engineer in Chief 
of Roads and Bridges, former Director of Railways at the 
Ministry of Public Works; Lax, Inspector General of Roads 
and Bridges, former Director of Railways at the Ministry 
of Public Works; Nivoit. Inspector General of Mines, Vice- 
President of the Committee for the Technical Working of 
Railways; Beaume, Inspector General of Roads and Bridges. 
General Director of the Northern Lines; Pontzen, Member of 
the Committee for the Technical Operation of Railways; 
Fontaneilles, Chief Engineer of Roads and Bridges, Aid to 
the Director of Railways at the Ministry of Public Works; 
Bernheim, Mining Engineer. One additional delegate to be 
named later. 

Greece.— P. Homere, Department Engineer; Aristide Bal- 
anos, Civil Engineer; N. Sideridis, Engineer. 

Guatemala.— Joaquin Yela, Guatemalan Charge d'Affaires 
in the United States. 

Italy.— Commendatoi'e Engineer Cesare Rota, General In- 
spector of Railways; Cavaliere Prof. Engineer Grismayer 
Egisto, Railway Inspector. 

Mexico. — Santiago Mendez, Engineer. 

New South Wales.— Charles Nicholson Jewel Oliver, J. P., 
Chief Commissioner of Railways. 

Paraguay.— Diplomatic representative at Washington. 

Peru.— Henry G. Davis, of West Virginia. 

Roumania. — Inspector-General E. Miclescou, Director Gen- 
eral of the Government Railways; Inspector-General M. M. 
Romniceanou, Sub-Director; Inspector-General A. L. Cottes- 
cou, "Chef de Service;" Inspector-General Th. Dragou, "Chef 
de Service ;"Inspector-General J. Baiulescou, "Chef de Ser- 
vice;" Ingenieur H. 0. Schlawe, "Chief de Division." 

Siam.— H. Gehrts, Director General State Railways. 

South African States.— Cape Government Railways, by Mr. 
MeEwen, General Manager; Central South African Railways, 
by Mr. Hoy, Chief Traffic Manager, and another official whose 
name will be furnished later; Natal Government Railways, 
by Mr. Downie. Traffic Manager. 

♦ » » 

Technical Publications 

"Irish Literature," Justin McCarthy as Editor-in-chief. 
John D. Morris & Co., 1201 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, pub- 

To most readers this splendid collection will come as a 
revelation, for few realize the full extent and merit of the 
Irish national literature. The poems of Goldsmith and 
Moore, the novels of Sterne and Miss Edgeworth, the dramas 
of Sheridan and Boucicault, the oratory of Burke and Grat- 
tan, the historical works of Lecky and Bryce, are indeed im- 
mortal, but, in the glory they have added to English litera- 
ture, their Irish origin is at times forgotten. These ten large 
volumes contain the choicest selections from the works of 
350 Irish authors, covering the whole field of Irish literature, 
ancient and modern, in poetry and prose. 

Spangonberg's Steam and Electrical Engineering. By E. 
Spangenberg. Albert Uhl and E. W. Pratt. 672 pages. 648 
illustrations. Published by Geo. A. Zeller, St. Louis. Price. 

This is a treatise of stationary and locomotive engineering, 
electricity, compressed air. mechanical refrigeration, gns and 
irasoline engines, hydraulic elevators, repair work, etc. Owing 
to the wide experience of the authors, and that it covers the 
theoretical as well as the practical work, the book must be 
a great service to those for whom it is written. This mnkes 
it a reference book in the true sense of the word. The por- 
tion of the book devoted to locomotive engineering covers 
eighty-two pages, starting with an educational chart of a loco- 
motive, giving all the names of the parts. Then there are 
467 questions and answers on all the practical points in con- 
nection with locomotive engineering. Following this is a de- 
scription of a locomotive stoker and also two systems for 
classifying locomotives. 

"Letters From an Old Railway Official to His Son. a Divi- 
sion Superintendent." By Charles De Lano Hine. Chicago. 
The Railway Age; 5x7% inches; 179 pages. Price. $1.50. 

All branches of the operative department, with its mani- 
fold labors, responsibilities and perplexities, are touched upon, 
with the serious purpose of improvement brightened by 
pleasantry and fastened in the mind now and then by a 
drop into the professional slang of the road. The old man 
approves of the course of the son in having left his father's 
road and started in for himself, "so as to make people 
believe that you can go up the official hill without having a 
nusher behind you," and cautions him that "many a super- 
intendent has had to double the hill of a swelled knob and 
run as a last section into the next promotion terminal." 
Then with a fine touch of domesticity, the genuineness of 
which we will not stop to question, the fatherly adviser 
strikes his boy's heart-strings bv adding "You have too 
much of your mother's good sense ever to cause anybody 
else to put up signals for you on this account." 

Handbook of Builders' Hardware — by Henrv R. Towne. 
President Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., Past President Am. Soc. 
M. E. — bound in morocco, 1117 pages with many illustrations. 
Published by John Wiley & Sons, New York. Price $3. This 
is a combined handbook of technical information and ready- 
reference catalogue of locks and hardware for architects. In 
order to discuss the subject intelligently in all of its phases 
of characteristics, production and uses, the author has not 
hesitated to avail himself of one with which he is most 
familiar, which has unavoidably involved frequent reference 
to the Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., and its products; but the vol- 
ume is in no sense a trade catalogue. The book includes an 
historical review of its subject, technical descriptions of the 
leading facts of locks and their component parts, a detailed 
enumeration of the many articles included under the com- 
nrehensive term "Builders' Hardware" in their many forms 
and designs, and a very full discussion of the subject of 
architects' specifications relating to the selection and furnish- 
ing of builders' hardware. A feature of special interest and 
value is a series of articles by Mr. W. W. Kent, architect, on 
the "School of Ornament," elaborately illustrated with pic- 
tures culled from many sources, setting forth briefly, but 
clearly, the origin and characteristic of nearly all the recog- 
nized schools into which architectural design and ornament 
have been classified. 



January, 190^. 

Proceedings of 

of the 

Chief Joint Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association 

of America 


St. Louis Rail-way Club Rooms, Transportation Building 

'World's Fair, St. Louis, Mo. 

H. Boutel, Pres. 

Chas. W. Waughop, Past Prest. 

John McCabe, Secy, and Treas, 

Meeting- called to order by the president, Chas. W. 
Waug-hop, at 10:30 a. m. 

Mr. Waug-hop: Gentlemen, there are two announcements 
I wish to make to start with: Mr. Willard Smith, the man- 
ager of the Transportation Building, has permitted smoking 
in this room; the vice-president and secretary will pass 
among you, with the courtesy of the St. Louis Railway Club, 
an attendance card. I will thank each of you to kindly sign 
your name and address and return to the party who will 
collect it in a few minutes, we will thus do away with the 
roll call. 

It is unfortunate, gentlemen, that we are about thirty 
minutes late in our opening, but it is owing to the fact that 
the Cincinnati delegation, with myself, were unable to catch 
a car, and had to walk to the grounds, There was, I believe, 

one'or two Columbus people in the crowd. We will dispense 
with the roll call, as cards of attendance have been dis- 
tributed among you. 

The following were in attendance: 
Bailey J. I., C. Foreman, C. & O. Ry., Russell, Ky. 
Bates Geo. M., C. C. I., C. B. & Q. Ry., Chicago, 111. 
Bates Geo. M., C. C. L., C. B. & Q. Ry., Chicago, 111. 
Bawden Wm., G. F.. L. & C. Dept., Burlington R. H., North 

St. Louis. 
Benson A. E., Foreman, C. B. & Q., East St. Louis, 111. 
Bergman Henry, Asst. Supt., A. B. B. A., St. Louis. 
Berry L., Inspector, P. Co., Columbus, O. 
Bockwitz A. J., G. F., B. & O. S. W., East St. Louis, 111. 
Boutet H., C. J. I., Big Four, Cincinnati, O. 
Bunting G. M., Foreman, Pa. Co., Cleveland, O. 

January, 1905. 



Burns L. J.. F. C. D., C. & O., Covington, Ky. 

Butler E., F. C. D., T. R. R. A., St. Louis. 

Bardy John L., F. C. D., L. & N. Ry., Covington, Ky. 

Baxter E. C, Sec, Conventional Dep., Cleveland, O. 

Cable Owen, C. I., Kankakee, 111. 

Charlton Chas., Foreman, P. Ch C. & St. L., Cincinnati, O. 

Clare Jas., F. C. D., C. H. & D. Ry., Cincinnati; O. 

Cressey Wm. H., G. F., C. H. D. Ry., S. Omaha, Neb. 

Cushman E. N., G. F., T. St. L. & W., East Madison, 111. 

Devanney J. J., F. C. D., T. R. R. A., East St. Louis, 111. 

Dobson C. R., F. C. D., I. M. & S. Ry., St. Louis, Mo. 

Donegan T. J., G. F. C. D., Kansas City. 

Dunn P. T., G. F., Cincinnati, O. 

Dyer Jos., C. J. I.. Toungstown, O. 

Eicher Albert, Car Rep., Cincinnati, O. 

Eicher Frank, Foreman Coach Yard, Big Four, Cincinnati, O. 

Ferguson G. M., Supt., L. T. R. R., Lorain, O. 

Fields Jas., Foreman, C. & A. Ry., Venice, 111. 

Foley E. J., F. C. R., St. Louis Car Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Felps G. H.," T. R. R. Assn., East St. Louis, 111. 

Gainey J. J., G. F. C. D., C. N. O. & T. P. Ry., Ludlow, Ky. 

Givan P. S., Foreman, L. & N. Ry., Cincinnati, O. 

Hackett John, G. Y. M., C. C. C. & St. L., Cincinnati, O. 

Hamilton Bert, C. J. I., Texarkana, Ark. 

Handmore Rich., C. F., T. St. L. & W., Madison, 111. 

Hickey Thos., F. C. R., Wabash R. R., St. Louis, Mo. 

Hitch Leas. A., Foreman Pass. Cars, C. & O. Ry., Coving- 
ton, Ky. 

Hitch Leas, A., Foreman Pass. Cars, C. H. & O. Ry., Coving- 
ton, Ky. 

Hogan Ed., F. C. D., I. M. & S., St. Louis, Mo. 

Holloway A., C. I., Southern Ry., East St. Louis, 111. 

Irwin W. H., C. I., Columbus. O. 

Julien B., G. C. F., Omaha, Neb. 

Koerner Albert, C. F., Penna. Co., Columbus, O. 

Kohehepp A., C. F., C. A. & C, Columbus, O. 

Lawson W. C, Representative, Pressed Steel Car/ Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. _, 

London W. T., Chief Clerk, Loco. & Car Dept., Hannibal, Mo. 

Langdon M., Foreman, B. & O. S. W., Cincinnati, O. 

Lowe J. F., Foreman, Wabash Ry., Brooklyn, 111. 

McCabe John, C. J. C. I., Cleveland, O. 

McFadden C. J., Foreman, Big Four, East St. Louis, 111. 

McPherson J. G. Foreman, Mo. Pacific, St. Louis, Mo. 

Malone J. B., F. C. D., C. P. & St. L., East St. Louis. 

Meeder Otto, F. C. E., St. L. R. C. Co., St. Louis. 

Mendenhall C. M., Pressed Steel Car Co., Pittsburg. Pa. 

Merrill Arthur, Foreman, Union Sand Co., East St. Louis. 

Meyer Fred L., Foreman, Vandalia Line, East St. Louis, 111. 

Miller Wm., M. M., T. R. R. A., St. Louis, Mo. 

O'Brien J. J., G. F., T. R. R. A., St. Louis, Mo. 

Parks O. J., C. F., Vandalia Line, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Pearce H. C, G. F., I. C. R. R-. East St. Louis, 111. 

Rau Gus, F. C. D., St. L. & S. F., St. Louis, Mo. 

Rieger C. A., C. I. F., N. C. L., St. Louis, Mo. 

Sebring H. K., C. C. I., L. & N., East St. Louis, 111. 

Setzekorn C, Foreman, A. R. T. Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Skidmore Stephen, G. F., Cincinnati, O. 

Stack John, Foreman, B. & O. S. W., East St. Louis, 111. 

Smith E. S. G. F. C. R., Southern Ry., Princeton, Ind. 

Stark Chas., G. F., C. C. & L. Ry., Cincinnati, O. 

Stearns F. H., Foreman. M. & O. Ry., East St. Louis, 111. 

Taylor D. T., Foreman Reps., Burlington, N. St. Louis, Mo. 

Treat C. M., Sec, Bureau of Publicity. Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Ustick F. H. Supt., C. B. & Q., St. Louis, Mo. 

Waughop Chas., C. L. I., St. Louis, Mo. 

Wohorle John, C. J. I., Columbus, O. 

Wright W. S., C. Foreman, E. St. L. & B. Elec Ry., East 
St. Louis, 111. 

Members Absent. 

Atkinson J., C. J. I., Windsor, Ont. 

Bailey F. W., F. C. D., S. W. S. C. Co., Fort Worth, Tex. 

Boltz V, C. J. I., Wheeling, W. Va. 

Berg A.. F. C. D., L. S. & M. S., Ashtabula, O. 

Boggs Jas., F. C. D., D. S. C. Co., Fort Worth, Tex. 

Brainard W., F. C. D., L. S. & M. S., Youngstown, O. 

Chisman C, F. C. D„ P. C. C. & St. L., Cincinnati, 

Compton R. T., C. J. I., Cairo, 111. 

Curran J. W., F. D. D., B. & O. S. W., Cincinnati, 

Dennerle J., Clerk Supt. M. P. Office, L. S. & M. 

land, O. 

Fenwick Wm., G. F. C. D., W. & L. E., Canton, O. 
Hill C. C, F. C. D., C. H. & D., Cincinnati, O. 
Hoggsett J. W., C. J. I., Fort Worth, Tex. 
Merrian E.. C. J. I., Lexington, Ky. 
Palmer E. C, C. J. I., Toledo, O. 
Phipps W. F., C. J. I., Evansville, Ind. 
Scrimpton J. J., C. J. I., Atlanta, Ga. 

The reading of the minutes of the last meeting is the 
second order of business. Owing to the lateness of the 
proofs in arriving at our last meeting, they were not printed, 
and it was deemed advisable by the executive committee not 
to print them for last year. 

The next order of business is the address of the president. 
I will make that as brief as possible at this time. 

I am, of course, pleased to know that there are so many 
representatives of both the chief inspectors and the car fore- 
man present from both foreign places and St. Louis, and it 
being our fifth anniversary under permanent organization — 





and our wooden anniversary, you might say — it is very fitting 
that the World's Fair should celebrate this occasion with 

Vmf, maSm f Ce + nt diSplay in honor of our fifth anniversary 
Your president and vice-president were present with one 

meetTn* at ^2, &t ■ th ? MaSter Car Builders' Associat o , 
meeting at Saratoga m June. There were some changes in 
the rules, and those we will consider later on 
larlv V1 tn tr? **?%* the Y isitovs at this time— that is. particu- 
World's Fafr of S1 h r V that we have for you a show in the 
will 1 w • the Loulslana Purchase, something that vou 

Two generftTons^lo^ W °5 f ° r P ° SSibly the "« on/S 

in^fS ™T mbei '' th . e first ' the rules °f the Joint Association 
at Cm£nnati W WP £**%*? l ° C ° nf ° rm to the rules adopteS 
mo hs use tha? th*"* * rom P ra . ctical experience, after ten 
"Pitv 1* 1 he rules of th at town (By Mr Boutet- 

thiiS'herrV 16 * 86 ? ai " e n0t What we ^ink is the prop r 
sfo f Jf Cinc"nn^?f n b , e r g0 i° d l° V &n inlan ' d cit ^ of the dimen- 
auXnee "Tp, r,», Columbus or Cleveland (Voices in the 
„, i,, ce ' . Tes '. Cleveland is an inland city) to put rules 

bet weVn "SilroaS* tT' ?**** the -terchange islirec ?y 

SiS e ons an e d xis a tin°rhere: S **' ^ he flttb * to the Peculiar 
This being our wooden anniversary, I feel that after hav 
ng been your president for five years or from its start thlt 
T? e i« b « r ?- en , ° f + that ° ffice shouId be P ]tlce d on someone effe 
tLt th« » 6 y °- mUCh h0n ° r f ° r any one manendi hope 

mj second somronr 111 /^ flt t0 plaCe in nominatzU wi?h 
my sec on a. some one of the association who will be more 

ana upward * ^ ^ in CaTrying the association torwarl 

I wish to pay my compliments to the chief inspectors 

Ster) a th e a t a ifn r n at many f l hem (and * am noting P fr 0m a 
i ttl»H ^ T- SO much that it is not necessary that thev 

attend this meeting. There are others who dont know 
enough and are afraid to attend this meeting. I will closl 
with the same expression on the foremen 

Ea^T^^ courtesy of the car foremen of St. Louis and 
J^ast bt. Louis, we have been enabled to perfect a oroe-ram 
to-day which I hope you will all avail yourselves of partici? 
\m/J? t0 " t niSh V t nd an expression of thanks is due from 
this association to the car foremen of St. Louis and East St 
hsvfVh P f ^ cular ?y hope that all gentlemen present who 
gram eS mth them wil1 not ne ^ lect to-night's Jro- 

The convention this year was called for the railroad read- 
ing-rooms of the St. Louis Railway Club who have kindlv 
proffered their us the use of their room UnfortuSe y 

are ne do c f to 1 i eSe ~ We11 - ^ WUl C&U them saw-butchers; they 
are doctors— are meeting in the Railway Club rooms and 
they have entirely occupied them. ' a 

It is with pleasure that I announce to the association that 
there have been no deaths among the chief inspectors in the 
past year, and fortunately no .resignations and no removals 
feast WS th6y WiU aU continu e for another year at 

I shall ask Mr. Willard Smith, the general manager of the 
Transportation Building, to address us for a short time, and 
I will close my short address by thanking all of you gentle- 
men for being present, and I trust that our meeting to-day 
in going over the rules, which will be the principal order of 
the day, will meet with your approval and be of benefit to 
each of you. Gentlemen, I thank you. (Hearty applause.) 

While we are waiting on Mr. Willard Smith, we have a few 
cigars here, and I am told by the Galena Oil Company people 
that they can be lighted in the room with safety. Help 

The President: Gentlemen, I take pleasure in introducing 
to you Mr. Willard Smith, manager of the Transportation 
Building, who will address vou. 

Mr. Smith, in a very interesting address, welcomed the 
association on behalf of President Francis, and compli- 
mented the inspectors on the thoroughness of their work. 
A point particularly complimentary was that of the numer- 
ous disastrous wrecks occurring this year, not one could be 
charged to faulty inspection or neglect of the inspector. 

The President: The next order, gentlemen, is the admis- 
sion of new members. On this score I wish to say that I 
heartily concur in a recommendation of one of the members, 
that we take down the bars to a certain extent and admit to 
membership of this association foremen of the car depart- 
ment, and I will be glad to put a motion to that effect. 

Mr. Boutet: Mr. President, before that motion is put I 
would like the other side to be heard on that. 

The President: They cannot be heard until the motion is 



January, 1905. 

made. If there is no motion, I will consider the motion of 
Mr. Boutet, of Cincinnati, as a motion. 

Mr. Boutet: The proposed changes that I thought would 
be advisable for the association to make, not so much, pos- 
sibly, in the view that you may take of it as others. We 
have about twenty-five chief joint car inspectors throughout 
the United States, Canada and Mexico. They would make a 
very nice meeting if we could get them all together. But 
for some reason, as stated by the president, it is impossible 
to get them all together. As one of them told me about 
three weeks ago at the meeting at Cincinnati, "You won't 
have but about five," and wanted to know if we were all 
satisfied to be governed by that small proportion of the 
membership. The same invitation was extended to one as 
was extended to others. We cannot get them to attend. 
Now, I think by changing our constitution we can get 
enough live men to attend our annual meetings to make an 
association that would be felt by the whole railroad fra- 
ternity. There are not enough of us in the case of chief 
joint inspectors. But if we should expand the Chief Joint 
Inspectors' Association into a national association, J believe 
we could get up an association here by that means so that 
the weight of the association will be felt by every car and 
mechanical man throughout the country. It is true we may 
have a meeting in one locality, where we might get some 
car foremen to attend and join that would not be any help 
to the association, but they would not attend more than one 
meeting, and I think with these changes we will get better 
results than any other way. What we want is to get in- 
formation, and we will have, I think, the best class of fore- 
men of the country. So far they do not come, with very few 
exceptions. What I think we want is to get all car foremen ~ 
of the United States interested in one general association, 
and I think in this manner we can get up an association, 
purely of car men, that would be known and respected by 
every person in the railroad world. 

The proposed changes are to change the second line of 
Article No. 1 to read: "The Chief Joint Car Inspectors and 
Car Foremen." 

Add to Rule No. 2, "and to make such recommendations 
as will be advantageous in the construction and maintenance 
of cars." 

Change Article No. 3 to read as follows: "The member- 
ship shall be composed of all Chief Joint Car Inspectors 
and Car Foremen of any steam railroad in the United States, 
Canada and Mexico." 

When the above amendments are made, the constitution 
will read as follows: 

Article 1. — The name of this association shall be the 
Chief Joint Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association 
of America. 

Article 2. — Objects. — The object of this association shall 
be to provide an organization through which the members 
and the companies they represent may agree upon such ac- 
tion as may be required to bring out, if possible, an abso- 
lute uniformity in the interchange of cars at all interchange 
points in the United States, and make such recommendations 
as in their opinion will be advantageous in the construction 
and maintenance of cars. 

Article 3. — The membership shall be composed of the 
Chief Joint Car Inspectors and Car Foremen of any steam 
railroad of the United States. 

(By Mr. Boutet: The rest of the rules are just as they 
are printed, just as they have been.) 

Article 4.- — The officers of this association shall be a presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary-treasurer and two elective 
members who shall form the executive committee. ' 

Article 5. — Duties of Officers. — The duties of officers shall 
be such as usually pertain to such offices, or may be dele- 
gated to them by members of this association. 

Article 6. — Election when held. 

Section 1. — Officers shall be elected at the annual meeting 
of the association to be held in September of each year. 

Section 2. — Election and Tenure of Office. — Officers of 
this association shall be elected by a written ballot by a 
majority of votes cast, and shall hold office for one year, 
or until their successors are chosen. 

Article 7. — Annual Contribution. — Every member will be 
subject to payment of annual dues, to be assessed at each 
annual meeting for the purpose of defraying necessary ex- 
penses of the association. 

Amendments. — This constitution may be amended at any 
annual meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present. 


Article 1. — Annual Meeting. — This association shall hold 
meetings annually in the month of September, time and 
place to be set by the executive committee. 

Article 2. — Hours of Session. — The regular hours of ses- 
sion shall be from 9:30 a. m. until 12:30 p. m., and from 
2:00 p. m. to 5:00 p. m. 

Article 3.- — Place of Meeting. — Place of each meeting shall 
be fixed at least three months before time of meeting. 

Article 4. — At any regular meeting of the association seven 
or more members shall constitute a quorum. 

Article 5. — Order of Business. — The business of the asso- 

ciation shall, unless otherwise ordered by a vote, proceed 
in the following order: 
1. — Roll call. 

2. — Reading of minutes of last meeting. 
3. — Address by president. 
4. — Admission of new members. 
5. — Report of secretary-treasurer. 
6. — Assessment and collection of annual dues. 
7. — Unfinished business. 
8. — New business. 
9. — Report of committees. 
10. — Election of officers. 
11. — Adjournment. 
Article 6. — A majority vote of the active members present 
shall be required to decide any question, motion or resolu- 
tion which shall come before the association, unless other- 
wise provided. 

Article 7. — No member shall speak more than twice in the 
discussion of any question until all members who desire to 
do so have had an opportunity to speak. 

Article 8. — If a motion to close any discussion is submit- 
ted to a vote, the chairman shall ask the question, whether 
all have spoken that desire to do so. If all have spoken, 
a motion shall then be subjected to a vote, and the pro- 
ceedings govern in accordance with the rules of the asso- 

The President: Before putting the motion, I would like 
to ask the proposer of the motion to change the heading of 
the association to read, "The Chief Inspectors' and Car Fore- 
men's Association of America." It is quite an expensive 
habit to get into — to use so much type that is not needed. 
Mr. Boutet: Mr. President, it might call out some other 
changes. I will erase the words "Canada and Mexico," and 
accept the amendment to the motion. 

The President: Gentlemen, it is moved and seconded that 
the proposed change in the heading of the association and 
certain other recommendations shall be changed as per Mr. 
Boutet, of Cincinnati. Are you ready for the question? Any 
comments? (Question called for.) 

The president then duly put the motion and declared "it 
is a vote." 

Mr. Boutet: Now, Mr. President, I would ask the secre- 
tary to prepare the roll and let all car foremen here come 
up and register who want to be members of the association, 
their titles, roads and locality. 

Mr. C. A. Reager (of the St. Louis Dressed Beef Co.): 
If I understand it right, the way it is worded is just to in- 
clude steam railroads. 

Mr. Boutet: Why it was so worded and what we particu- 
larly aimed at was to cut out the electric; we wanted to 
maintain this as a steam railroad car association. Had 
we better change that to private car lines? It would not 
exclude those. 

Mr. Reager: The impression is, that that would not ex- 
clude them. 

Mr. Boutet: No, sir. 

The President: Would each gentleman please call his 

name when he addresses this meeting? I know a great 

many people by their faces, but I do not know their names. 

Mr. Cressey: We have got two or three of the M. D.'s 

in here. 


The President: Mr. Taylor, would you kindly change 
seats with that next gentleman to the rear and inform those 
gentlemen who came in that this is the Chief Joint In- 
spectors' meeting and not the people who look wise and 
charge all kinds of prices for it? 

The next order of business, gentlemen, is the report of 
the secretary-treasurer. Unless there be objection, I will 
ask the executive committee to examine the books and re- 
port to the executive committee. It is so ordered. 

The next order of business is the assessment and collec- 
tion of annual dues. 

Mr. Boutet: I move that that matter lay over until this 

The President: Unless there be objection, we will take 
that course. Have we any unfinished business, Mr. Sec< 

The Secretary (Mr. McCabe) : No unfinished business. 

The President: Any new business? 

The Secretary: Nothing particular. 

Mr. Boutet: I believe I have something that would come 
up under new business, if you have no objection. 

The President: Under the head of new business, gentle- 
men, I have some letters here I would like to read. 

Under date of September- 20, 1904, I have a letter from 
Mr. W. E. Sharp, the superintendent of the Armour Car 
Lines of Chicago, showing favors. 

The President: I have a letter under date of to-day ad- 
dressed to myself, and signed by Mr. John J. Baulch, presi- 
dent of the St. Louis Railway Club. It is as follows: 

Dear Sir: — I beg to tender to your association the rooms 
of the St. Louis Railway Club and everything that goes with 
it, for the use of your association while in St. Louis in Sep- 
tember, 1904. Meeting room will be in good shape for you 
and we would be glad to have your association make Itself 
entirely at home. 

The President: We have an invitation under date of 

January, 1905. 



September 13, from Mr. W. C. Radcliffe, secretary of the 
Detroit Board of Commerce, inviting this association to 
hold their next meeting in Detroit. 

We also have a letter from Mr. E. C. Baxter, secretary 
of the Chamber of Commerce of Cleveland, O., inviting the 
association to hold the next convention at Cleveland. 

We have another letter under date of September 7, from 
the same people, insisting on our holding our next meeting 
in Cleveland. 

We have invitations here from the Bettendorf Company, 
the More-Jones Company, the National Malleable Casting 
Company and the Galena Oil Company to visit their display 
while at the fair. 

I have a letter of regret from Mr. E. Merriss, the chief 
inspector at Lexington, Ky. ; his son got married and he 
could not help it. 

I have a letter from the general foreman of the W. & 
L. E. regretting he could not attend. 

Letter from Mr. R. S. Miller, general foreman of the car 
department, of the N. Y. C. & St. L. Ry. 

Prom Mr. Gilmore, superintendent of motive power, N. T. 
C. & St. L. Ry. 

Mr. Zerbee, master mechanic of the Big Four at Belle- 
fountain, O., sends regrets. 

Mr. J. M. McBeth, the master car builder of the New 
York Central at East Buffalo, sends his regrets. 

Mr. Ed. D. Bronner of the Michigan Central and Mr. 
Frank Howard of the Wabash at Cleveland send their 

I have a letter from the Chamber of Commerce of Buffalo 
inviting this association to hold their next meeting in Buf- 

Mr. Boutet: I move that the invitations be received with 
the understanding that the invitations be referred to the 
executive committee. 

Which motion was duly seconded, and being put to the 
members the president declared "It is a vote." 

The President: A vote of thanks is due to the Armour Car 
Company, the St. Louis Refrigerator Company, the A. R. T. 
Company., the American Brake Company, the Westinghouse 
Company, the St. Louis Car Company the Swift Car Lines 
and the Adreon Company for courtesies extended. I will 
consider motions. 

Mr. Boutet: I move that to the names just read and the 
chief car inspector of St. Louis and East St. Louis be in- 
cluded in the list and a rising vote of thanks be extended 
to all of them. 

Motion duly seconded and carried by unanimous rising 

The President: The next order of business is new busi- 

Mr. Boutet: Under that head I wish to read the follow- 

St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 22, 1904. 
President and Members of the Chief Joint Car Inspectors' 
and Car Foremen's Association: 

Gentlemen— We have met here, this the sixth annual meet- 
ing of this association, for the purpose of discussing the 
M. C. B. Rules of Interchange and to agree on some uni- 
formity in the matter of interchange of cars. 

We should also make such recommendations and agree on 
some plan to better the education of the car inspectors. 

In my opinion, we should try and face the conditions as 
they exist to-day and not follow in the same old rut in which 
we have been going for years. 

You are, no doubt, aware that the managers of the dif- 
ferent roads throughout the country are figuring on getting 
cars from points of shipment to destination as soon as pos- 
sible, and every delay that is made in setting a car out on 
a shipment from Boston to Pan Francisco adds to the time 
consumed on that particular carload of freight. 

We, therefore, should look closely to the cause of de- 
lays and extra switching of cars in transit and try to rem- 
edy them by advice and instructions to the different car 
inspectors, in such a way that the car inspectors will not 
be held up by all railroad officials, as a barrier over which 
they cannot pass a car, but as a person to whom we can 
look with confidence and know that (using the car parlance) 
when they cut out a car, that car is not fit to go forward, 
but is unsafe for either train men or the lading of- the car 
when it is marked out. 

Are we not responsible, to a certain extent, for the con- 
ditions as they are now, instead of the car inspectors being 
responsible for it all? 

For example: we find an inspector who has let several cars 
get by him; we jump on him with both feet, using the slang 
expression, about letting the cars get by him, and tell him 
that he must stop this manner of inspecting and he must 
catch defects and set the cars out; consequently, he is afraid 
of losing his position and gets very rigid and sets out every- 
thing that is the least bit wrong. This is not only done in 
this part of the country, but is almost universal. 

These are the conditions: they are either very loose or 
very rigid. Should we not take up cases of this kind and 
talk with the inspectors in a different manner? 

Should we not get with the inspectors, look at the cars 
witlr them, show them the kind of cars they should set out 
and what should be allowed to run? This can be done, but 

it will require quite a time, as it cannot be accomplished 
in a short time. 

If, having done this for a reasonable time, talked with 
the inspectors and given them our reasons for acting in this 
manner, and we find that the inspectors show no judgment, 
we should send them back to the repair track or let them 
out and try some other men. 

I have no doubt but- that the majority of you will state 
that this is the rule that you are practicing, but I have no 
doubt, if you stop to consider, you will find the conditions 
are such as described by me. 

You are also aware that cars that would have been set 
out ten years ago for some trifling defect are now regarded 
perfectly safe to go forward. 

I trust we will all agree on some uniform manner of in- 
structing inspectors that will bring about the best results. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. Boutet, 
Chief Joint Inspector, Cincinnati, O. 

The President: Who signs that? 

Mr. Boutet: I do. 

The President: Gentlemen, you have heard the letter 
read from the chief joint inspector at Cincinnati; what is 
your pleasure? 

Mr. McCabe (Cleveland): I move that it be received and 
considered under the proper heading. Same duly seconded. 

Declared duly carried by the president. 

The President: Any other new business? 

It is proper at this time, if you like, gentlemen, to discuss 
Mr. Boutet's recommendation, and I wish all to understand, 
both the car foremen and the others who are present, that 
you have the freedom of the floor just the same as the 
others. What is your pleasure? 

Mr. McCabe: I move that it be taken up under the pres- 
ent heading, unde.r new business. 

The President: Not necessary for the motion; it is new 
business. Does any one wish to discuss it? 

Mr. Boutet: Mr. President, I would like to hear an ex- 
pression from all of the members. It is a matter of vital 
importance and I trust that each one of you will get up 
and give your views, and we can probably then arrive at 
some decision as to what would be the best mode of in- 
structing men. Mr. McCabe, let us hear from you. 

Mr. McCabe (Cleveland) : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, 
I think our vice-president has made a mistake in requesting 
me to speak on the subject first. I am a very poor speaker 
and not much of a thinker, consequently not very much of 
anything. Now, Mr. Boutet and I are personally good 
friends, but as a rule we always cross swords in matters of 
this kind. 

Now, I am here for a purpose, and I assure you it is to 
promote the best interests of the association. Froni this 
business I have had my bread and butter for the last twenty- 
five years, and naturally I should be interested in it, and 
anything that promotes our interest and brings credit to our 
labor is worthy of sincere thought from this organization. 
Mr. Boutet, in keeping with the majority of all our railroad 
men, very nicely and gently strikes at the poor car inspector. 
That is the custom which we all have. But my object here 
is to see the car foremen and the chief joint car inspectors 
of America get together, to come together, exchange views 
and understand one another. The object which Mr. Boutet 
refers to would be a very easy matter when we all think 
alike and act alike and act in harmony. Yet I must say, 
while not desiring to put Cleveland to the front, I think 
Cleveland stands second to none on joint inspection system. 
And why? No credit at all to the chief joint inspector or 
his assistants, or to the car inspectors. Not at all. That 
we have the best — I shall not say the best — but we have 
foremen in Cleveland and officers that work hand in hand. 
Everybody is working together to promote the best interests 
of that class of labor. When all the foremen and us get 
together, we inform each other, we talk together, every- 
thing runs nice. Now that plan ought to be encouraged, 
and to accomplish that all over the United States will be a 
step in the right direction. 

Now, Mr. Boutet speaks of the car inspector. Let me 
tell you a little of my experience while I was foreman in 
the shops. The chief joint inspector and the car inspectors 
were always considered as not attending to their duty, or 
did not understand their business. Well, I looked into the 
matter then and I found that the chief joint inspector was 
doing everything he could, and I found that the car inspec- 
tors were doing their duty, and I looked a little further and 
I found that we were not doing our duty in the car shops. 
We had cars that were reported there that were turned out 
and switched back to the car shop, and the superintendent 
wanted to know what the trouble was; but the explanation 
was always, "the car inspectors are to blame." A number 
of delays were always going on and the poor car inspectors 
always got the blame. When the car was turned out of the 
shops repairs were not properly made. I called the chief 
joint inspector in and said to him, "This thing is not run- 
ning." He said, "What is the matter?" I said, "We are 
not doing our work here in the shop. I said after to-day I 
will number each man and have them work together, and 
have them make out a slip showing the car they repair, and 
if you reject a car and that car comes back. I want you to 



January, 1905. 

report it to me and I will make a personal inspection of it." 
He said, "That is a good thing." What was the result? In- 
side of two weeks that chief joint inspector did not send one 
car back to the shop. It was my fault, not his. 

I think most of the inspectors are honest and honorable, 
just as much as you and I would be under the circumstances; 
it is not because they are not intelligent and don't under- 
stand their business and don't care.. I know better. They 
are good men as a class. Occasionally Mr. Boutet or I may 
be obliged to call up a car inspector for careless work, and 
maybe that man has been sick; a few instructions, or by 
moving that man to another point, probably he will get along 
if properly encouraged. He may make mistakes and his 
pride may be hurt for being blamed for something that he 
did not do or is not responsible for, and when you come 
down to the fact, the chief joint inspectors may not be far 
behind him in that. The chief inspectors and foremen should 
stand by their inspectors and aid them. Possibly we don't 
understand the rules and don't study the rules carefully. I 
would like to hear from all the men here and I desire to 
resent what I would consider a grave insult to the car in- 
spectors of the United States of America, because even Mr. 
Boutet, a practical man, must agree that they do honest 
work as a general thing, that they are good, honest fellows, 
and if foremen and chief joint inspectors in charge of an 
inspection will do their duty, and if the inspector does not 
understand the rules, but is made of good timber to build 
on, he will make a good inspector after he is educated. If 
he hasn't got qualifications to build on, we should return 
him to the repair track. I will be pleased to hear from 
the foremen and others on this matter. 

Mr. Boutet: Mr. President, before I go any further on 
that subject, Mr. McCabe must have been asleep when I 
read that letter. My intention was not to cast any reflec- 
tion upon the car inspector, but to lift him up and have 
given him the closest attention and helped them along in 
every way possible. I was only trying to provide some means 
to lift him up a little higher. I know what a hard time 
he has and what his work means, and I know they are 
blamed for every whip stitch that goes wrong. But in talk- 
ing the matter over with the car foremen and others is what 
led me to writing that letter. 

The President: Mr. Cressey, of Omaha, we would like to 
hear from you. 

Mr. Cressey: I do not understand just what started the 
discussion — there seems to be quite a difference between 
them. It is a mistake. There is a mistake between Baker 
and I and we don't know that each other are living. We 
get along as peacefully as can be. I don't know of any 
trouble with my inspectors, and I have one man go around 
over the country and see that they have done their duties, 
and if I have got to blame any one, I blame him. I treat 
them all alike — they are men, and they get a fair salary 
and they do their work in a first-class manner, and I don't 
believe that I have any kick coming on the inspectors. 

Mr. Baker (Kansas City) : Mr. President, we don't have 
very much trouble with our inspectors. We may have a 
little where our inspectors have difficulties to contend with 
which they don't have to contend with in other parts of 
the country, but there are undoubtedly conditions existing 
there in that part of the world that we don't have. We can't 
complain very much of the car inspectors; they do very 
well. I will state further that the chief inspector don't con- 
trol the car inspectors to any great extent. They are largely 
under the control of the car foremen. 

Mr. Wohrle (Columbus, O.): We have no trouble at 
Columbus. We have an association there and they all come 
together, and we include the inspectors in it. We all come 
together pretty often and. we understand matters alike. We 
get along very well. 

Mr. Hamilton, of Texarkana: We have no diagreements 
at Texarkana. It is under the inspectors, and the chief in- 
spector goes out once in a while and goes around with his 
inspectors and shows them the difficulty and the different 
defects, those that we try to pass, and want to pass the 
cars along and let the cars run if safe at all. I think that 
a good many of the defects if the inspector would use his 
judgment, that a great many of the defects could be re- 
paired quickly, and let the car go and save delays. 

Mr. Dyer, of Toungstown, O.: Mr. President, so far as 
my experience goes, I think the inspectors in general do 
first-class work. If there is any failure on their part, it may 
be due principally to lack of time. It is, of course, necessary 
that a chief joint inspector or a foreman get out amongst 
his men and explain to them the necessity of cutting out or 
letting a certain car go on. The inspectors, I think, do 
good work. 

The President: St. Louis is differently situated in regard 
to inspectors from most of the chief points. The inspectors 
at St. Louis and East St. Louis are directly under the 
charge of the foremen. I personally know that there are 
foremen of St. Louis who are either ignorant of the rules, 
or they don't properly instruct the inspectors as to the rules. 
It is not the fault of the inspector. He is obeying his in- 
structions to the letter. And if the foremen would first teach 
themselves the proper interpretation of the rules and prop- 
erly instruct the inspectors, there would be no trouble at 
St. Louis so far as that is concerned. It is human to err. 
I am one of the humans, and I think all of the foremen and 

inspectors are with me. If the foremen will first get ac- 
quainted with the rules properly, and properly instruct the 
inspectors, I think there will be no trouble on that score 
so far as this town is concerned. 

I would like to hear from some of the foremen from our 
visiting cities. 

Mr. Skidmore, of the Big Four, Cincinnati: Mr., President, 
A understand that a meeting of this kind is called for the 
purpose of improving ourselves in the interchange of cars 
and other things, and from the manner in which some of the 
chief joint inspectors have spoken on this question it appears 
to me that these meetings may as well be discontinued, if 
they are all in the condition that they think the inspectors 
are in. They seem to think that the inspector is perfect and 
no further improvement is to be made in him. Now, I am 
of a different opinion. While I think the inspector does the 
best he can and carries out his instructions and understands 
the rules probably just as well as any of us do, they are sat 
down on rather hard about some things. Still I think they 
go to the extreme, and the foreman does not get out with 
the inspectors probably as much as he should, and try to 
explain the matters to them — that the instructions are not 
intended to see if he can't stop all cars in interchange, but 
to only stop those which are really unsafe for traffic. Now 
the framers of the M. C. B. rules took it into their heads to 
draw up such rules as would facilitate the movement of cars, 
and those rules have passed thousands of cars out in the 
past few years that ought all to have been rejected by the 
inspector as unsafe to go forward. So I think, as does Mr. 
Boutet in his letter here, that it is a good chance and a 
good thing to get oat among the inspectors and try to facili- 
tate the movement of cars and not to keep on in the same 
old rut. It would appear from what they have said that it 
is perfectly satisfactory, and that we can continue in the 
same old way. But we can't. That is what these meetings 
are called for, to get each other's ideas and keep the freight 

Mr. McCabe: I just want to say a word to Brother Skid- 
more. I think that I agree with Mr. Skidmore, but that he 
misunderstands what I said. My idea is to educate our- 
selves. There is where we should think alike. 

Yet there is a difference existing between the foremen and 
the chief joint inspectors. Now, then, what I am aiming 
at is to have us see it from his point of view, and then it is 
easy to understand one another. We are not perfect; we 
all make mistakes. What I want to impress on this associa- 
tion is the importance of first taking and educating ourselves 
and understanding one another, and not having the foremen 
think different from the chief joint inspector. No rules can 
move cars and get out what is safe and cut out what is un- 
safe. We should have the proper understanding of the 

Mr. Skidmore: Mr. Chairman, I wish to reply to Mr. Mc- 
Cabe. His ideas are right. But the inspectors, the chief in- 
spector and the foremen at Cincinnati get along very agree- 
ably. Don't have any more trouble there than at any other 
place. But while we are educating ourselves, don't let the 
inspectors stand there still, but keep him educated up 
with us. 

Mr. McCabe: That is right. 

Mr. Cressey: Mr. President, at Omaha, at South Omaha, 
we are a little differently situated than at some other points 
where there are joint inspectors. The roads have no fore- 
men and all men are joint repair and inspection men. I 
believe there is only one other point in the United States 
that has the same system. The roads seem to know no one 
except the joint repair and inspection men. So their joint 
men are hired and discharged by the general foreman. He 
employs sufficient force to carry on the work according to 
the business. Any complaint that comes in he has to an- 
swer for personally. He has no one sharing in the responsi- 
bility, no foreman of the I. S., the N. W. or the Union Pacific 
to blame it on. He must stand for it all. So the condition 
cannot be the same as it is in Cincinnati or in other places 
where the joint inspector can get out from under and let 
it fall on the foremen of the Big Four or some other road. 

By the President: I can readily see how the Omaha man 
will have a good deal of treasure in heaven. 

Mr. Boutet: The occasion of writing this letter was my 
Q.wn idea. Mr. Smith — we call him Smith — the superin- 
tendent of one of the railroads, while in a meeting of rail- 
road officers in Denver, was trying to make it appear how 
radical the inspectors were, and was trying to make it ap- 
pear that it is impossible to get a car by the car inspector. 
Of course, we know that is not true in all its terms, but I 
say it is true that a great many cars are cut out that should 
be allowed to go forward. I judge, gentlemen, that you 
don't want the managements of the railroads of the country 
to think that their car inspectors are poor. I think if we 
can get here together and we can unite upon some uni- 
formity as to the instructions in regards to the inspectors, 
it would be a big help. 

The President: In reply to that, Mr. Boutet, I will state 
that to a certain extent we have had the same trouble in St. 
Louis for the last ten months, and we all agree, I believe, 
that it is all on account of the Cincinnati rules. 

Mr. Boutet: Mr. president, the Cincinnati rules are not 

January, 1905. 



The President: Here at St. Louis we inspect more cars 
in interchange than at any other point. 

Mr. Boutet: There are other points that interchange cars. 

The President: We have ten thousand a day. 

Mr. Wohrle, of Columbus: Mr. President, at Columbus we 
have a little association, and call ourselves the Car Associa- 
tion. We take the inspectors in with us. We mix together 
and we have a meeting: once a month and we talk matters 
over, and we all understand matters there the same and 
find out from each other what each one knows and thinks 
about this and that, and scatter our information among all 
of us, and where an inspector makes a mistake we take him 
and teach him, and all the others get the benefit of the 
information, and we all get along that way so well that 
very few mistakes are made. 

The President: We have had the same thing here, Mr. 
Wohrle, but we don't get' out the foremen very much; they 
are very delinquent in this town. 

Mr. McCabe: There is just one word I want to say; in 
order to handle this matter intelligently I would like to have 
a word on that, and have the matter referred to a com- 
mittee to consider all inspection points and report, so that 
we could get something definite to figure on. 

In order to show you how absurd opinions a man on the 
railroad can hold: A general yardmaster in Cleveland rep- 
resented to the superintendent of his railway that the joint 
inspector had blocked up his yard with transfer cars that 
were in bad order. He said something must be done to stop 
this practice of receiving bad order cars from connections, 
and the matter was referred to me, and I found that he had 
two cars in thirty days for transfer, and I referred it back 
with my report, and it was up to him to say where he got 
the cars; and he said the other roads were making his yard 
a dumping ground. The way to get at this thing, in my 
opinion, is to refer it to a committee and have them .make 
a thorough investigation and get the figures to show. I got 
some figures for the city of Cleveland for six months as to 
our interchange, not including the local work, and is shows 
as follows.: 

For a period of six months our record shows one defect 
card issued to every 75 cars inspected. One car ordered re- 
paired, with delivering company's defects, to every 117 cars 
inspected. One car ordered transferred to every 693 in- 
spected. One car ordered reloaded to every 787 cars in- 
spected. There were 411,700 cars interchanged. 

Mr. Reagan: In regard to this letter I would like to say 
a few words which it has seemed to me I know something 
about. A great many inspectors .are blamed for their negli- 
gence, and a great many foremen are likewise. It does seem 
to me, Mr. President, as you have stated in regard to this 
place, that we handle about as many or more cars in inter- 
change at St. Louis than any other place in the country — 
(By the President: "Than any other five places") — than at 
any other five places. I would say this, then, that they have 
got a great deal with the regular cars alone that they have 
to contend with. The switching facilities and motive powers 
at St. Louis have a great deal to do with the trouble in that 
respect. Motive power is so heavy and the trains are so 
long and heavy that it has its effects on a car and makes it 
bad after we have probably called it all right. And it was 
all right, but after being handled the car is bad. And 
furthermore, we apparently see the cars to be all right — that 
is, apparently in good condition in good shape to go for- 
ward — but after a car is switched into a train for further- 
ance, we then find that the car is in such a condition that 
it has to be cut out. I can't attribute this trouble to the in- 
spectors. No inspector can look through the car in the 
train, and all he can observe of it there and judge of the 
condition of the car. And furthermore, the foreman, while 
he does his "rubbering" probably the car is in good condi- 
tion, while rather somewhat decaying, and after being put 
into the yard and switched about, being placed into a train 
and ready to go forward, we find that the switching of this 
car has been so careless that the car is ready for the rip 
track, and is turned out. I do not attribute this to the neg- 
ligence of the inspector or foremen. I say that the railroad 
companies and the switching of this car. also the move- 
ments of the car are to blame; they are more responsible 
for this than the inspectors or foremen. Futhermore. I 
know that on the National Car Line Company, of which I 
am chief inspector at St. Louis, that we have had cars han- 
dled to and from one road to another, and when the car 
arrived at home the car was in a critical condition and it 
needed a general overhauling. If it had been reported at 
the beginning, it would have saved a great deal of expense 
and labor. We can't attribute this to the inspectors or the 
foremen. I would not be responsible for the condition that 
car came home in. It has been due to the carelessness due 
to the railroad companies in handling and switching these 
cars. It is impossible for us to take the car that is in here, 
when switched and handled as careless as they are, and look 
to the inspector or the foreman for the responsibility., 

Mr. Julian (South Omaha) : Is it not a fact that in the 
past five years, with the enormous business the railroad 
companies have had, that we have allowed the rolling stock 
to run down considerably? Tc-day on the Union Pacific we 
are running trains of eighteen hundred and nineteen hun- 
dred tons. Our seventeen hundred ton trains are numerous 
and our eighteen hundred ton trains are sent over the road 

regularly. Load up a double-header and give them two en- 
gines and you have three thousand tons on one train. It is 
their looking to the master mechanic and the general fore- 
men to keep those cars running, and at the least possible 
cost. It is at the expense of to-day that they are looking. 
They are, on one division of that, road, moving trains at a 
cost of two and a quarter mills per m,ile per ton for a thou- 
sand miles. On the Wyoming Division it is moved at two 
mills, and on the Nebraska Division at two and one-half 
mills. On the other hand, if a poor inspector happened to 
think that a car is safe to run on the ordinary train, what 
are they to do? If the car goes out and a wreck happens, 
if a break-down happens, the general car foreman gets a 
letter from headquarters, and that fellow wants to know why 
that car has been allowed to be placed in that train. And 
for such accidents the foremen of the car department are 
relatively to blame on that proposition as much as the in- 
spector, as Mr. McCabe stated — that we need greater care 
while we have the cars on the repair track in order to repair 
them properly. But if the management demands forty or 
fifty or one hundred cars, we are a little hasty in allowing 
them to leave the repair track to please the management, 
who are calling all the time for more cars. On the other 
hand, if we feel that those cars are in bad order, I think 
we should give them time to repair them properly. I had 
been in Denver a good many years before I came to Omaha. 
I know the situation in Denver. I know that the cars are 
receiving a great deal of rough handling in the switching, 
and they are having a great many setbacks; in fact, a great 
many more than they should have, for the simple reason 
that the Superintendent's Association ruled the chief joint 
inspector, and if he allows a car to go put that is not in a 
first-class condition, why, they blame him for it. On that 
ground, I believe, lies the trouble. They have as good men 
in Denver, as good a chief inspector — as good as Mr. Bacon, 
and I have known him for thirty years. We have in Omaha 
Mr. Cressey; we depend entirely upon him to do our work. 
On the other we have our own inspectors at Council Bluffs. 
We have twenty-three inspectors, and I think it is a little 
our fault for not taking those inspectors, say once a month, 
having a talk with them, tell them what we must expect of 
them. We have a number of straw "jumpers" built out on 
the road; we get after them and they will have to take their 
jobs, which we should not do. We do not look enough to 
the conditions under which they have been working, and 
although I don't claim that all the inspectors are faultless — 
none of us are — there are some careless and shirkers and 
just a little wrong judgment. When we find those men the 
quicker we get rid of them the better. I think as a general 
rule to-day, in the past five years especially, that all our 
roads, with few exceptions, have secured the best men that 
could possibly be secured to fill the important position of a 
car inspector. 

A Member: Just add there, "for the money paid." 
Mr. Julian: For the money paid, yes. (Applause.) 
The President: The statement made by Mr. McCabe, of 
Cleveland, regarding the number of cards issued, cars han- 
dled, etc. I would like to understand how Mr. McCabe can 
manage in Cleveland to issue only one defect card to 7 5 in- 
spected, and how they manage to arrange it to issue one re- 
pair card in 117. The ratio here is about one to every 700, 
and if we issued cards here as they do in Cleveland, it would 
mean fully 30 per cent of the cars handled. Cleveland must 
either be in God's country or there is something wrong with 
the inspector. 

Mr. Cressey: In regard to the number of cars handled by 
Mr. McCabe, I will say that we have quite a number of cars 
that come through Mr. McCabe's territory in the way of re- 
frigerator cars especially. It seems to prevail over the coun- 
try to quite an extent that the number of cars that are han- 
dled in the way of refrigerators is large. A great many cars 
are handled at the point where I am located of these re- 
frigerators, belonging to the Cudahy, Swift and National and 
Armour car lines. These cars seem to pass the eastern 
points with what we would term the box car inspection. If 
any damage is caused to the siding or exterior of the cars, 
due to the punching of holes through the end by overreach- 
ing loads, they are given the box car inspection, the exterior 
can only be inspected. With most of these refrigerator cars 
we have from three to five courses, of say, papers, and five 
courses of lumber and the outside overhand will be crowded 
up against the end of the next car, and while the next car 
is probably worth twice as much as the lumber, are generally 
left off the cars and only the exterior carded, which consists 
of the siding, and the inspectors general l3 r seem to use poor 
judgment in regard to location of the posts, and perhaps some 
overlook the fact that they are in the car. In carding the 
refrigerator cars, they overlook to a great extent the amount 
of work between the blind siding and the insulation. Many 
boards broken to a great extent, and we find in Omaha that 
there are quite a number of these cars that pass the eastern 
points or that there is an additional card issued, and when 
we refer it back to the point where it came from, they claim 
that all their inspection was made in the proper manner and 
that they are not responsible; and we have quite a number 
of cars that pass in this manner, and I think if every car 
foreman and joint inspector in this room at the present time 
would take that matter up, and act on it, we would have less 
trouble in issuing defects cards: 



January, 1905. 

The President: Mr. Cressey, the east has not yet gotten to 
the idea of the west in using the X-ray machine for inspec- 

The President: Gentlemen, the programme calls for 12:30 
sharp with the ladies at the Des Peres restaurant, near 
"Creation" on the "Pike," for luncheon. It is fifteen minutes 
now of that hour. Therefore, we will adjourn to the restaur- 
ant and all are invited to partake of refreshment, until 1:30 
sharp, in this room. 

Afternoon Session. 

At 1:40 P. M. Mr. Boutet said: It is now after the time 
for the meeting, and I move that we proceed to business. 

.The President: The meeting will come to order. 

Mr. Boutet: Mr. President, before we proceed with any 
other business of the convention, I. wish to state that the 
executive committee was requested to fix the amount of the 
assessment, and we make as a report that the assessment be 
made at $1.50 per member and that the members come up 
and pay their assessment to the secretary. 

The President: Is that a motion? 

Mr. Boutet: That is the report of the executive committee. 

Mr. Starke: I move that an assessment of $1.50 each be 
levied on all members. 

Seconded by Mr. Julian of the Union Pacific. 

Upon the motion being duly put, the president declared 
"It a vote." 

Mr. Boutet, vice-president, takes the chair and says: The 
first order, gentlemen, we will proceed with the discussion of 
the letter presented by myself, if there is any further dis- 
cussion on the matter. Any other gentleman in the room 
who desires to discuss the matter further? 

Mr. Taylor: Mr. President, I suggest that you read the 
letter over again. (Chairman proceeds to again read the let- 
ter in full, signed by H. Boutet.) 

Mr. Taylor: Mr. President, in discussing that letter this 
morning, I remember your saying that the local agreement 
at Cincinnati did not interfere with the M. C. B. rules, and 
that the St. Louis foremen will be glad to hear anything re- 
garding the Cincinnati agreement. Mr. Waughop said that 
the Cincinnati agreement did not work well here. I would 
like that explained, regarding the Cincinnati agreement, as 
to where they conflict with the M. C. B. rules. I would like 
to ask this further question: Are they in harmony with our 
interchange rules? 

The President: Yes, sir. 

Mr. Taylor: Are they fac simile with Cincinnati? 

The President: Not exactly fac simile; the general prin- 
ciples are carried out. The rules in Cincinnati are based 
mainly upon M. C. B. rules — the same that we interchange 
cars under. We will say a car comes in on some road and 
destined for the switching limits. Those cars can all be al- 
lowed to go as if they were going to be delivered from one 
line to another with a through shipment, then we accept 
cars as a shipped car. We have also what is known locally 
"as locally consigned cars. So far as the Cincinnati exchange 
is concerned, it is based on M. C. B. rules. Under conditions 
in Cincinnati that do not exist in St. Louis, a car comes in 
on one line and is inspected on the rail before delivery. All 
our inspecting is done before delivery. 

Mr. Taylor: That is the point I wanted to get at. 

Mr. Boutet: Instead of waiting before we inspect for the 
delivery, that car is inspected before it leaves the yard. If 
that car is in a defective condition it is set out in the yard 
of the delivering line before delivering it. Unless it happens 
to be some hidden defect, that is not discovered the first 
time. But, then, that does not bear on the letter. It is really 
out of order, but I did not see how I could get rid of answer- 
ing that question. 

Mr. O'Brien: Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask if the 
supervision of inspectors is directly under the foremen at 
Cincinnati or under the chief inspector? 

The President: Directly under the foreman. 

Mr. O'Brien: What supervision has the inspector? 

The President: None at all, except that he is expected to 
report as to the efficiency of the inspectors. 

Mr. O'Brien: This covers only the matter of work; in the 
matter of discussion, how is that settled? 

The Chairman: That is a matter of arbitration solely. 

Mr. Waughop: I would like to ask' a question, Mr. Chair- 
man: How many chief joint inspectors have the inspectors 
under him? 

The Chairman: How many does the chief joint inspector 
have directly under him? None. 

The Chairman: That is all, I believe. But we are drifting 
away from the subject, gentlemen. Let us confine ourselves 
to what is before the house. I will not allow any more diver- 
sion until we dispose of that paper. We will proceed to take 
up and talk about that until we dispose of it and then we will 
proceed to the next order of business. 

Mr. O'Brien: I believe that the educational rules of an in- 
spector is based on the chief inspector himself, when he comes 
directly under the inspection of the chief joint inspector. If 
we will look upon the conditions such as are existing at St. 
Louis as an illustration; there are twenty-six foremen, each 
one giving his own interpretation of the Master Car Builders' 
rules, it is easily to be seen that there is a dissension and 
difference in opinion. As a result, congestion in the move- 
ment of traffic. Therefore, it is my belief that the founda- 

tion of the movement of traffic, so far as inspection is con- 
cerned, can be remedied and rectified by placing all the in- 
spectors under one chief inspector, who will be in a position 
to issue one kind of inspection, and only that kind of inspec- 
tion orders, so as not to confuse the inspectors. I think by 
so doing it will have a tendency to eliminate that part for 
which the inspectors are blamed for irregularity in inspec- 

Mr. Starke (C. C. & L.): In order to rectify the present 
condition, we must go with the inspectors, go over the Mas- 
ter Car Builders* rules with the inspectors, go with each man, 
and go with him and determine what would be the best to 
do with any particular car. Tell him how to take care of 
that car under the rules, and take them along to the car and 
determine what defects caused the car to be cut out, and 
what would also determine would be the safe part of the 
car, in what condition it would be safe to let it go. We do 
that, and we don't have any trouble. 

Mr. Julian: I believe we are to blame for some of the 
trouble we are having to-dav. As Mr. O'Brien says, each 
and every foreman interprets the rules in many important 
cases differently. I believe we could form an association 
here among car men, among foremen, and go to our com- 
panies and make them understand the importance of the 
chief joint car inspector's position, and inform them and 
convince them that it would be to their interest in the move- 
ment of trains to place their inspectors entirely under the 
chief joint inspector at every point where there is a joint 
inspector. I think with that done the problem would be 
solved. I do not believe that it will be solved without it. 

Mr. Chas. Hitch: If the inspectors should receive their 
instructions from the foremen or their superior, the foremen 
or the joint car inspectors, and it also appears to me that 
the foremen, having an organization throughout the United 
States, should have a proper interpretation of the M. C. B. 
rules, and should be in a position to transfer the interpreta- 
tion of these rules to the inspectors under their jurisdiction 
in an intelligent manner, that they, top, may interpret and 
understand the rules as they are printed. Now these organ- 
izations are intended and are supposed to bring the foremen 
and the joint inspectors together to go through these rules 
and interpret each and every rule as they understand it, one 
and all. I think you might in this way get a thorough under- 
standing of the rules, and not one have this understanding 
one way, one have on interpretation and another have it 
another way at the same point. 

Another point to be considered is this, that there is in the' 
rules which are adopted by this association should be, that 
the same rules apply at all points in the United States, so 
that if you pass a car at one point it will pass at the other 
point without question. Now as all cars are interchanged 
under the M. C. B. rules — there may be some local rules 
existing — but the idea is if that is tne rules announced, the 
M. C. B. rules, it should be thoroughly understood at all 
points that when a car was passed at one point, that car 
would pass the different points with the same inspection. 
I believe that that is what these organizations are for, and 
1 hat each and every inspector and foreman that attends it 
could go back to his respective place with a uniform under- 
standing" to be given the M. C. B. rules. 

Mr. Julian: You might think that I am thinking a great 
deal of the chief joint car inspector and not enough of the 
foremen. Still, I am a foreman, and I think as I have said 
before that it is no reflection of the foremen in having the 
chief joint inspector handle all the men at the different joint 
points. We have on the Union Pacific a plan, a favorite 
idea, of placing a chief joint inspector wherever we can and 
allowing him full control of his men. Let the men be inde- 
pendent of any railroad companies. Let them understand 
that they are working for a chief joint inspector and not for 
the different railroads, and that they are not looked to for 
results. Then men won't think that they are representing 
their company, or any company. They don't know any 
company. They know their superior, and that is all. I 
know that we had a great deal of trouble in Denver prior to 
placing our men under the chief joint inspector. The Union 
Pacific had twenty-two men on their transfers; the Santa 
Pe had six; the Rio Grande had six; the C. & S. had eight; 
the D. & M. had five. We consolidated the men, placed 
them under the chief joint car inspector, and reduced the 
expense at that point thirty-seven and a half per cent on 
the inspection. I believe to-day if the railroad companies 
get to understand that it is to their own interest to adopt 
that system at every point, that it will be a great saving in 
the handling of inspectors, great responsibility taken off the 
rhoulders of the foremen and a great responsibility taken off 
the shoulders of the different superintendents. I am in 
favor, Mr. Chairman, of the chief joint car inspector having 
control of his men. 

The Chairman: The discussion, the president informs 
you, has got to close at 3 o'clock, to take up the M. C. B. 
rules. He will not allow any longer than 3 o'clock on this 

Mr. Hitch: ■ There is another matter I would like to say 
something about. The present rules make the receiving road 
the sole judge of the fitness of the car passing over its lines. 
In order to place this matter where it should be, and relieve 
the foremen of responsibility, it must be placed on the chief 

January, 1 905. 



joint inspector. As long as that rule exists, nothing can be 

The President (breaking in) : I believe we are deviating 
from the subject; it is not a question of whether he should 
or should not be placed under the chief joint inspector. The 
question is as to the best manner of educating the inspectors. 

Mr. Hitch: Then I have nothing more to say than what I 
nave said and that the foremen should be in a position to 
instruct the inspectors and see that they know their business. 

Mr. McPherson: My experience at St. Louis is that we 
set hold of the wrong idea of things and are blaming the 
inspectors for what they have no control over. The man 
that you want to get at is the foreman. The conditions will, 
I expect, be hard to get at, at every point, but I will simply 
say that we want to double our capacity for switching and 
motive power. There is no one here that ever has increased 
the number of men in proportion to the work; they are in- 
specting the cars and expecting the cars to be repaired and 
handled under the same conditions as ten years ago. You 
have got to get after the foremen and then after the com- 
panies that" own these cars and equipment and get force 
enough to keep the cars in proper order, then you won't have 
any trouble with the car inspectors. (Applause.) 

Mr. Chas. Waughop: The conditions existing at all other 
points in the United States are entirely different from those 
existing in St. Louis. There are no other points in the world 
like it. There is no other point, nor any other five points, 
where the interchange of cars is so heavy as it is at St. 
Louis and East St. Louis. I have been asked the question, 
if the inspectors were placed under the chief inspector di- 
rectly, wouldn't it be a benefit? I will acknowledge that in 
a way it would. It would certainly tend to be an economical 
move. On the other hand, it would require a considerable 
expense in managing the chief inspector's office, in looking 
after it, looking after what I call "kicks" from the foremen. 
We will grant that the inspectors are placed under the chief 
inspector. I made the statement the other day, and I made 
it in good faith, that there are a great many foremen who 
have failed to either learn the rules properly ,and to properly 
instruct their inspectors. . Just such foremen as that would 
stay awake nights, looking over the inspector's inspection 
and find some missing parts or defects that he had missed. 
And the first thing the next morning that foreman would be 
after the chief inspector and say that the inspector is "doing" 
their company. It would require the time of the chief in- 
spector and one or two men to settle just such cases as that. 
So far as St. Louis is concerned, I don't believe that the in- 
spectors have ever been instructed properly by the foremen. 
It is no fault of the chief joint inspector, because he has 
tried to instruct the foremen on that score, and if they, fail 
to explain the rules to the inspectors it is not his fault. 

The Chairman: Gentlemen, we have brought out most of 
the points which I think will cause some thought during the 
next year, and put your wits to work to remedy the evil. 
I would suggest that you appoint a committee to report on 
this same matter, to report at our meeting one year hence. 
As we have gone to the time of closing, I will declare the 
discussion closed, and I will offer that as a suggestion. . 

Regularly moved by Mr. Wohrle, and seconded by Mr. 
Cressey, that the recommendations of Mr. Boutet be carried 
out by the appointment, by the president, of a committee of 
three to consider the matter. 

The President: It has been moved by Mr. Wohrle, and 
seconded by Mr. Cressey, that a committee of three be ap- 
pointed by the president to report on this matter at our 
meeting one year hence. All in favor of the motion will 
raise their right hands. The motion is carried unani- 
mously. I will appoint as chairman of that committee Mr. 
Julian, of Omaha, and as other members Mr. Stephen Skid- 
more, of Cincinnati, and Mr. McPherson, of St. Louis. 

Mr. Waughop resumes the chair. 

The President: We will now come to the order of busi- 
ness of the rules. There has been several changes in the 
rules in the last June convention of the Master Car Builders. 
I will take up the rules and read them, and where any 
changes are noted we will discuss. 

Beginning at the preface, there is no change. Identically 
the same as last year. Any discussion? 

Rule No. 1. No change; any discussion. 

Rule No. 2. 

Mr. McCabe: Mr. Chairman, I think it would be a very 
good idea not to pass that rule without some discussion. I 
would like to say from my experience that car men all over 
the country are not living up to this rule. It is a very im- 
portant rule, too. It looks very simple. I will read it. 
(Mr. McCabe reads Rule No. 2.) Now, I find out that men 
all over the country are not living up to this rule. They 
are not insisting on having repair cards applied. Possibly 
they make the bills, but they neglect to apply the repair 
card. This is very important. It is important in your own 
territory when one road repairs a car to see that it has the 
repair card on it; to see whether they apply second-hand 
material; to see what they do in regard to applying couplers. 
I find the rule is not lived up to. If every inspector in the 
country would insist on having cars properly carded with an 
M. C. B. repair card, that car would pass home to the owner; 
and if there were any improper repairs there, the owner 
could take it up and settle it. Give the inspectors an oppor- 
tunity to check up. Now, in Cleveland, if any road repairs 

a car and they fail to fill out a repair card, we simply send 
that car back to them to comply with the rules instead of 
allowing car to pass home to the owner; thus we avoid a 
great deal of tracing and confusion. I would like to hear 
from the members on that. 

The President: I would like to ask Mr. McCabe, how do 
you account for the peculiar conditions existing at this point, 
that we never see a Cleveland repair card'? I hear the same 
comment from Omaha, Cincinnati and all around; we never 
see a Cleveland repair card. 

Mr. Boutet: Let me answer for Cincinnati. During the 
time that the Mississippi division of the B. & O. S. W. Ry. 
was known as the O. & M. Ry., it seemed that every car that 
went west as far as St. Louis, when it returned to Cincinnati 
there was a defect card that was on the car when it went 
west, was invariably missing on its return. 

The foreman of the O. & M. Ry. informed me this was 
caused by the goats in East St. Louis eating the cards off, 
and I expect that is what is the matter now, as St. Louis 
claims there are no repair cards on cars from Cincinnati and 
other points. 

The President: We got rid of the goats for all time in 
East St. Louis, I am glad to say. 

Mr. Clara: To help Mr. McCabe I will say we use on an 
average of twelve repair cards a day. 

The President: Where? 

Mr. Clara: At Cincinnati. 

The President: It is very evident that Mr. McCabe has 
not attended the Master Car Builders' convention in recent 
years, as the majority of the master car builders now con- 
cede that that rule is now a dead rule, so far as the putting 
on of repair cards is concerned. 

Mr. Boutet: I do not concede that; there isn't a man in 
Cincinnati or elsewhere that would not support my position 
of the whole and put on a card. 

Mr. O'Brien: Is that the proper interpretation — is not 
that Rule No. 74? 

The Chairman: No part of the inspection. 

Mr. McCabe: This is part of the inspection. When a 
car comes to you it is up for inspection. 

Mr. O'Brien: It is a matter of designating the rule. When 
we get down to Rule No. 74 we get down to repair cards. 

Mr. McCabe: To see that cars get the same inspection 
as your own. If it is repaired in your territory, you will be 
able to check up. 

The President: McCabe, do you get any cars from the 
west with repair cards on them? 

Mr. McCabe: Yes, and from the south. 

The President: How about from the east? 

Mr. McCabe: And we get them from the east. 

The President: How about Cincinnati? 

Mr. McCabe: We get them from there, too. 

Mr. Boutet: I told you we were honest at Cincinnati. 

The President: We don't apply the rules to the inspectors 
at this point. We don't see them. Any further discussion 
on that rule? 

Mr. Hitch: It appears to me that that rule ought to be 
very plain. This rule applies to foreign cars on your own 
line, and in handling those cars that you will give them the 
same care that you give your own cars. The second rule 
covers all the cars in interchange. That car is not in inter- 
change at all; it is simply being handled on your road as one 
of your cars. 

The President: The point is well taken, Mr. Hitch. We 
will pass on to Rule No. 3, unless there is further discussion. 

Rule No. 3 ; no change. 

Rule No. 4; no change. 

Rule No. 5; no change. 

Rule No. 6; no change. 

Rule No. 7; no change. 

Rule No. 8; no change. 

Rule No. 9; no change. 

Rule No. 10; no change. 

Rule No. 11; no change. 

Rule No. 12; no change. 

Rule No. 13; no change. 

Rule No. 14; no change. 

Rule No. 15; no change. 

Rule No. 16; no change. 

Mr. Sebring: Last year those rules were discussed by the 
joint car inspectors and they did not change them; I think 
we had better take the rules that are changed and find out 
what they are. 

The President: Everybody who wishes to discuss the rules 
has the privilege to do^so. 

The President: Rule No. 19; there has been a good deal 
of discussion in the past years by different inspectors as to 
what constitutes a "slid flat" wheel, and it has been voted 
on in two or 1hree instances, and they have decided that the 
proper interpretation of the rule is that the slided spot must 
be two and one-half inches with no points . on the gauge 
shown. Everything on the gauge must cover the solid flat 
spot. It must cover the entire gauge. I believe that has 
been decided upon and is no longer in doubt. 

Mr. Stack: The flange cut by sliding. 

The President: I never saw it except on a curve; that is, 
a cut flange; I think it is a case of rough usage. 

Mr. Stack: How much is shown up? 



January, 1905. 

The President: The same dimensions as would apply to 
a chipped flange wheel. 

Mr. Stack: An inch and a half? 

The President: 


Mr. Boutet: I don't think that a very rare occurrence; I 
find it a very frequent occurrence. Such cars frequently come 
in from crooked roads. Possibly it may be four inches long; 
lots of times it is four inches; but if it is slid deep enough 
and if there is any danger of the flange catching on a rough 
joint or a switch point, then I condemn it. But if it only 
slides so that there, is no danger of catching in a joint or 
switch point, then I let it go forward. 

Mr. Stack: Should it not govern when wheels' are to be 
removed to the shop — could not that be determined on? 

Mr. Boutet: I do not think that any wheel that is not 
bad enough to come out from the car should be carded. 
Neither should I believe that a slid flat wheel should be dis- 
regarded. It should not be carded. If condemnable, it 
should be taken out. 

Mr. Cressey: I would like to ask in connection with this, 
what would be done with a wheel two and one-half inches 
on the flat and another with two inches? 
The President: "We would refuse a card. 
Mr. Cressey: "Would you remove the wheel? 
The President: Yes, remove the wheel. 
Mr. Cressey: Unfair usage? 

Mr. Baker: I would like to know the sentiment of all 
here, but we never can agree on what the rule means 

The President: Let me read the rule. Personally, I do 
not think the master car builders ever wrote a rule that 
was plainer, that was in plainer English, than Rule No. 19. 
(President reads Rule No. 19.) What is the meaning of the 
word "flat?" It is not round. It is one continuous slide, 
taking the gauge for two and a half inches, or more. 

Mr. Boutet: That is very true, Mr. President, but the 
exception taken by Mr. Stack was very good. You can have 
a slid flange wheel where the gauge will not set down' on it 
perfectly flat and is not a thirty-second of an inch on the 
flange or slid flat where the gauge would not sit on that 
point. The question is, how far that slide would be before 
we would condemn the wheel. I don't know whether you 
have much of that kind in this locality or not, but we have 
from our crooked roads. 

Mr. Skidmore: I don't think there is much room for dis- 
cussion on the matter. If the slid spot is two and a half 
inches long it is condemnable; if it is two and three-eighths 
inches, it is not condemnable. 

The President: That is all there is to it. 
Mr. Boutet: And that refers to the slid flange? 
The President: The point is not a slid flat wheel; it is a 
slid flange. 

Mr. Baker: It is not a question of whether a wheel is two 
and a half inches or not; it is a question of whether it is 
dead flat or not; it is whether it should be condemned as 
dead flat or not. I claim you cannot pass wheels on an arbi- 
trary interpretation of the rule, but that only a wheel dead 
flat must be removed. 

Mr. Dyer: A flange is slid flat and yet it is not so slid 
flat that it would be condemnable by the gauge, as the 
worn flange, worn so thin or worn vertical, if the gauge was 
flat on no point. The flange is not condemned or condemn- 
able, and what would be the use of condemning the wheel 
because of two and a half inch flat on it? 

Mr. Stack: The part of the gauge that gets on the flange 
that makes it unfair — that means, it is the shoulder they 
slide on. It is the same as a vertical flange. 

The President: As I have said before, questions of that 
kind very rarely come up at this point. We are fortunately 
in a position where the engineers cannot see the back of 
their heads on their own track. 

Mr. Hitch: It appears to me that it should be left to the 
discretion of the foremen and inspectors in regard to that. 
There is no rule to govern it. And the condition of the flange 
would have to be taken into consideration, and also the depth . 
of the slid spot. It would be a matter left to the discretion 
of the party having it in charge, in my opinion. 

The President: I think when we consider the gauge, as 
shown on pages 6 and 7 of the ruled, we will find they will 
govern that point. If they go under the limit of the gauges, 
the wheel is not condemnable. . 

Mr. Cressey: There seems to be a division of opinion 
here. I believe that the majority of the chief joint car 
inspectors are against my idea of a car sliding by flat slid- 
ing. With the exception of Mr. Baker, I do not believe that 
I have another man who coincides with me. My interpre- 
tation of that is that whenever it is necessary to remove a 
wheel on account of flat sliding, whether two and a half 
inches, eleven or fifteen inches, no matter what the flat 
sliding is, at the time it is discovered, that party is respon- 
sible and must pay for the wheel, either by .card or by re- 
moving the wheel. I had a wheel some two years ago that 
I had set aside to show Boutet or Waughop and ask why 
it was set aside. It was given the uniform inspection, but 
there was no place where it would take the full interpreta- 
tion of the gauge. I says, "Roll that wheel over to the 
corner of the shop and I will see if Waughop rules it out — 
Waughop's inspection." No, sir; would not card it. I carded 

the wheel, and I insisted on getting the card we usually get 
when the car did not move. 

Mr. Boutet: There are twenty million people who do not 
agree on your point. 

Mr. Julian: I concur in the opinion that it is not a 
question of whether a wheel is removable; it is a question 
of whether the wheel is condemned by -the gauge, and I 
think that settles the whole question. If the gauge shows 
two and a half inches by the gauge, that settles it. I would 
not ask any man to card a wheel that had a seven or eight- 
inch contact flat. 

Mr. Rlger: I do not think that two and a half inches on 
the flange would be sufficient to cause the wheel to be re- 
moved. I do not think that that distance on the wheel would 
be sufficient across the shoulder, enough to derail the wheel, 
and I think the shoulder would not be crossed under about 
Ave inches slide where wheels had been slid, and I think I 
have seen where the wheel, the flange, had been so worn off 
I suppose, five or six inches; but at the distance of two and 
a half inches I could not see sufficient cause to justify the 
wheels being removed. 

Mr. Stack: Does this rule refer primarily to the slide or 
does it include the flange? 

The President: It means the slide of the tread of the 

Mr. Bockwitz: There is no gauge to condemn a worn 
switch. Therefore, when we have a defect of that kind, with 
a defect in the switch point that would cause derailment, 
and we have no gauge to condemn those — that is, a defect 
in the wheel and in the switch point, these defects would 
cause derailment. 

The President: To stop argument, I will consider a mo- 
tion that the arbitration committee be requested to interpret 
Rule 19, slid flat flanges, describing what is codemnable. 

Mr. Boutet: I would move that suggestion, that it be sent 
to the arbitration committee, requesting them to define a 
slid flange wheel, and describing at what point it should be 

Which motion was duly seconded, and being put to a vote 
was declared duly carried. 

The President: Rule No. 20; no change. 
Mr. McCabe: We have lost something — -on", the slid flat 
tread and the two spots are on one spot; that was not de- 
cided whether Mr. Cressey was to be on that committee. 
There is room for that gentleman on that committee. I 
want to make a special point of that. He differs from- oth- 
ers on that commitee, and we want to hear why Omaha and 
St. Louis differ. Let them make special efforts ot find out 
why there is this difference. That is what I am here for. 
If you have the inspection done, under whatever head it may 
be, and under whoever may be wanted by the companies, 
we will do that work, and if, for instance, Mr. Waughop 
runs all the cars in St. Louis according to his ideas, no road 
in St. Louis loses anything, because one offsets the other. 
But if the foremen differ, then there is a difficulty. Now, 
then, Mr. Cressey at Omaha reverses the decision here, and 
all the roads at Omaha get the benefit of his decision. What 
is good for one is good for the other — what is good for the 
goose is good for the gander. Don't you see the idea? And 
let the chief inspector be subject to the foremen if you will. 
If you will only try this system in every joint inspection 
point, just watch results. 

The President: How many chief joint inspection points 
in the country think differently from St. Louis on that sub- 
ject, besides South Omaha, in regard to slid flat wheels and 
slid flat tread? How many joint inspectors do not concur 
in the opinion of St. Louis that a slid flat wheel must be 
two and a half inches, and that if it has a two, three, five or 
ten-inch, they don't condemn the. wheel so far as charging 
the delivering line is concerned? 

Mr. Cressey: I mean that if the spots are each less than 
two and a half inches, but, if there are so many that they 
endanger the safety of the wheel, that the delivering com- 
pany should pay for the wheel. It is not the fault of the 
receiving road. 

The President: The discussion was up once or twice 
before, and I believe the vote taken on the subject was 
that out of the vote of twenty that there was possibly two 
that did not concur in the main, and it is unreasonable to 
suppose that the two out of the twenty were right an^ the 
other eighteen were wrong. 

Mr. Hitch: In answer to the gentleman from Cleveland, 
the joint car inspectors and the car foremen from all over 
the United States that assembled here today in convention, 
for, if possible, a unanimous interpretation of those rules. 
Now, if they cannot get the proper interpretation of the 
rules here, where can they get it? The idea is to have a 
united interpretation and each and every man the same. 
The rule seems to me to be very plain and there is no 
reason why there should be a difference on this, when there 
is a unanimous opinion that the slid flat must be two and a 
half inches flat. If it does not take the gauge at any point 
for two and a half inches, it is not slid flat and then the 
rule is that it does not condemn it. 

The President: For the purpose of getting an opinion 
from all the foremen and from all the chief inspectors that 
are present, I will ask all foremen or inspectors that are 
present to raise their hand, all who are in favor of carding 

January, 1905. 



of cars where it does not show on the gauge two and a half 

Mr. Boutet: Before you put that to vote, Mr. Chairman, 
I would like to say something. 

The President: We will take the vote first, then you can 
talk about it. 

The President's suggestion was seconded by Mr. Julian. 

Mr. Clare:. I would ask that you add to that motion, that 
you state whether the wheel is condemned or not unsafe, 
by us. 

The President: I will grant that, and the wheel is, unsafe 
in the opinion of any car foreman or inspector, and still 
does not take the gauge. 

Mr. Boutet: I don't think there is any difference of 
opinion on that point, and that there is not a joint inspector 
or foreman, but what will acknowledge that they have seen 
slid flat wheels that they could not put the gauge on at any 
point; I don't think there is a foreman or inspector in the 
room but who has seen that. And when we find a wheel of 
that kind I think we will want that wheel removed. I think 
a card should be given for it. I believe the delivering line 
should be made to pay for it. I have seen wheels that are 
slid three-eighths deep, but you could not get the gauge on 
it. And yet there is not a man in the room who would run 
the wheel in that condition. Theree is not a point on that 
whel that you can put the gauge on. Some are slid fiat 
three-eighths deep; Mr. Waughop said he would not card it; 
but I want to say that we would give a card against the com- 
pany that would deliver it. 

Mr. Cressey: Before the vote is taken, I would like to 
appeal to you for a point of reason. That you can slide 
a wheel two and a half inches and it is condemned, the 
minimum by the M. C. B. Association, but our friend "Waug- 
hop says you can slide the wheel ninety-nine inches and 
not condemn the wheel. I ask you if it is consistent? 

The President: I will answer that, gentlemen. The chief 
inspector at St. Louis does not say that the wheel is not 
condemnable; but he does say that it is not cardable against 
the delivering company, and that is according to the rules. 

Mr. Ecker: Would not the receivinlg road be the judge 
of whether they would take that wheel or not? 

The President: They are; the law is there; they are the 
judge except as to the law. 

Mr. Riger: Who would be the judge as to the two and 
a half inch slide on the wheel? If the receiving roads accepts 
the car, it is responsible the same as if any accident should 
happen and the owner of that car is perfectly safe, it 
seems to me, anyway, if the owner of the car is all right. 

The President: I will state for your benefit that that is 
one of the idiosyncrasies put in there by the master car 

The President: All in favor of carding a car with slid 
flat wheels ninety-nine inches and not taking the gauge, will 
please raise their hands. 

Vote counted; nine votes for. 

The President: All not in favor of carding the car, raise 
their hands; ninety-nine against. 

Mr. Parks: Would it be in order to have this club ask 
the Master Car Builders' Association to amend that rule, to 
read: "Or if the spots are so numerous as to endanger the 

The President: I believe the association recommended 
that once before, and it was not received favorably. 

Mr. Sebring: Who would you charge the work to after 

The President: If it is a foreign car, going to the L. & N. 
say, in that condition, I would simply say you will transfer 
the car and let it go back to the place where it came from. 

Mr. Sebring: Suppose you run the car? 

The President: Wouldn't run it; if you did, it would be at 
your own risk; you run cars that way to somebody else. 

Mr. Sebring: Would we be justified in charging that car 
to the owner? 

The President: No, sir. 

Mr. Sebring: Is not that done? 

The President: I suppose it has been done where there 
is some sharp practices resorted to. 

Mr. Sebring: Isn't it almost always done? 

The President: I don't know; I am honest. 

Mr. Sebring: Well, say it has been slid for about six 
inches and both wheels worn out at the same time, it wants 
new wheels; I say there is a chance to be dishonest in that, 
and I would recommend that the association decide on that 
point, who it is chargeable to. 

The President: I will be honest enough to say to you, Mr. 
Sebring, and I say that under these rules I would rip up 
every railroad in the country, and I guess that every fore- 
man in the country could; but I won't. 

Gentlemen, the motion is lost. 

Mr. O'Brien: I would like to ascertain from the chairman 
what disposition he would make of it on behalf of the inter- 
mediate switching line? How would you dispose of it? 
Would you run the car? 

The President: Send the car back, providing they trans- 

Mr. O'Brien: Suppose he won't take it? 

The President: He will have to. 

Mr. O'Brien: Who will pay for it? 

The President: The man that gets the car. 

Mr. Stack: I think that point should be settled; if the 
company delivers it, it ought to pay for it, the one it was 
transferred against. 

Mr. O'Brien: I demand from the Chair and the representa- 
tion here a decision on that point; I have specified in the 
case if the intermediate road or switching line should happen 
to slide the wheel ninety-nine inches, how would the chief 
joint inspector dispose of the car in behalf of the switching 
line? I want a decision. 

The President: So far as St. Louis and East St. Louis 
is concerned, so far as the switching lines here are con- 
cerned, during the past twenty-three years I have been in 
the business, they have never been carded or condemned. 
They would simply have to accept or. refuse it, or run the 
car at their own expense. 

Mr. O'Brien: Who would repair it if necessary? 

The President: The receiving line if they run it — if they 
wished it repaired. 

Mr. O'Brien: Suppose they didn't? 

The President: The line that first delivered it to you, they 
repair and return it to you. 

Mr. O'Brien: The delivering line would be responsible? 

The President: The line delivering to you, yes, so far 
as you would be concerned. 

Mr. Julian: The wheels could not be condemned? 

The President: No, sir, they could not be condemned, so 
the switching road would not be responsible for the wheel; 
the ninety-nine inch flat does not take the gauge, and for 
that reason they cannot be refused by any road; they have 
got to take it. 

Mr. Stack: It is not slid flat — it is ,ninety ; nine inches 
and does not take the gauge. 

Mr. Clare: If A. roa„d offers to B. road a car that belongs 
to C. road with those spots so numerous that the wheel 
must be taken out, the B. road would not accept the car 
until tohse wheels or wheel is removed, and A. takes the 
wheel out; can A. make a bill against the car ow _ ners for the 
cost of the repairs? 

The President: He cannot unless he uses sharp prac- 

Mr. Clare: If it is the owner's defect? 

The President: No, sir. 

Mr. Clare: This it is the delivering company's defect. 

Mr. Julian: It is not a defect at all; or, rather, it is a 
defect, and not being cardable, it is not a defect. 

The President: Rule No. 4 says: "Defect cards shall 
not be required for defects for which the owners are responsi- 
ble, except for missing material on cars offered in inter- 
change, as provided for in Rules Nos. 2 7 and 3'9, neither 
shall they be required of the delivering road for improper 
repairs that were not made by it," etc. 

Rule No. 2 says: "Cars offered in interchange must be 
accepted if in safe and serviceable condition," etc. 

You cannot call for a card, consequently the car is not 

Mr. Tainey: Is the wheel safe? 

The receiving line is the sole judge and jury as to the 
fitness of a card offered in interchange to go forward over 
its line, and Rule No. 2 says it must be accepted if safe and 
serviceable and the receiving road to be the judge, then you 
can take the freight and return the car in the condition in 
which you received it, and that road in turn can deliver it to 
the party they received it from, and you in that way dispose 
of it the best that you can. 

The President: Rule No. 2 0. 

Mr. Stack: I suggest that that rule be read, as there are 
many interested. 

The President proceeds to read the rule in full. 

Mr. Stack: Rule No. 20 says one-eighth of an inch past 
the center of the flange; is it condemnable? 

The President: Yes, the center of a flange of a wheel 
means the roll of the wheel, the thickness of the wheel 
flange, not the length of it, the thickness. One and a half 
inches, whether it goes to the center or not, condemns it. 

Mr. Baker: I understand, if the chip is on the throat side 
of the flange and exceeds one and a .half inchejs, it is con- 
demned; it must exceed that extent, exceed one and one- 
half inches. 

One-half inch wide, or one-eighth inch past center; I 
believe that ought to be the word in there "Or" one-half inch 
wide to condemn; the chipped flange — "Or" one-half inch 
wide should be in there. 

The President: That suggestion has been made, but the 
arbitration committee does not concur in it. 

Rule No. 21. 

Rule No. 22. 

Rule No. 23. 

Rule No. 24. 

Rule No. 25. 

Rule No. 26. 

Rule No. 27. 

Rule No. 28. 

The President: Under Rule 28 considerable discussion 
has been made in these meetings, where a car is delivered 
in interchange with a defective axle or defective wheels, if 
it was necessary, particularly so where the car had a hot 



January, 1905. 

box or cut journal and cut brasses, and I hold that according 
to the rule a card is not necessary except for the defective 
parts, as the rule carries with it a charge for the price of 
the brasses, also the box bolt. 

Mr. Stark: The same way with a slid flat wheel, anything 
that the delivering company is responsible for. 

The President: It carries with it the price of bearing. 
Mr. Stark: I contend that he is wrong, that he has got 
no business to do it; he should issue the one card for a slid 
flat; that is the way I interpret the rules, the receiving 
company making the bill. 

Mr. Boutet: The Cincinnati man does not issue another 
card for two parts; if he don't, how is he to hold the com- 
pany responsible for it? 

The President: The people that do that don't understand 
the rule. 

Mr. Boutet: I beg your pardon, they would have to corre- 
spond to explain whether you card the car for a cut journal 
that carries with it two parts; we give the card and save the 
correspondence on the subject. 

The President: As I say, you should understand the rule. 
Mr. Skidmore: That is rather an accommodation at in- 
cinnati, the giving the two cards. We all understand the 
rules there the same as you do. That defect card issued for 
the cut journal carries with it the charge for the brasses. 
But to avoid any future correspondence, we ask the chief 
inspector there to give us another card, so that in rendering 
the bill we present that defect card with the bill for the 
brasses. We make a separate bill for the wheels altogether. 
They are not made in the same bill, and to avoid questions 
being asked about the car only. . - 

But the chief clerk of the car department when he looks 
up the matter, that is the chief inquirer, and finds that either 
card is gone, not because we don't understand the rules, be- 
cause we agree that if you have one defect card it is suf- 
ficient, and carries with it the average charge for the brasses 
as well as the wheels. 

The President: I will give credit to the superintendent 
of motive power that that question has not come up here 
from any road for the last five years. They know their busi- 
ness, and if you card twice in Cincinnati because it is nec- 
essary they don't know what that rule means and you ought 
to tell them. 

Mr. Stark: The reason I asked that question was when 
we have found these two cards, the one card just covers two 
brasses and I have asked why the other card and they have 
come back with the answer and say a card is demanded for 
the two brasses and an aditional card with another bill for 
the cut journal, probably. That was the point I was after. 
Mr. Taylor: Is it proper to card the car for brass 

The President: No, sir. 

Mr. Taylor: That is done at St. Louis right along. 
The President: Not by me. 

Mr. Taylor: But it is done under your jurisdiction. 
The President: No, that is under the instruction of the 

Mr. Burns: Under this same topic, as I understand it, 
delivering an owner's car home for the slid flat wheel, they 
are not required to furnish a card for the renewal of brasses, 
but if it is a foreign car, they can bill in anything that is 
required to make the necessary repairs. 
The President: Tes, sir. 

Mr. Malone: You say it is not necessary to make out a 
card for the brasses on burned brasses? 

The President: No, should be carded for the cut journal 

Mr. Skidmore: It does not carry with it any further 
responsibility, does it? It is all the same job. 

The President: Certainly, it carries with it the full price 
of the cost necessary to remove it. 

Mr. Skidmore: Well, the one card would carry the same 
responsibility; it is the same. 

The President: The point I make is, it is not necessary to 
card it: if it is not carded, it has the same effect as if it was. 
Mr. Skidmore: The only difference it would be to make a 
bill against the foreign cars for a wheel, but the cost is given 
in the bill separate; then on another bill, we make the change 
for a brass. 

The President: Don't you state in that bill why you put in 
the brasses? ■. 

Mr. Skidmore: No, we do not; just two brasses, say 20 
pounds, that is all that is shown in the bill: they nick up 
the bill for the foreign car, you have on that list, on the bill, 
paid for brasses, and they ask the question. 

The President: T think you could stop all further argu- 
ment if you would state for brasses removed, on the defect 
axle, etc.. and charsre it on the card. 

Mr. Skidmore: We are having complaints and that is the 
only reason, if the delivering lines do not choose to furnish 
defect cards, because they could contend that one card is' 

Mr. Stark: And that shows it is a bad policy, because the 
bill for the brasses might be duplicated. 

The President: A card for the journal bearings against 

the delivering company, before the arbitration committee, it 

would be the same as a bank check: should never be given 

except it has been done in a regular way, for rough usage. 

Mr. Howe: As I understand this now, the gentleman from 

Cincinnati gives an additional card, and in that case I should 
think that in his charge should carry with it the journal 
bearings and the journal box bolt; wouldn't there be a pos- 
sibility of a duplicate bill? 

The President: There is a possibility. 
The President: Rule No. 29. 

Mr. Stack: Under Rule No. 29, I would recommend that 
it be changed to read, "Also torn air hose;" torn air hose, 
as I understand the rules, is known as a defective part. 

The President: I don't think so; if you will read Rule 32 
you will see that point. 
Rule No. 30. 
Rule No. 31. 

Rule No. 32; that covers that point," Mr. Stack, in inter- 

Mr. Stack: Yes, but a car in transit? 
The President: You can charge to the owner. 
Mr. McCabe: Defective would cover it. 
Rule No. 33. 
Rule No. 34. 

Mr. Stack: I believe some of our Cincinnati friends could 
say something in regard to Rule No. 34; we had some dis- 
cussion at one of our meetings in regard to steam pipes. 
The President: I will entertain a motion to recommend 
to the arbitration committee to have steam pipes added to 
Rule No. 34. 

Mr. Skidmore: Should not also steam hose be added to it? 
The rule would then read, after "Signal pipes," "Steam hose 
pipes," or "Air brake pipes," etc. 

The President: All in favor of the motion w'ill say I; 
it is a vote and unanimous. 

Rule No. 35; there is a change in that rule. Side doors 
now become cardable in interchange; that is in conjunction 
with Rule No. 39; it has been added to the Rule this year. 
Mr. Dyer: Provided a car turned over on August 31st, 
say at Youngstown, with a side door missing; that same 
car arrives on September 1st with one side door missing; 
from the acceptance of the car at Youngstown, that side door 
is not cardable as a defect with the exception of the line 
which turns it over to the other line on September 1st, who 
has to account for the defect? 

The President: That is one of those unfortunate things 
that occur; it was the business of the receiving road to find 
out;, according to the rules I should repair the car and charge 
it to the owner; it is ignorance in overlooking the rule. 

Mr. Stack: Rule 35 says, say, for instance, a stock car, 
loaded, all well equipped with slats on the inside, the con- 
cealed part that is on the inside car, the inside part; is not 
taht car cardable? 

The President: Inside or concealed inside parts, slats or 
any other part of the inside of the stock cars; slats are the 

Mr. Boutet: They are discernible from the outside; the 
slats of a stock car at Cincinnati are treated as outside por- 
tions of the car as they can be seen. 

Mr. Stack: They are, some of them are, on the inside. 
The President: Those slats on the inside of the posts, yes; 
they are all on the inside of the car. 

Mr. Dyer: Is it not a part of the exterior, at least, when 
between the posts? 

The President: No, inside of the posts. 

Mr. Dyer: Then there is no part of the slats on the exte- 
rior of the car? 

Mr. Boutet: If you take them off of it you have got to 
treat the sides of the coal cars as parts of coal cars. 

The President: I don't agree with you; you can get up 
on them and look in on them. 

Mr. Stack: The way I interpret the rules here, they say: 
"inside or concealed parts." They are the inside or concealed 

Mr. Pearce: My friend here has taken up this question in 
the technical meaning of the word 'Inside" regarding the 
stock car. The slat of a stock car actually is more outside 
than inside of the car; it is part inside and part outside and 
is governed bv the majority, and the majority of the slat is 
outside, the filling parts of the walls of a stock car. The tech- 
nicality of it of what part of it. is inside the posts does not 
actually mean that it is the inside of the car, and the inter- 
pretation, as I understand it, is it is inside anything that is 
interior and not visible to the eye outside; all the slat is vis- 
ible to the eye outside, and therefore they are outside. 

The President: Supposing the car is loaded with stock; 
how are you going to see it from the outside? 

Mr. Boutet: Couldn't help seeing it from the outside. 
Mr. Brady: It says "inside or concealed." 
The President: The Rule says "Inside or concealed," it 
don't say "inside and concealed." 

Mr. Longdon: I think we ought to consider that as direc- 
tion, and not inside, but outside the car. 

Mr. Dyer: Now, get to the sense of this body, I would 
move that the stock car slats should be considered as exter- 
ior of the car. . 
Seconded by Mr. Boutet. 

The President: Practically the lining, or slats? 
Mr. Dyer: I meant to use the word "lininsr" when I used 
the word "slats," the word slats to be considered as exterior 
of the wall. 

The President: You have heard the motion, that all in- 
side slats on a stock car be considered as part of the outside. 

January, 1905. 



Mr. Dyer: All bory slats forming the walls of the car. 

Mr. Boutet: The motion that I seconded was that the 
slats of stock cars be considered as outside parts of the car. 

The President: I want you to tell me what you consider 
slats are. 

Mr. Skidmore: The slats are all and only on the inside of 
the posts of the car. 

Mr. O'Brien: Although inside, they are supposed to be a 
part above deck or superstructure constituting the wall of 
the car; forms a part of the car and part of the superstructure 
of the car. If on the other hand it was the slats concealed, 
concealed lining, to my mind it would be a different propo- 

Mr. McPherson: What are they going to do with a New 
England stock car; they have slats both inside and outside; 
they are slatted inside about three feet, and outside the rest 
of the way. 

The President: How about western cars built that way? 

Mr. McPherson: The same thing. 

Mr. Stack: The reason for constructing them that way is 
to protect the" cattle; they take the strain better and so very 
often they have double slats; other people for economy's 
sake make the slats on the inside, make a smooth surface 
next to the cattle. 

The President: The slats described here by this motion 
are all those cars built in the regular way, or with outside 
slats and are to count as inside slats on the inside of the 
posts; it does not apply to the car where the posts are visible 
and the inside slatting would then compose the outside slat- 
ting. What they are trying to get at, is where they are dou- 
ble slatted. 

Mr. Stack: In a car double slatted, none the less the inside 
slats would constitute a concealed part. 

Severay members: We concede that. 

The President: All in favor of the motion, calling cars , 
slatted on the inside of the posts, and no slats outside, as 
being exterior, parts will make it known by a show of the 
right hand. 1 

Contrary the same : It is a vote. 

Rule No. 36. 

Rule No. ?7. 

Rule No. 38. 

Rule No. 39. 

Rule No. 40. 

The President: On Rule No. 40 the question was brought 
up once in these meetings, I don't know how long ago, that 
there is not a road in the country living up to the Rules, be- 
cause they could not live up to them because they don't know 
what metal is in the Knuckles. 

Does anybody in the country condemn a car with malleable 
iron knuckles? Is there anybody in the country that knows 
that kind of knuckle when he sees it, on quick investigation. 

I think the discussion on that Rule once before brought out 
the fact taht it is a great American privilege of any railroad 
company to apply whatever kind of knuckles they like if they 
like, but that they must stand the consequences when they 
are delivered in interchange. 

Rule No. 41. 

Mr. Brady: Under this Rule, I would recommend to the 
Arbitration Committee that that Committee take up and con- 
sider that Rule and consider all matters in connection with 
making proper repairs. I would like the views of those 
men as to making repairs to metal brake beams. As I under- 
stand it, they remove the metal beam on account of a broken 
head or brake beam coupling and charge only for the piece 
defective. I would like to make that suggestion, that we sup- 
ply any beam that is suitable. I will make it as a motion 
that we can apply any brake beam that will properly fit the 

Motion duly seconded. 

The President: It is moved and seconded that any kind of 
metal brake beam that will properly fit the hanger must be 
accepted in lieu of the original metal brake beam removed. 

Mr. Baker: The proposition has already been turned down 
by the Arbitration Committee. 

Mr. Dyer: I know that the Railway Club made the same 
proposition and it was turned down. 

Mr. Stack: I would like to amend that motion to include 
brake rods. 

Mr. Boutet: We have got in standard brake rods. 

The President: Don't get too hard on that Committee; 
they are a little touchy. Any second? All in favor of the 
motion will say I. 

The President: It is unanimous in favor — except two; the 
recommendation will be made to the Arbitration Committee. 

The President: I would recommend on Rule 43, that a rec- 
ommendation be made to the Arbitration Committee, that 
they recommend to the Interstate Commerce Commission that 
where cars are offered for interchange with uncoupling at- 
tachments not operating, that no prejudice will be held 
against the receiving line, provided they place it on the repair 
track and repair the car. 

Mr. Boutet: I will make that as a motion.' 
Duly seconded by Mr. McCabe. 

On being put to vote, it was declared by the President duly 
carried unanimously. 
Rule No. 44. 

Mr. Boutet: There is a question I would like to ask the 
L. & N. man at St. Louis and East St. Louis: If he has one 

of his cars delivered to him with wrong repairs, does he 
hold the delivering line responsible for a card. 
Mr. Sebring: No, sir. 

Mr. Boutet: Did you ever have any correspondence with 
your Superintendent of Motive Power on that matter? 
Mr. Sebring: Not that I know of. 

Mr. Moutet: The Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
L. & N. insists on a card against the delivering line for 
wrong repairs. 

The President: The Superintendent of Motive Power ought 
to read the Rules. 

Mr. Sebring: There were some years ago, not of late 

Mr. Boutet: I only answered the correspondence for the 
last time last Tuesday. 

Mr. Sebring: I hold that years ago we were right in de- 
manding cards for repairs of that character; since then the 
Rule has been changed and I do not think we could now hold 
the delivering line under the Rule; the Rule is clear; they 
should put a repair card on it properly, but if they didn't do 
it, we could not demand it. 

The President: Particularly so from Cleveland and Cin- 
cinnati they do it. 

Mr. Stack: I think we all thoroughly understand that 
rule; if the repair card is there, it is authority for the bill; 
if without repair card, the joint evidence is all that the de- 
livering company can ask for. 

The President: Rule No. 45; here comes in Cleveland and 
Cincinnati; didn't put repair cards on. How many com- 
panies under Rule 45 live up to it? I will read it. 

"Rule No. 45. The Company making such improper repairs 
shall place upon the car, at the time and place the work 
is done, an M. C. B. defect card, which card shall state the 
wrong material used." 

The President: How many roads do that? Nobody ans- 
wers yes. 

Mr. Julian: I do. 
The President: The whole road? 
Mr. Julian: Yes, sir, the whole road. 
The President: Tou are entitled to credit. 
Mr. Sebring: Tou can't tell what is right and what is 
wrong. If it is right, it is not wrong and you let it go. 

Mr. Skidmore: We have endeavored to put them on, but 
I found out that we did not get them on in all cases. As our 
friend from St. Louis says, we don't always know whether 
the repairs are wrong or right. We make them as near right 
as possible, and what we believe to be right and when going 
home, they take exceptions to them and furnish joint evidence, 
and we furnish defect cards without question. 

Mr. Stack: Even without the application of defec* cards, 
I believe all roads to be honest enough to put repair cards on, 
and then if the owners find objection and that such repairs 
were improper, it would be willing to allow the authority 
necessary. If a man knew he was applying improper repairs, 
he wouldn't do it. He can only do what he thinks is proper. 
Rule No. 46. 
The President: I have something to say on the matter of 
combinations of defects, myself. 

Gentlemen, I wrote the heading of that Rule, which I will 
read: "Combinations of defects which denote unfair usage 
if caused at one and the same time and at the same end of 
the car." It was passed on by the Master Car Builders' con- 
vention and it was adopted as I wrote it, and I want to pay 
them my compliments by saying I don't know what it means. 
Mr. Skidmore: I understand that, defects which may be 
caused at one and the same time and at the same end of the 
car. I also understand that the Arbitration Committee have 
decided that if a car has defects that have existed for some 
time and the road handling the car has caused additional 
defects, which form a combination, the road having the car 
in their possession at the time are responsible. So I am like 
you, I don't understand the meaning of the Rule. 

Mr: Dyer: Or rather you understand it, but not as it reads. 
Mr. President: He understands it as it reads, but not as 
they interpret it. 

Mr. Baker: It was decided to mean different defects caused 
at the same time at the same place. 

The President: The Arbitration Committee does not hold 

Mr. Baker: They did so hold in one case, and that the de- 
fects were caused at one and the same time; there is one case 
on record. 

The President: I am going to ask the President of the 
Standing Committee on Interchange at St. Louis and East 
St. Louis, he is not a car man, he is a Superintendent — to 
state to this Association what he would think the meaning oi 
that heading was from a standpoint of an outsider. Mr. 
Ustick, I will read this and ask you that question. (Same 
read by the President). I will ask what idea that would 
convey to you. 

Mr. Ustick: I Understand that rule, Mr. President the 
same as the gentleman here, Mr. Skidmore, understands it 

The President: It might be well for someone to make a 
motion that this body of Chief Inspectors find that the Ar- 
bitration Committee don't understand the rule. I would con- 
sider that as a motion. 

Mr. O'Brien: Mr. Chairman, the Committee on Rules of 
the Central Association, are about to place before that body, 



January, 1905. 

and have already to a certain degree, a rule covering that 
point for the local conditions in St. Louis and East St. Louis, 
which would mean the interpretation of the rule laid down 
in the M. C. B. Rules, but not as designated by the Arbitra- 
tion Committee. The part of it reads this way: "Should the 
car be delivered defective and the line receiving the car did 
further damage, causing a combination, denoting unfair us- 
age, the receiving line will be responsible for the damage 
done by it." 

The President: I believe, Mr. O'Brein, that that rule can 
be made applicable to St. Louis or to any other joint point, 
so far as cars belonging to members is concerned; but on 
foreign cars, it would not fit by the interpretation of the Ar- 
bitration Committee. 

Mr. Boutet: I would move you that this Association rec- 
ommend to the Arbitration Committee that the Heading of 
the "Combination of defects' there be changed, or the rul- 
ings of the Arbitration Committee be made to conform with 
the heading of these articles. 

Motion duly seconded by Mr. Dyer. 

The President: You have heard the motion; all in favor 
say I, contrary, No; no one but Mr. Fred Baker, of Kansas 

Motion carried. 

Mr. Boutet: We have a letter from the Secretary of the 
Association that if you have a car on your line with two draft 
sills broken, and you run that car and break a third sill, or 
an end sill, you have a combination of defects that you are 
responsible for. 

Mr. Baker: I believe the Arbitration Committee ruled on 
that case that usually there was other damage at the same 
time. I have heard so that in one case they decided that the 
delivering company was not responsible if the defects were 
not caused at the same time. If it was, the delivering com- 
pany was responsible. 
Rule No. 47. 
Rule No. 48. 
Rule No. 49. 
Rule No. 50. 
Rule No. 51. 
Rule No. 52. 
Rule No. 5 3. 

Rule No. 5 4 is covered by that "Combinations." 
Mr. McPherson: If you will read Rule 51 in the 1903 and 
1904 Rules, you will find the difference there. 

The President: Only in the item which is supposed to be 
an obsolete thing now on account of that having been given 
up by the railroad companies. 

Mr. O'Brien: Rule No. 54, "Damaged corner and end 
posts, if necessitating the replacement of, or repairs to, more 
than two end or two corner posts at one end," etc. "We will 
consider a loaded car, post at the end; it is almost impossible 
for an Inspector, with that lead of probably lumber, to get to 
it account of that lead to determine how many posts are bro- 
ken. That can only be determined after the transfer of the 
car and unloading. Could it be possible that that defect had 
it occurred before and not discovered until the other defects 
were discovered, that that would form a combination? It is 
not visible. 

The President: Prom my standpoint in answering that 
question where an end of a car is broken out at the top, the 
entire end, I think it is proper to repair the car, and really 
that should carry with it, the broken end posts. 
Mr. Boutet, Vice President takes the chair. 
Mr. Stack: Sometimes it is impossible to determine that 
in time; in my opinion it should be, if the entire end is broken 
and the posts are all broken, that would cover it. The card 
would cover the 'entire end, and the posts too. 

Mr. Smith: In requesting information in regard to a card 
for an end pressing out, the acting president ruled that we 
should furnish defect cards on request for the entire ends, 
corner posts and sides. Just let us argue that and under- 
stand it. 

Mr. Boutet: I would rule that if there is more than two 
end or two corner posts — if the whole end of the car is 
broken out, the delivering line is responsible for all de- 
fects on that end, if it occurred that way, being more than 
was designated in the combination. 

Mr. Smith? And the defect card stated the end burst out? 
The Chairman: I believe the defect card to be made out 
properly should cover what actual defects there were on that 

Mr. Julian: How could you determine it on a loaded car, 
loaded with lumber? 

The Chairman: Inside or concealed parts? Why, I expect 
that car would be transferred, and after the car was trans- 
ferred there would be no trouble to determine what was 

Mr. Julian: If the car is not transferred, if they take the 
car to the end, and by braces allow it to go to its destina- 

The Chairman: Well, if I had a car passed to interchange 
and that car was run to a connecting point and was un- 
loaded and found in that condition, I believe I would be ob- 
liged to furnish a liability card or a card to the line that de- 
livered that car in that condition. 

Mr. Julian: I believe the end pushed out should cover 
the entire end of the car. Leave it to the honesty of the 
railroad companies; the railroad companies are not a gang 

of thieves. When they make repairs, if they find that the end 
posts are not broken, I don't think they would collect for 
the end posts, if they were not broken; I don't think the rail- 
roads would collect the full extent of the card if the posts 
were not broken. They would collect only the actual damage. 
I know the Union Pacific does not. If we find we have cards 
issued by other companies, that we can make repairs without 
covering the entire card, we simply go ahead and make the ' 
repair and charge them for the actual repairs made on the 
car. I believe Mr: President, that if the car burst out it should 
be carded in its entirety. 

Mr. Regan: As I understand Mr. Waughop, the impres- 
sion he has was this: If the man or the foreman who did the 
repairing found that the posts were broken; when he got his 
card calling for the end being broken out and if the post was 
not broken, no charge to be made. 

Mr. O'Brien: The point at issue in connection with an 
end burst out in a loaded car, particularly in interchange at 
a point like St. Louis and East St. Louis, where it passes three 
inspectors — that is, from the delivering line to the interme- 
diate and again from the intermediate to the receiving line 
and by the receiving line — the question is how would these 
three individual inspectors regard or card that car, if they 
attempted to designate as to the extent of the damages? 
Would it not be policy to regard the car, or card it, for end 
burst out? It seems to me that is the only relief. 

Mr. Malone: Mr. President, that might be all right for 
Mr. O'Brien here, but they do not all take that view; they 
all want to card the car. 

Mr. O'Brien: I will answer the gentleman by stating that 
we are not giving any more than others are asking. 

Mr. Bunting: I think that my friend over here covered 
that question; I think the end, the entire end, should be card- 
ed, and trust to the honesty of the Car Foreman when the 
bill is making out for the repairs, and to bill in for what ac- 
tual damage is done. 

Mr. Waughop: Where are you from? 
Mr. Bunting: From Cleveland, of course. (Laughter.) 
Mr. McCabe: You see the whole trouble is simply due to 
the fact that we have got a class of very intelligent inspectors 
our trouble is to get the other felows educated. Now, I take 
the stand that we ought to educate ourselves first. That is 
right, maybe. Now, when you come to handling with few 
men at an inspection point, a large number of cars, especially 
in the night time, there is very little time to talk matters 
over as to how much a car should be repaired or carded. 
When an indefinite card goes in to the Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power, on its face calling for an end burst out, and he 
takes that card and looks at the bill and he sees the bill does 
not cover the items all of them as indicated by the defect 
card, he wants to know why it did not cover the items that 
the bill should be made for. In Cleveland, I object to Car 
Inspectors carding for an end burst out, because it is an 
indefinite card. I will show you my reasons for that. We 
may get a car loaded with lumber and the end bulged out. 
We inspect the end of that car accordingly, if the end is 
bulged. We simply have to cut it out or let it go. If it comes 
back with all the posts burst out visible, we would consider 
the combination and it is a misfortune to the road that re- 
ceived the car. It is their misfortune. I have had cases 
where an end was bulged out; the car went East and came 
back, and if some other defects were not seen the car went 
on still and the end still bulged, and we may strip it and 
find all the end posts and corner posts burst. We do not 
strip cars in the ordinary inspection to inspect whether a com- 
bination exists. We are not going about the yard to see 
whether there is any combination concealed or not. If we 
can get to see it, then we are sure to card it: but we are not 
going to strip cars, interchange cars, if we can't see it. With 
a combination actually existing at the time and can be seen, 
then we will card it. That is my idea of it. 

Mr. O'Brien: Mr. McCabe I am afraid has devoted a good 
deal of time to bulged out and burst ends. That has been 
thoroughly discussed as to when it is not visible defects. We 
know all defects are not visible. And the question to be 
solved is when we designate it as a burst end, does not cover 
the defects when we find them. 

Mr. McCabe: For instance, you get the two end posts 
burst, that is not a combination. 
Mr. O'Brien: We don't know. 
Mr. McCabe: It is not. 

Mr. O'Brien: We can't tell, we can't remove the load and 
find out, and, therefore, the receiving line must be pro- 

Mr. McCabe: All right, we will protect the receiving line. 
You offer that car to the receiving line and give it the gen- 
eral inspection. Two end posts are visibly broken, the car 
loaded with lumber. You call my attention to it, and you 
say here is a car to run East or West as the ease may be. I 
say no, there is no combination there, but I do not consider 
that the thing is safe and you will have to make temporary 
repairs to make it safe. I inspect that car there and it is 
without combination. But if my judgment is poor and 
that car goes East and the whole thing gives out because my 
judgment was poor and did not cut it out; but I was a man 
representing the receiving company? Yes. And when they 
return the car to you, they are responsible for all the defects 
that existed? 

Mr. O'Brien: Possibly they will not return it to you. 

January, 1905. 



Mr. McCabe: But under the Rule they will have no right 
to with all the end posts broken and the corner posts, it is 
a combination. 

Mr. O'Brien: What rulings? 

Mr. McCabe: They had the right to reject it in the first 

Mr. O'Brien: Will — you hold — 

Mr. Boutet: I will call the two gentlemen out of order. I 
don't think any one person is allowed to speak more than 
fourteen times on any one subject. 

Mr. Julian: I move you Mr. President, that the end of a 
car burst out should be cardable for the entire end. 

Duly seconded by Mr. O'Brien. 

Mr.. Brook: Don't say "bursted" out. but "burst" out or 
burst end. Only a portion of it is damaged. 

Mr. Julian: I will make that as an amendment. 

Same concurred in by the second. 

Mr. Skidmore: I would seriously object to carding cars 
in that manner for this reason. In the first place an end 
burst out is "a car owner's defect and not cardable. Before 
carding the car there must exist the combination of defects 
and you must know that Ihey existed at the time you card 
the car, and not take it on supposition that the end is burst 
out and put a defect card on there and it goes to the other 
fellow, it may have rough handling and another end is burst 
out that is already covered by the defect cards. " 

Mr. Clare: I agree with Mr. Skidmore on that proposition. 

The Chairman: Gentlemen, I believe the motion is really 
out of order; the point made by Mr. Skidmore is well taken: 
the combination must exist before it becomes a cardable de- 
fect. It would be proper to make it where the end of the car 
was bursted out that the delivering line may receive the 
car with a combination if it exists. 

Mr. Brooks: I would like for Mr. Skidmore to give us a 
little illustration. 

Mr. Skidmore: The ends burst out are generally in cars 
loaded with lumber and in many cases entirely loose from 
the plate, from the jacket and there is no defects on that 
car except the parts burst loose from the end plates and the 
mortices in the end plates broken holding the end posts to 
it may be perfectly sound and in repairing that car it would 
be necessary probably to put in a new plate. If I put a de- 
fect card on that car for a new post, it is the evidence of an 
unfair using and the company repairing the new part which 
I had carded for a defect that the owners were responsible 
for at the time. 

Mr. Waughop: I move you, sir, that where a car is offered 
in interchange with an end pressed out and the indications are 
that a combination exists, that car should be received back 
by the delivering line with a combination, if such exists. 

Duly seconded. 

The Chairman states the motion. 

Mr. The only fault I find with this motion is it 
will bring about the establishing the law regarding what can- 
not be maintained at all points except in city deliveries. You 
see there is nothing in the M. C. -B. Rules in regard to that. 
There are two classes of defects under the rules, the de- 
fects of owners and delivering line defects. In order to keep 
track of any posts or other defects increasing in transit, we 
would be obliged to make records of owners defects that ex- 
isted at the itme we accepted the car. That is the only 
objection I have got to adopting the present motion. At 
Cleveland we do not make notation of . defect at all. Of 
course, if the oar is not for city delivery, we mark it for that 
delivery; if going out of the city, we card it. That is the only 
record we get. 

Mr. Brooks: I want in regard to making the amendment to 
the motion to state it was for this reason: I could not see the 
reason for arriving at the broken ends and, therefore, in 
the first plado, I consider the broken end due to shifting 
load, as unfair usage. Consequently as there was no solu- 
tion, I felt that the defect card given to the delivering line 
would be proper. 

Mr. Pearce: In regard to the end question, it is a little 
inedfinite to ray idea in the handling of a car. In the first 
place, here is a load of lumber shifts and out goes the end 
plate as my friend just said, with the mortice the side pjates 
split. Well, that end is not burst: it is practically stove out; 
it is true but very little time is required to repair that end. 
The side end and plate is practically intact. Now you back 
that car load back into its place, practically the owner's de- 
fect, but the end is not broken, you could not call the end 
broken. The only structural part is the mortice in the side 
plate and the bursted out, so far as I can see that is all. 

Mr. O'Brien: I consider that point well taken. You elim- 
inate the difference between the Inspectors at St. Louis and 
East St. Louis and other places. 

Rising vote on the motion being called: it resulted: favor- 
able 21; contrary 22, and the motion was, therefore, declared 

Rule No. 55. 

Mr. Waughop: Rule No^. 55 and the rest of the rules, 
principally, govern car foremen and chief clerks in the office 
in regard to charges, except Rule 115 on page 53. You will 
note a change in rule 115 they having added to it this year. 
I will read it: 

(The Chairman reads the rule). 

Do you understand the rule now, that the switching road 
can charge the owner for all those parts and that they are 

not cardable? It is so understood. 

Mr. Stack: In reference to billing, I received a bill from 
a road in St. Louis for two %-inch brasses used and no 
credit for scrap for the spoiled brasses on the car. The bill 
read no credit for scrap and I returned the bill #s not being 
correct under M. C. B rules. 

The President: What kind of a journal bearing did you 
have ? 

Mr. Stack: Malleable top. 

The President: You ought not to be allowed anything 
properly still the rudes allow you nine cents a pound. 

Mr. Stack: We allow it for returned brasses. 
The President: Is it not a filled brass? 

Mr. Stack: Yes. 

The President: You ought to have nine cents a pound for 
it. But properly you ought not to have anything for it, 
because it. is not worth anything. 

Mr. Clare: I would like to find out on what road they 
use that kind of brass. 

Mr. Stack: The Belleville Electric. 

The President: Gentlemen, 1 would like to introduce to 
you Mr. E. C. Baxter of the Chamber of Commerce of Cleve- 

Mr. Baxter in a very able speech invited the Association 
to Cleveland for its next convention. 

The President: Mr. Baxter, on behalf of the Association 
we thank you for your kind invitation. Our rules pro- 
vide that the selection of the next place of meeting- will be 
under the jurisdiction of the Executive Committee, and they 
will consider the proposition. 

Mr. Baxter: I thank you, Mr. President. 

The President: We will turn back to rule 85; who called 
it up? 

Mr. Stack: I did. 

The President proceeds to read rule 85, and says: "What 
is the point you wish to make, Mr. Stack? 

Mr. Stack: Is this applicable when offered in interchange? 

The President: It is when enrolled. 
* Mr. Stack: Is it in repairs not offered in interchange? 

The President: No, it is chargeable to the owner. 

Mr. Stack: Hangers also? 

The President: Yes, when broken. 

Mr. Stack: How is it if missing? 

The President: For the labor only. 

Mr. Stack: Where the shoe is, I think the hanger is. 

The President: There is no Rule that covers that. 

Mr. Skidmore: I beg to differ with you, Mr. President, in 
your decision, that only a labor charge can be made for a 
missing hanger. 

The President: Wait a minute until I read that rule again, 
and then you may change your opinion. 

The President then again reads Rule 85. 

Mr. Skidmore: Your interpretation of the rule is proper 
when the brake beam is missing; only a labor charge can 
then be made, as they are considered a part of the brake 
beam; but when a brake shoe is lost and the beam is on the 
car, it becomes an owner's defect and it is proper to charge 
for the brake shoe. The same applies to a brake hanger; there 
the broken or missing hanger is chargeable to the owner pro- 
viding the beam is intact. 

Mr. Dyer: I am also of the same opinion as Mr. Skidmore 
is in that respect. After the word "brake beams" there are 
some items mentioned as to what labor shall be charged 
for when the brake beam is missing. Then comes separate 
items on which labor only can be charged and in the sep- 
arate items "brake shoes, brake heads, key bolts, jaws and 
hangers." are not included. 

The President: I do not so read the rule. 

Mr. Dyer: And I therefore, look at it the same as Mr. 

Mr. Stack: Cars with hangers — 

The President: It has escaped me; what is your pleasure 
with it gentlemen? 

Mr. Stack: I make il as a motion that it be changed. 

Mr. Skidmore: I do not understand that this car offered in 
interchange is on the line of the road. We all know what ma- 
terial missing interchange is cardable against the delivering 
line, but the one in interchange is chargeable with the defect 
to the car accordingly when it is a defect. 

The President: That was not the Rule voted in this As- 
sociation we simply deliver them in interchange. 

Mr. Beckwitz: We have your decision "sphere it was offered 
in interchange. You decided that a brake hanger where it 
was missing in interchange was chargeable, and I say it is 
cardable if offered in interchange. 

Mr. Baker: The labor charge. 

Mr. Brooks: I say that it is perfectly proper to charge for 
the attendant fittings of the brake; if the brake beams are 
missing the hangers are probably missing, for the reason 
that it is generally presumed that if they are broken and 
missing, they are broken and removed by the trainmen. 

The President: I will call you back to Rule No. 27, page 
13 "Material missing from trucks of cars offered in inter- 
change," missing material, the delivering company is re- 

(Mr. Dyer: In speaking as I did on the subject I spoke as 
Mr. Skidmore did, because the question was one of repairs 
not of car interchange. 

Mr. Beckwitz: That is one of our complications; rate 



January, 1905. 

sheets are considered less in interchange and the cards are 
made as in rule 3. That is one of our complications, in my 
opinion, and I think that it is to be governed entirely by 
the Master Car Builder Rules. 

The President: That will likely come up in the new rules 
that are now promulgating. 

Mr. Stack: Your decision was on the new rule, and the 
brake hanger was not. That would mean the same ques- 
tion, that it was not chargeable, that the material was not 
chargeable; that was your decision. 

Mr. Baker: They are both out of order; they are mixing 
up St. Louis rules with Master Car Builders' rules; they don't 
apply here at all. 

Mr. Stack: I make a motion that the sense of this 
meeting is that Rule No. 8 5 governs the bill to car owners 
only for the labor of suppying the missing material; as stated 
in the rule here, in transit, and does not govern these items 
when missing- in interchange at all. We all thoroughly un- 
derstand that when these parts mentioned in Rule 8 5 are 
missing when offered in interchange, that they are cardable. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. Cressey. 

The President: All in favor of the motion say I; contrary, 
no. Gentlemen, the motion prevails. 

Mr. Boutet: "We have Mr. Treat, of Niagara Falls, here; 
he wants to offer some of the advantages of Niagara Falls 
for the next meeting. 

Mr. Treat in a very happy talk invited the association to 
Niagara Falls for its next convention. 

The President: Mr. Treat, on behalf of the association, I 
desire to thank you for your kind invitation. There is one 
little question that I would like to ask for the benefit of the 
executive committee: Does the Niagara Falls run all night? 

Mr. Treat: In this connection I may say that I have 
the invitation not only from the mayor, but our common 
council, passed a-s a special resolution backing up this invi- 
tation, and on that occasion it was decided that if you would 
come we would keep the Falls going all night. 

Mr. Regan:' As it is getting late, I make a motion that 
we proceed now with the election of officers. 

The President: I wish to state that I have an invitation 
here, for today, or tomorrow or any time that the members 
who wish to visit and inspect the Gould Car Heating Com- 
pany, in this building, from Mr. Stock. 

I move that the invitation be accepted and that it be 
included in the list and thanks given for the invitation, and 
I include in that list the National Malleable Iron Company. 

Upon being put to vote the motion was declared unan- 
imously adopted. 

Mr. Baker: I would like you to refer back to Rule 84, 
the joint evidence card. 

The President: We will consume ten minutes on that 
(President proceeds to read Rule 8 4.) The rule is out of 
order in this association; we don't handle it. The Car Fore- 
men may, but the chief joint inspectors don't. 

Mr. Baker: What do we do with the case of a car being 
delivered at some point without any card? 

The President: Refer that joint evidence back to the de- 
livering line. 

Mr. Baker: In case you can't locate that party? 

The President: You never can; you will have to take 
your own medicine. (Laughter.) 

Mr. Baker: Is it in keeping with this association to make 
some recommendation on that subject? 

The President: If you can, yes. ■ 

Mr. Baker: I will make a motion to that effect. 

Mr. McCabe: In speaking on that, there is one rule there 
that will help you out of your troubles. The rule says all 
this book has been gotten up, accepted and agreed to. You 
must take it as a whole; you cannot pick out one part and 
despise another. That is what I was speaking about this 
morning when I said some of the members were out of line. 
I am always willing to admit that I am wrong when I find 
I am wrong in speaking on this or that. Now in speaking 
about the repair card, gentlemen: It seems to be very im- 
portant that all foremen and inspectors should see to it that 
repair cards are put on. In Cleveland, when cars come in 
on any train with improper repairs and no repair card on 
there, we are simply put to sea and we cannot do anything-, 
but I tell you the square thing to do when cars are sent to 
the shops in your territory, hold that car up until repair 
cards are applied. We hold that car up and we call up the 
foreman that made the repairs and ask him why he has 
neglected to put a card on, and tell him that we want your 
repair card so we can check up. We compel them to put 
on the repair card, and if that repair card is not there on a 
foreign car, we hold it up and find out why it is not there. 
If everyone in this country who is handling cars will be 
interested in seeing to it that repair cards are applied, it 
will avoid very great delay to us all and make it easier for 
all. We will supose, for instance, that the L. & N. repairs 
a C. & O. car in their shop and the C. & O. inspectors or 
men representing them see that car go in the shop and 
they have a record of all the repairs that should be made, 
to check up by, and the car came out and was delivered back 
to the C. & 6. and the inspector understands the rules and 
declares that the repairs are not made as they should be and 
there is no repair card when you receive the bill there Is 

trouble. The rule says that those cards should be applied. 
You know it is a benefit to you and you should do it. You 
might think that you are putting some other fellow to the 
expense and that you are very clever, but the other fellow 
may be wise without your knowing it and may be doing the 
same thing to the fellow next to him. The honest way is 
to put on your repair cards; don't you think so? So the 
inspectors can check up and make an intelligent report of it. 

Mr. Boutet: I would recommend that this association rec- 
ommend to the arbitration committee that another line be 
inserted in the repair card subject that accompanies the 
bill that the foreman certifies that he had placed a repair 
card on the car at the time the repairs were made; and if 
not that the bill could not be collected. 

Duly seconded by Mr. Regan. 

Mr. O'Brien: If it was not possible to put on a card 
and then take it off again before reaching home would not 
that be done? 

The President: It would be, probably. You have heard 
the motion duly seconded. On being put to a vote it was 
declared carried. 

Mr. Dyer: I am perfectly satisfied that a repair card 
should be applied and would like to know whether Mr. Mc- 
Cabe, when they are offered in interchange for another com- 
pany or the repairs made by another company and then 
offeered to another company, I would like to ask whether 
he does not take that action? Or what he does? 

Mr. McCabe: I don'tu nderstand there is any compulsion 
and I agree upon that, but you will find it is your experience 
that the men under you do not do as they are told all the 
time. The foremen at Cleveland do, or have the intention to 
do that anyhow, and try to obey instructions; but they have 
men around the repair tracks that neglect the instructions 
and will let cars go without putting the repair cards on. 
In answering Mr. Dyer here, I will say we do not return 
the car to the shop but hold the car up and the inspector 
reports to our office and our office calls the foreman and 
tells him that there is no repair card applied to the car, with 
the demarid that the card be put on the car. They send us 
the card and we apply it to the car. As I said, you are 
supposed to give a foreign car the same inspection that you 
would your own. You understand that there are cases 
where the car comes in from a line and we can't hold the 
car up, but this is done in our own territory; we compel the 
furnishing of the card and hold that car up and see that 
the card is put on. 

Mr. Dyer: The only question is whether you would be 
justified in interchange and not be justified in refusing the 
car of the other company. Because the rules say "if in safe 
and serviceable condition" the receiving road ought to judge 
if it is under the provision of the rules. 

Mr. Riger: I move that the election of officers be pro- 
ceeded with. 

The President: The next order of business is nomination 
for officers. 

Mr. Cressey: Mr. President and Members of the Associa- 
tion: Some time ago I received a letter from a member of 
the association to the effect that as Mr. Waughop has served 
as president of the association for the past five years, and 
perhaps longer than that in a temporary organization, that 
he would refuse to accept the office for a further period of 
time; and in view of the fact, I would place in nomination a 
man who has served the association long and well and has 
been to all of our meetings and taken a very active part, and 
I place in nomination for president of the association for the 
ensuing year, Mr. Henry Boutet, of Cincinnati. (Applause 
and numerous members arise to second the nomination.) 

The President: Are there any further nominations? 

Mr. Dyer: I move the nominations close. 

The President: All in favor say I; it is carried; it is a 
motion. The secretary will cast the vote of the association. 

The Secretary: Mr. Boutet is elected president for the 
ensuing year, and until his successor is elected and installed. 

Mr. Boutet: I will state to the members that I thank you 
for your nomination and election. And I assure you that I 
will do everything in my power to make the association a 
success in every way as to being the success for ourselves in 
meeting and interchanging views and ideas. I do not feel 
that I am able to serve you as our past president has, for 
the majority of you have no idea what the exertion has been 
by the president we have had to carry on the association 
and keep it up and make a success of it so far as it has 
been. I think the success the association has made is all 
due to our president, and I move that we pass a vote of 
thanks to our president for his efforts in maintaining the 
association and bringing it up to an organization such as it 
has become, by a rising vote of thanks. 

(All present rise to their feet and express their apprecia- 
tion of the services of the retiring president, Charles W. 

Mr. Skidmore: Mr. President and Members of the Asso- 
ciation: I desire to place in nomination for vice-president 
of the Car Foremen and Chief Inspectors' Associations a 
gentlemen from the west, who is entirely fitted to fill the 
office, and that is none other than Mr. Cressey, from South 
Omaha. (Applause.) Several members seconded the nom- 
ination. , 

Duly moved and seconded that the nominations close. 

Being put to a vote it was unanimously declared carried. 

January, 1905. 



The President: Mr. Secretary, you will cast the ballot for 
Mr. William H. Cressey, of Omaha. He is now elected as 
vice-president for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Cressey: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I thank you 
very much for the honor you have conferred upon me and 
I will say that I think that if our president we have just 
elected serves as faithfully as president as he has done as 
vice-president, it will be unnecessary for me to take a very 
active part in the meetings. However, I will try to be 
present whenever possible. 

Mr. Boutet: Mr. President, I desire to rise to place in 
nomination a member who has served us faithfully also 
during our permanent and temporary organization, as sec- 
retary and treasurer, and he has never yet absconded with 
any of the our funds, but has went down into his own pocket 
for money when necessary, Mr. John McCabe, of Cleveland. 

Mr. McCabe: Mr. Chairman — 

The President: You are out of order. Duly moved and 
seconded that the nominations be closed. Duly carried 

Mr. McCabe: Should I have had the chance to speak, 
gentlemen, I say I am sincere when I tell you that I will 
do all I can for the association, but I presume the members 
of the joint inspectors will agree with me that while to you 
it may look simple, there is a good deal of work to do, and 
the joint inspector has not got a great deal of time in his 
office, and holding the position of secretary since the organ- 
ization of the association, I now believe in giving others a 
chance. I am honest in my convictions when I tell you so. 
I do not think I should be kept in this office. While I thank 
you in considering my name in connection with the office. 
I would honestly like to be relieved. I think the office ought 
to go around and give others a chance, to become familiar 
with the details. There is more correspondence than you 
imagine. Tou would be surprised to know how much cor- 
respondence there is all the time from inspectors and others 
all around the country demanding your time and \ courtesy, 
correspondence with the executive committee, and then re- 
plying, and as a rule there is a second reply immediately 
after, and to the president. So there is really more work 
than you imagine. While I thank you, gentlemen, for honor, 
yet I would be better pleased to havey ou select some- 
body else. 

The President: You are elected unanimously and you will 
have to serve. 

We have next two members of the executive committee to 
elect. You, gentlemen, understand the rules that the officers 
under the rules form part of that committee; the president, 
vice-president and secretary-treasurer form members of that 
board, and the ex-president chairman of the board. Two 
members outside of that are to be elected for the ensuing 

Mr. Dyer: I nominate Mr. Skidmore, of Cincinnati. 

The President: All in favor of the nomination say I. 

Mr. Boutet: I nominate Mr. Baker, of Kansas City. 

Mr. Taylor: I desire to nominate Mr. J. J. O'Brien. 

The President: Mr. Baker and Mr. O'Brien are placed 
in nomination Is there any other nominations? 

Duly moved and seconded that the nominations close. 

The President: You now have in nomination, gentlemen, 
Mr. Skidmore, of Cincinnati, of the Big Four; Mr. Baker, 
of Kansas City, and Mr. O'Brien, of St. Louis. Gentlemen, 
you will prepare your ballots by writing two names, either 
of Skidmore, Baker or O'Brien, and the two receiving the 
largest number of votes will be declared elected. Vote for 
two. Mr. Cressey and Mr. Boutet being appointed tellers. 

'f'he President: While they are collecting the ballots, gen- 

tlemen, I will state that we are due at the same place for 
a little luncheon at 6 o'clock sharp; you are all invited. At 
6:30 we will leave that place and go, all of us, to the Ken- 
sington Hotel, where the ladies will have an opportunity to 
brush their hair, etc., etc. We will then take the car from 
that point to the Odeon Theatre, at the Masonic Temple, 
Grand and Finney avenues, where we will have a little box 
party for you. 

The ballots for two members of the executive committee 
being collected and counted, resulted as follows: 

For Mr. Skidmore, 3 8 votes. 

For Mr. O'Brien, 27 votes. 

For Mr. Baker, 38 votes. 

The President: Gentlemen: By your ballot you have 
102 ballots cast, necessary to elect two receiving largest 
votes, by your ballots you have elected Mr. Skidmore and 
Mr. Baker. 

Mr. Skidmore: I am not a very great speechmaker, but 
owing to the remarks about lunch I will omit what speech 
I might otherwise make and simply say, I thank you very 
much for the honor. 

Mr. Baker: Mr. President and Gentlemen: 1 looked en- 
tirely upon Mr. Skidmore to do the honors in that respect, 
and I will also simply say I thank you. 

Mr. McCabe: I would like to say one word for myself 
personally, and from the city I come from. I would be glad 
to see the executive committee select Cleveland as their next 
place of meeting, and I would be very glad to meet the mem- 
bers from St. Louis and from other western points there at 
Cleveland, and I hope that if you feel disposed to do so, you 
will encourage your executive committee to select our city, 
and I will be in a position to better entertain than the last 
time you visited Cleveland. I hope you will come to Cleve- 

Mr. McCabe (continuing) : Personally and for the railroad 
men at Cleveland, but I speak particularly for myself, and 
I think Mr. 3unting, of Cleveland, is authorized to speak 
for the foremen — personally I extend to you a warm invita- 
tion and will be glad to meet you in Cleveland a year hence, 
and I will promise to do all I can to make the meeting a 
success and to make the proper arrangements for the meet- 
ing, and I hope you will encourage your executive commit- 
tee to select our city. 

Mr. Bunting: Mr. President and Gentlemen: I would be 
pleased to have you make your next meeting at Cleveland, 
as we have a foreman in Cleveland who will try to do the 
very best he can for you. 

The President: I would invite you again to St. Louis, but 
we don't have any more World's Fair there next year. 

Mr. Boutet: There is something else. A collection was 
taken here this morning for thep urpose of paying for a 
little token. 

Mr. President: On behalf of the Association of Chief Joint 
Inspectors and Railway Foreman of America, I desire to 
extend to you our sincerest good wishes both for yourself 
and your family's welfare, and for the good you have done 
the association, and as a slight token of respect and appre- 
ciation I desire to present you a slight token of our memory 
and trust that you will always keep it as bright as it is now. 
(Presents badge.) (Hearty applause.) 

The President: I ought to fall dead, oughtn't I? 

Gentlemen, I didn't expect this, really. Well, the only 
thing I can say in response is that I thank you all, and give 
you all my latest toast and that is: "God take you all — but 
not too soon." (Applause.) 

Mr. Skidmore: There are some who have not seen it. Put 
it on and let them all see it. 

Session adjourned at 6 p. m. 

■» • » 

Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest of 

CHARLE.S E. COPP &&& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (Sb M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

Paint Removers Versus Paint Burners 


There is an old saying that "fire is a good servant but a 
hard master," the truth of which has been most strikingly, 
or, I might say, most blaziugly, demonstrated to certain mem- 
bers of our association within the last few years, caused by 
the contact (strange to say) of the two principal agents used 
for removing paint and varnish— two agents that do not work 
in unison, but, on the contrary, are entirely at variance with 
each other so far as the question of harmony is concerned. 
T refer to varnish removers and the paint burner. 

An instance of recent occurrence is perhaps fresh within 
the memory of the members of the Master Car Painters' As- 
sociation, where a very costly conflagration resulted from 
the contact of the two agents mentioned above, as a result 
of w T hich the least harmful of the two agents was ruled out 
of the shop, and, I believe, off the entire road. There is al- 
ways danger of a conflagration where fire is carried openly 
about a building, and the danger is greatly increased in the 
paint shop, where the atmosphere is constantly impregnated 
with the combustible fumes and gases emitted from the 
various highly inflammable chemicals and liquids being con- 
stantly used in the various processes of cleaning and paint- 



January, 1905. 

ing. On account of a realization of this danger, it is ahvays 
a source of much concern to the master painter, who at times 
must, perforce, intrust the paint burner to careless hands. 

In view of the above mentioned objections to the open 
flame in the paint shop, why, I ask, should the car painting- 
fraternity continue to invite disastrous conflagrations by con- 
tinuing the use of the paint burner? Varnish removers have 
superseded the carpenter's scraper and the work is performed 
much cheaper and more satisfactorily. Why should not paint 
solvents displace the paint burner on the exteiior of our cars? 
The opinion has long been held by many painters that the 
use of solvents for removing paint from the exterior is not 
practical. This theory, or opinion, doubtless has its basis in 
the fact that paint removers of an encaustic nature had been 
tried, but penetrated the wood and proved disastrous to suc- 
ceeding coats of, paint, and varnish, and as it is said "it is the 
burnt child that is afraid of fire," such compounds apparently 
received a "black eye" for all time. But there are other 
solvents upon the market in the form of paint and varnish 
removers which will accomplish this work effectively and 
without menacing the succeeding coats of paint and varnish. 
Most any of the semi-pa site Varnish removers of a volatile 
nature will accomplish the desired end along this line. 

The writer has recently conducted experiments, and finds 
that the method is not only practical, but has the advantage 
over the torch that the work can be done by unskilled work- 
men, and may be done in the carpenter shop, or other places 
where is would not be wise or safe to use the torch. My 
method of procedure is to apply the semi-paste remover 
freely, then scrape off and wash the surface with the liquid 
remover. The writer fully realizes that the recommendation 
of such a radical departure is to invite opposing argument 
from some perhaps avIio have come up "through fire," so to 
speak.' Such argument is desired, as by that means the 
strong and weak points will be exposed, and if science has 
not already met the demands in this particular, it is more 
than probable that it will arise, equal to the occasion and 
give us something that will most effectively supersede the 
paint burner with its attendant dangers. Then with the 
steam heated and electric lighted paint shop, the master 
painter's cares by day will not only be greatly lessened, but 
his slumbers by night will not lie disturbed by dreams of 
the reddish hue. 


Among the Supply-Men 


Mr. Philbrick was born in Portsmouth, N. H., 1865, and 
graduated from Dartmouth College in the class of '89, intend- 
ing to make teaching his life-work and began with a school 
that year in Hoboken, N. J., when James T. Furber, former 
vice-president and general manager (now deceased) of the 
Boston & Maine R. R., to whom he was related, sent for him. 
to begin his career in railroad work and placed him as chief 
clerk in the purchasing department, which position he held 
for thirteen years when, in 1902, he resigned and formed a 
business connection with the A. Wheeler Company of Boston, 
Mass., the same being one of the oldest paint-houses in that 
city, Asahel Wheeler being its founder more than fifty years 
prior to his death several years ago. Mr. Philbrick attended 
the Atlantic City Convention as this firm's representative. 

Mr. Philbrick is very well known in sporting circles in 
Boston and vicinity, especially among bowling leagues. He 
is captain of the Calumet Club's bowling team and inventor 
of the New Boston candle pin, which is creating much inter- 
est and demand amongst lovers of this wholesome sport, and 
\s himself a skillful roller, close to if not actually holding 
the world's record. His picture has recently appeared in the 
Boston Herald and Boston Globe in connection with articles 
regarding bis bowling and his new pin. 

Frank W. Philbrick. 

Our associate, Eugene Laing, Foreman Painter of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad's Northern Centr/il shops at Elmira, N. Y., 
wrotes as follows, under date of Dec. 8, and encloses an 
obituary from a local paper: 

"I herein send you a notice of the death of the wife of 
Charley Wallace, Foreman Painter of the Erie shops at Sus- 
quehanna, Pa. They have both attended the conventions and 
I suppose he is a member. Wife and I attended the inter- 
ment liero at Elmira." 


Mrs. Annie Humphrey Wallace, wife of Charles R. Wallace, 
and a well-known former resident of this city, died at the 
family home in Susquehanna, Pa., Saturday morning at 7 
o'clock. There survives besides her husband, one daughter, 
Nellie, and one son, Frank, also one brother, G. W. Humphrey, 
of Reading, Minn., and one sister, Mrs. Eugene Fletcher, of 
Allentown Pa. The funeral will be held at the home in Sus- 
quehanna Wednesday morning at 10 o'clock. The body will 
be brought to this city Wednesday afternoon on Erie train 
No. 15, arriving here at 2:45 o'clock and will be taken di- 
rectly to Woodlawn cemetery, where burial will be made in 
the family plot. 

-*— -& 

Enamels and Varnish Colors 

Enamels, or varnish-colors can be safely employed to play 
an important part in putting through the passenger eqiup- 
m'ent of a railroad in its annual shopping for painting and 
varnishing if the mechanical officer and his master painter 
are thus minded. It is simply the question of putting on a 
coat of color and a coat of varnish, formerly two operations, 
at one operation; that is all. It has b:en done advantage- 
ously for year on car trucks and steps and has for some 
less' time, but with no less a degree of success been employed 
on the exteriors of turrets, or clere stories. It is also being 
used on the interiors of mail,, baggage and caboose cars. 

January, 1905. 



Now what is the matter with it for the exteriors of baggage, 
mail and milk ears which run on a passenger train? We 
mean the annual renovation of old cars; we are not now 
talking about any system of four-coat work from the wood, 
which was in vogue in the West some time ago. We believe 
in varnishing the letter-boards of such cars so long as they 
can be maintained in good shape (and they do not get dam- 
aged much) but for all below that— the sheathing, doors, etc., 
we think one good coat of a free-flowing, elastic, durable 
varnish-color for any road that paints its cars Pullman color, 
Tuscan red, or any dark color is all that is needed for most 
cars of this class. They may need some puttying with a 
putty made to nearly match the color and in some instances 
may need a foundation coat of paint. If gold lettering and 
numbers are used an enamel yellow, made to match the gold 
in color, may be employed. 

Well, says one, we stripe our baggage and mail cars with 
gold bands and so that method is not feasible. Better leave 
it off then. Baggage, mail and express cars that are being 
continually raked with barrows that are placed in too close 
proximity to them in loading and unloading are not fit sub- 
jects for striping; it is not economy to stripe them; it is 






M* ^flL* !»• !2HL* ^» 


Stencils by Warner Bailey, 


January, 190; 

doing mighty well to maintain anything like a presentable 
plain surface upon them, let alone striping. For this reason 
we believe in doing them plainly; and to this end a varnish 
color, or enamel, is just the thing for this class of car and 
will wear just as long as the clear varnish. While it is being 
applied on the exterior and the numbers, etc., replaced, the 
interior can be washed and painted if necessary, and your 
baggage car, or mail and 'express car, is not long a habitue 
of your shop, but when blacked off and the roof and plat- 
forms painted it is ready for service and away she goes just 
as good for another year's service as by former practice and 
painstaking effort. If prejudice can be set aside and a fair 
trial of this made, there can be but one conclusion and that 
will be to go ahead and do these cars in this way. What 
is the use to bestow so much labor and varnish upon a class 
of equipment that receives so much abuse? Why not instead 
make them durable and presentable to run on a passenger 
train and let them go at that? 

•» • » 

The Protection of Steel from Decay. 

In the discussion of the above subject in the Conventions 
of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters and elsewhere 
much. has been said, especially .with regard to the painting of 
steel cars, about various pigments for the purpose, as though 
that were all there is to the question of a protection against 
rust. The arguments have been made and the changes rung 
along the whole line of paint pigments, such as red lead, 
white lead, lampblack, Prince's Metallic, graphite, carbon, 
etc., but little or nothing has been said about the vehicle 
that they should be mixed with, as though this were a minor 
consideration, or of no consideration at all. Perhaps, how- 
ever, it has been taken for granted that — "why"— "of course" 
— "linseed oil is the proper vehicle; what else?" Well, now, 
right here hangs the tale that we are about to relate. If 
some of our readers are settled in that old rut that there is 
nothing that paint can be mixed with to stand the weather 
except linseed oil, especially as a protector of metals, steel 
for instance, and will not hear about anything else, they will 
have to be excused, it is to be supposed; but there are others 
who are of an investigative mind in piety, politics, pills and 
paint and do not take everything for granted that their grand- 
daddies have handed down to them, but want to know the 
whyfores, the what and the whence of this, that and the 
other. It is to this class that we love to talk on either of 
the above subjects beginning with "p." We will talk on the 
last one in the list this time, viz., paint. That the life of a 
paint depends upon something besides the pigment we are 
going to assert at the outset, Dr. Dudley's opinion to the 
contrary notwithstanding; especially is this the case in 9 
protective coat for a steel structure. Of course, we admit, 
that paints have to be constructed differently for various pur- 
poses and according to their several needs. A water-proof 
paint is not needed on interiors of buildings that do not leak; 
nor is it best to apply such a paint to Avood on the exterior 
that is subject to leakage on the interior, for in such a case 
blisters will be the result of water trying to get out to meet 
its bosom friend, the air. In this case a paint that will allow 
the moisture to exude through it somewhat, such as upon 
wooden freight cars, will prevent blistering and peeling. 
Not so, however, with steel cars. Here a water-proof paint 
is required. Are the pigments above referred to water-proof? 
That depends entirely upon what they are mixed with as a 
vehicle, and it is the purpose of this article to point the 
reader in the direction of selecting an oil that will be as 
near water-proof as can be obtained. That the best linseed 
oil is not water-proof— far from it— it is only necessary to 
conduct some tests to prove it: and these tests will reveal 
the nature of other oils as well, if the reader will procure 
samples and try them. We do not feel like naming some here 

on account of the "advertising" aspect of it, but, if desired, 
ean do so by private correspondence that which we would 
like to have tried; and we hereby recommend the Test Com- 
mittee of the M. C. & L, P. A. to take hold of this subject. It 
is plainly evident that if a paint upon steel allows water to 
go through it and attack the metal, rust must be the imme- 
diate result. And the same will be true of a locomotive tank 
that is filled with water warmer than the atmosphere without 
and sweating takes place from beneath the paint; rust pits 
will form and work their way out, no matter whose or what 
paint is used. But with the steel car a different problem fe 
met. Here the moisture from without is the most to be 
feared, to work its way through the paint to the metal. 

We would therefore suggest some tests to reveal the water- 
proof qualities of vehicles with Avhich to mix pigments for 
this purpose. We can name a specially treated linseed oil 
that is good, and we can also point the reader 'to another oil 
that possibly may prove better that contains no linseed oil 
whatever! That the day has come when chemists are finding 
something, not in the earth, but in what grows out of the 
earth, that will beat linseed oil as a preservative vehicle for 
a pigment for painting steel, we have no reason to doubt. 

Now there are various ways to test oil for their water- 
proofing qualities. We may suggest the following, among 

Take strips of sheet gelatine and stand them half way in 
the oils to be tested and take them out to drip and dry. Then 
stand them in water, but not quite up to where the oil came, 
and in twenty-four hours or so those not water-proof will 
swell up with the water that soaks the gelatine through the 
oil. Those coated with water-proof oils will not be so affected. 
Another way is to dissolve the gelatine and pour some in a 
puddle on as many pieces of glass as there are oils to be 
tested. When dry, submerge them* in water and those not 
water-proof will swell up like so many toads; and raw lin- 
seed oil will be "the biggest toad in the puddle"— as it always 
has been in the eye of the old painter. By the way, however, 
do not let the reader run away with the idea that Ave are 
condemning linseed oil by wholesale. Far from it. We only 
condemn its use for some purposes, while for others, such as 
for priming and under-coats in painting passenger cars when 
water-proof qualities cut no figure we give it the most un- 
qualified approval. But as a vehicle for pigments for paint- 
ing steel cars Ave believe it should be discarded, and the 
sooner the better. 

Other tests consist in taking dry pigments, such as dry 
Avhite lead and dry graphite, and mixing them with the vari- 
ous oils to be tested and paint the lead samples on glass and 
the graphite on pieces of sheet iron or steel and lay them 
flat on the shop roof exposed to the rain and weather; and in 
the course of time Fathers Time and Neptune will tell you 
something never dreamed of in your philosophy. We com- 
mend this subject to the attention of the Test Committee of 
the M. C. & L. P. A. for 1905 and to all others Avho wish to 
arrive at speedy and reliable results in this direction. We 
will furnish any other information desired by mail, if asked. 

•♦ « » 

Committee on Information. 


To the members of the M. C. & L. P. Association: Your 
committee on information desires to announce that it is ready 
to transact business. Requests for information on subjects 
related to car and locomotive painting may be addressed to 
any one of the undersigned: Committee— J. D. Wright, B. & 
O. R. R. (chairman), Mt. Clara Shops, Baltimore, Md.; W. 0. 
Quest, P. & L. E R. R., McKees Rocks, Pa.; J. G. Keil, 123 
Seabright avenue, Glenville, Ohio; F A. Gowe, F. P., Vandalia 
R. R. Shops, Terre Haute, Indiana; Geo. Schumpp, No. 641 E. 
Gray street, Louisville, Ky. 










JtJt ESTED <^J« 





on depots, way stations, section houses, shops, 
etc., gives greatest satisfaction and greatest economy. 
It is most satisfactory because it looks best for the 
longest time. It is most economical because it possesses 
maximum covering capacity and spreads 
with the greatest ease — saves the paint- 
er's time — and because it wears longest, 
putting off for the longest time the need of 

It will pay you to send for our "631" 
booklet, .which contains samples of the 
full line pf colors in which Standard 
Depot Paint is made. Write for it today. 

The Sherwin-Williams Co. 


























The Original Torsion-Proof Car Roof 

Asphalt Car Roofing 

Has a record of Eighteen Years of Success 








J AS. C. POND, Ocn. Pass. Agent 




January, 1905. 

Advisory Committee Meeting Notice. 

Boston, Dec. 22, 1904. 

The annual meeting of the Advisory Committee of the 
M. C. & L. P. Association will convene at the Imperial Hotel, 
New York City, Saturday, Feb. 25, 1905, at 10 a. m. 

A very cordial invitation is hereby extended to those mem- 
bers of the association who can attend. Also any suggestions 
ns to subjects for discussion at the next annual convention 
will be very thankfully received and duly appreciated by 
the committee. A. P. Dane, 


Notes and Comments. 

Here's wishing a happy new year to all, and the best con- 
vention at Cleveland that we ever had anywhere; also free 
transportation thrown in. Clink! 

♦-•-*■ , 

Apologies may not be out of place for the quantity and 
quality of the editor's work in this number. At the most im- 
portant time in its preparation he is in the throes of the 
"worst cold he ever had. Sneeze! 

♦ » » 

Amos Beatty, Altoona, Pa., who has been in the employ of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad as a painter for forty-four years, 
has retired on a pension. 

— ■♦ » » , 

When a man comes, in the forenoon after a night's booze, 
and gets into the wrong house, as one <Jid in the writer's 
some time ago, it needs some explaining to straighten things 
out. It is a good deal so with the top line of second column 
in "Notes and Comments" in our December issue. If the 
reader will carrjj, it down to near the bottom of the next 
paragraph after the words "Secretary McKeon," all is plain. 
. +-+*+ 

"Comrade" B. E. Miller of the D. L. & W. R. R. dropped 
down on us like a shower out of a clear sky on Tuesday, Nov. 
22. His Supt M. P. sent him out after some information on 
the subject of new shops and Concord was his objective point. 
He there learned from Mr. Bailey how the heating system in 
the paint shop works with the pipe-outlets for the hot air 
away above the roofs of the cars. We suspect that when 
these two flower and plant admirers got together at Mr. ' 
Bailey's house their tongues ran on a different subject. Come 

Regarding the subject of varnish-removing, it is not in 
accordance with usual shop practice, nevertheless varnish, 
old and much accumulated, can be successfully removed from 
natural wood finish by the aid of the flame and scraper and 
without any varnish remover at all, particularly upon plain 
surfaces, if the flame is properly manipulated without scorch- 
ing the wood. The interior sides of mahogany car sashes 
are thus being successfully treated at the same time that 
the exterior painted and grained sides are burned off with a 
quick flash and light heat from a well-controlled compressed 
air and gas jet. Try it and be convinced. It is much cheaper 
than any other process. 

To use a slang phrase, the Committee on Information are 
"on to their job." See their notice in another column. Mr. 
Wright evidently does not think it is right to have this com- 
mittee appear in the official records of our association as a 
mere piece of deacVwood; so for the first time in our history 
he is actually advertising for business. Noav if anyone in 
any trouble in the most perplexing business on earth does 
not avail himself of advice through this channel, whose 
fault is it? This is an important committee and they should 
be given enough to do. We do know that when we were on 
it we answered many inquiries. 

Speaking of "the material-saving paint sprayer," or the 
material-wasting, as you look at it, one general foreman Avas 
inquired of by the officials as they were being shown over 
the shops, and incidentally paint-spraying, if the operators 
did not inhale a good deal of paint. "Oh," he replied, "that's 
all right; they spit it right back in the pot." They had a 
great laugh. 


The "Overland Limited" trains of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul, running between Chicago and Omaha, will soon 
have added to their equipment a new design of observation 
car different in some ways from anything heretofore used. 
They are described at length aud illustrated Avith floor plan 
and two interior vieAvs in the "Railroad Gazette" for Decem- 
ber 9, 1904. We make a brief extract of the style of interior 
finish, as follows: The interior design and finish is artistic 
and pleasing, the treatment being in the neAV L'Art Noveau 
style. The AvoodAvork is St. Jago mahogany and is inlaid 
with marquetry designs. Many rare Avoods have been used 
in this ornamentation, including tulip, amaranth, saffron, 
olive, boxAvood, satinwood, English oak, AA'hite holly, prima 
A-era and cocobola. The carpets are /woven to a special de- 
sign to conform to the ornamentation of the car. The up- 
holstering in the observation room is frieze plush and in the 
smoking room Spanish effects in leather are used. All of the 
hardAvare lamps, etc., were specially designed for the car. 

■♦ ♦ » 

The Lehigh Valley R. R, has, we learn, changed the style 
of numbering and lettering its passenger equipment from the 
5-inch semi-black letters and numerals to 4-inch extended 
Roman letters and numerals. The Pullman scroll formerly 
used at the endfc of the single broad line drawn at the bot- 
tom of the car- has likewise been omitted. This latter change 
being directly in line Avith the abandonment of the scroll by 
the Pullman Company. In this connection Ave may state that 
the standard letter on the letter boards of B. & M. passenger 
cars is 6-inch Roman extended. There are two sizes of ex- 
tensions (both same height) to fit various lengths and classes 
of cars, tne shorter set being used chiefly on shorter baggaye. 
cars, mail and milk cars. Our own preference Avhen we 
struck out the new style some four years ago, when the 
Fitchburg Avas leased, was to make them 5Vo, like the Pull- 
man, but we thought that if we made a Roman letter to 
cover the height and general space of the semi-block our peo- 
ple could not object to it when submitted, and they did not. 

■♦♦ »• 

We hear that the Pullman Car Company has decided to 
abandon finishing their car sash in mahogany, paint- 
ing the sash instead Avith the regulation Pullman car 
body color; and the change is said to be satisfac- 
tory! Shades of— Pullman! Where Avill this company stop 
in its retrenchment of this character? We remember when 
their cars Avere decorated inside and outside to beat the 
bandwagon, and hoav they are becoming plainer and plainer. 
They have been painting their Avide vestibule side doors in 
Pullman color for some time, and the B. & M. is about fol- 
lowing suit in that respect, but as to the sash— well, Ave are 
hardly ready to follow in that just yet. Still, there is a 
good deal in getting used to a thing; and what will do for 
the Pullman parlor cars ought to do for any road over which 
they run by contract. Years ago the B. & M. abandoned 
maintaining its deck sash in mahogany color, also its passen- 
ger car end-doors, and paints them in its car-body color 
which is Pullman color. We think this a most sensible move 
and would be loth to go back to the former practice. And it 
may seem just as reasonable to do the body sash in this way, 
once it is started. 

February, 1905. 



Established 1878 


Published by the 

Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 503 The Plymouth Building, 
305 Dearborn Street, Chicago 



Harrison 3357 
Automatic 7357 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Cran- 
dall Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the tenth of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent. 

Vol. XXIX. 


No. 2. 


Editorial 47 

Mr. C. L. Bretz, General Manager C. & P. R. R. Co 48* 

New Roundhouse of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
at Elkhart Ind 49* 

Device for Regulating the Braking Power of Cars 52* 

New Shops of the Pere Marquette R. R. at Grand Rapids 

Mich 54* 

Interurban Electric Traction System Alternating Current 

vs. Direct Current 59* 

Trailing Trucks 65* 

Railroad Transportation at the World's Fair 65 

Device for Centering and Boring Driving Wheel Boxes . . . .66* 

The Employment and Preparation of Firemen 67 

Railway Mechanical Training as Viewed by a Technical 

Graduate 71 

Personals 71 

Taps and Dies 72* 

The "R. A." or 'Ajax" Vestibule Diaphragms 72 

Notes of the Month 73 

Paint Department .74 

Railway Mechanical Index— Advertising, pages. .. .20-22-24-25 

A RECENT visit to a new shop under construc- 
tion disclosed the fact that large chimneys were 
under construction. This was rather a surprise, as the 
old shop of the road, which is located quite near, had 

a system of mechanical draft which had been pointed 
out on a number of occasions as very efficient. 

It seems that the chimney has the advantage over 
mechanical draft when the question of operation is 
taken into consideration, while the first cost may be 
considered high. In one plant of 1,800 horse power 
the three steel chimneys cost $6,000. Allowing 8^2 
per cent per year for interest, insurance, taxes and re- 
pairs the running expenses per year would be a little 
over $500. The first cost of putting in mechanical 
draft apparatus in the same plant would amount to 
about $3,000. The operating expenses per year would 
be about $680, to which would be added 10 per cent 
of the first cost for depreciation, interest, insurance 
and taxes, making a total of $980 per year for the 
operating expenses of the mechanical draft system. 

The chimney system apparently has the advantage 
in cost of operation, yet there are some other advant- 
ages in favor of the fan system. The chimney de- 
pends for its operation upon the maintainance of a tem- 
perature difference between the external air and the 
products of combustion. This loss can not be elimin- 
ated except by the substitution of artificial draft. With 
mechanical draft a large percentage of the heat is saved 
which would otherwise be taken up in inducing a draft 
in the chimney. 

A very good use of mechanical draft is to force the 
boilers when the demand for steam falls below their 
capacity. This frequently saves putting in several 
boilers and appears to be the best use for the system. 

INCLUDED in this issue we are publishing a de- 
scription of the Elkhart round house of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. One of the 
interesting features of this plant is that there are two 
separate houses, one for freight engines and one for 
passenger engines. There are two inbound and one 
outbound tracks for the freight house and two in- 
bound and one outbound track for the passenger 
house with ample cinder pits for all emergencies. 
This will prevent engines being stalled in getting 
them into the house. 

The houses have provision for future growth of 
engines, as the turn-tables are 85 ft. and the houses 
90 ft. long. 

One of the features of particular interest is the de- 
sign of roof and smoke jacks. The roof has its high- 
est point at the smoke jack and is 45 ft. high at this 
point. This leaves a large volume for smoke and 
gases in case that there is an exceptionally large 
amount present. The smoke jacks are 12 ft. long and 
about 6 ft. wide at the bottom, tapering towards the 
top. On the top is a large bonnet to prevent rain and 
snow from entering. The sheathing is on the outside 
of the studding, while below it is on the inside. This 
leaves an opening for gases to pass from the room into 
the jack. 



February, 1905. 

Another feature of interest is the tunnels leading 
from the power house around the outer edge of both 
houses. These are of sufficient size to carry all the 
piping needed in the system of heating and washing 
boilers, making them accessible for repairs at any 

The system of boiler washing has been worked out 
very carefully and will be explained in another issue 
so as to get more accurate data on its work. In a 
preliminary test a boiler was washed out in one hour 
and fifty-three minutes, including the dumping of fire 
and getting out on the 
table with sixty-five 
pounds of steam. The 
test was as follows : 
Dumped fire at 9:45, 
engine in house at 9:50, 
started blowing off at 
9:55, steam and water 
blown off at 10:27, 
plugs removed at 10 138, 
started .washing at 
10:40, completed wash- 
ing at 11:17, engine on 
turntable with sixty-five 
lbs. of steam at 11:38. 

When this test was 
made all the machinery 
was new, and the men 
not any too familiar 
with the operation of 
the system. With the 
description of the wash- 
ing out system we ex- 
pect to have a number 
of tests which show up 
better than the prelim- 
inary one. 

•» « » 




C. L. Beetz. 


locomotive engi- 
neers of this country re- 
ceived their early train- 
ing as firemen, even :f 
not on the same railroad 
on which they are at 
present employed. As 
many firemen come 

from minor positions in the roundhouse or shops, it is im- 
portant that the employing of firemen and shopmen and 
their training after suitable men are employed should re- 
ceive all due consideration. A great many points of Another point in connection with this system is that 

men employed should be temperate, healthy, with an 
education of at least the eighth grade. Exception was 
taken to not employing men that were financially em- 
barrassed at the time. The author of the paper con- 
tended that they are a roving class that will not stay 
after they get started and that they usually got dis- 
couraged before they were very far along. A number 
of engineers insisted that some of their best firemen 
had been men that had started work without capital. 
The experience obtained in working in a roundhouse 
or at the cinder pits is undoubtedly invaluable to the 

fireman in his future 
work. It teaches him 
the effects of poor fir- 
ing as seen after the 
engine comes in the 
house, besides learning 
how to clean ashpans. 
A course of study 
was outlined in which 
the fireman has to pass 
three examinations be- 
fore he receives his pro- 
motion to the right side 
of the cab. This sys- 
tem has proved very 
successful in that the 
fireman learns why he 
does certain things and 
teaches him to study 
his machine, with the 
result that he gets more 
work out of it with less 
fuel. It makes him a 
future engineer who 
can guide his fireman 
and raise him to a 
higher efficiency. 

Another excellent way 
of selecting the pros- 
pective firemen is to 
have then: serve as 
brakemen previous to 
their becoming fire- 
men. The head -brake- 
man becomes familiar 
with the operation of 
the locomotive, being 
called upon frequently to help the fireman. He knows 
all the signals and does not require any instructing 
when he is called upon to enter the duties of firing. 

Mr. Bretz was born on March 28, 1847. He entered railway service fin" 1868 as tele- 
graph operator of the Pennsylvania Eailroad. Since then he has been consecutively 
train dispatcher and train master of the same road. On April I, 1888. he was appointed 
general manager of the West Virginia Central 4 Pittsburg By. Mr. Bretz was ap- 
pointed general manager of the Cumberland & Pennsylvania Bailroad Company last 

interest in connection with this were brought out at 
a recent meeting of the Western Railway Club. 

Several methods of employing firemen were dis- 
cussed. The one brought out in the original paper 
was that the master mechanic of the division should be 
the employing officer. He should keep in touch with 
all applicants, keeping them advised when they may 
be expected to be called upon for their services. This 

the transportation department employs more brakemen 
so that a rush call for twenty-five or more firemen can 
be easily filled without crippling any department. 

It was pointed out that the best fireman is one that 
uses his head. If brawn and brains could be combined 
it was the best combination, but if there was to be a 
choice, that the small man using his head would be the 
better man. Or as one remark was made, "The saving 

would keep a list of men ready for an emergency. The of coal should be at the wooden end of the scoop." 


New Roundhouse of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway 

at Elkhart, Ind. 

HE Lake Shore & Michigan Southern have 
completed their new roundhouse at Elk- 
hart, which is one of the most up-to-date 
plants for handling engines at terminals. 
The buildings are located south of the 
main tracks and a little west of the depot. 
The freight yards are located west of the 

There are two separate roundhouses, one 
for passenger and one for freight engines. Each is 
served by an 85-foot electric turntable. The buildings 

are of similar construction and connected by a ma- 
chine shop. The outside diameters are 202 feet, and 
the inside in feet 6 inches. The freight-house is 
divided into five parts, and the passenger into two 
by 12-inch brick fire walls. 

The foundations are constructed of concrete and the 
outer walls of brick. Between the doors are cast 
iron pillars, to support the roof trusses and doors. 
The outer wall is well provided with windows. The 
roof is supported on the outer and inner walls and 
two intermediate posts. 

Fig. 1 — General View of the New Roundhouse of the L. S. & M. S. Ry., at Elkhart, Ind. 


Fig. 2 — Cross Section of the New Roundhouse of the L. S. & M. S. Ry., at Elkhart, Ind. 



February, 1905. 

Fig. 3 — General Layout of the New Roundhouse of 
the L. S. & M. S. Ry., at Elkhart, Ind. 

The roof of the houses is of particular interest. 
The construction is of wood with tar paper covering. 
The highest point is at the smoke-jacks and above the 
front end of the locomotive. The smoke-jacks are 
constructed of wood, with an opening twelve feet long 
at the base. This makes it practically impossible to 
miss the jack with an engine. Ventilators are pro- 
vided around the outside of the jacks. With this form 

of jack and roof there is very little chance for the 
collection of gases or smoke. 

The floor has a cinder foundation with planks on 
top. The cracks are filled with asphalt to prevent the 
accumulation of water. 

There are 34 pits in the freight-house and 16 in the 
passenger. These are 63 feet long and extend to with- 
in 14 feet of the outer wall. They are constructed of 
concrete with a special cast iron top for fastening the 

Fig. 4— View of Power House at Elkhart Round- Fig 5 _Onder Pit, Elkhart Roundhouse. 


February, 1905. 



Fig. 6 — Coaling Station and Sand House, Elkhart 


rails. The depth is 2 feet 3 inches at one end and 2 
feet 11 inches at the other. The distance from center 
to center of tracks is 13 feet at the door. There are 
three drop pits for driving wheels and three for truck 
wheels in each house. 

The building conecting the two houses contains a 
machine shop, store room, oil room, bunk room, toilet 
and lounging rooms. 

The office is located at the west end of the freight 

Fig. 8 — Interior View, Showing Windows in Outer 

Wall and Bottom of Jack, Elkhart 


house, making it easily accessible from all points. 

The power house is located a little east of the ma- 
chine shop. This contains the boilers, pumps, feed 
water heater, etc. It is connected to the engine houses 
by means of tunnels, which extend along the outer 
walls of the houses to carry the piping. The coal 'and 
cinder storage is in an annex to the power house. The 
coal is brought into the annex on an elevated track 
and dropped into the bins through the bottom of the 
cars. The cinders are elevated by means of an air 
hoist and dropped into a bin above the coal bins, 
where they can be loaded into the empty coal cars by 



Fig. 7— Ash Handling Apparatus in Power House, Fig. 9 — Cross Section of Power House, Elkhart 
Elkhart Roundhouse. Roundhouse. 



February, 1905. 

opening the bottom of the hopper, which is operated 
by air. 

There are two sets of cinder pits for the freight 
house and one set for the passenger house. The cin- 
der pits for outgoing engines in the freight house are 
short ones, and are used only in case there is a collec- 
tion of cinders in the ash pan while standing in the 
house. There is a depressed track between the pits 
for the cinder car. This allows cinders to be loaded 
without any elevating mechanism. The construction 
is of concrete. 

The coal chutes and sand supply are in one build- 

ing, west of the roundhouses. Coal can be taken on 
six tracks. The coal is elevated by link belt ma- 
chinery, and scales are provided for weighing before 
it is put in the tender. 

Water hydrants are located between the cinder pits 
and coal chutes. These are so situated that water 
can be taken from any track leading to the round- 

In our next issue we will have a description of the 
lighting, heating, boiler-washing system and some 
more of the details of the buildings. 

■» « » 

Device for Regulating the Braking Power of Cars 

HE accompanying illustrations show a 
method of equalizing the braking power 
applied to the wheels of a car by the 
weight of the car body and the retarding 
force of such braking power; or, to ex- 
press it in another way, this device regu- 
lates the retarding force applied to the 
wheels and allows it at no time to exceed 
a certain proportion of the weight of the 
car on the rails. 

To accomplish this the original braking power is 

figured much in excess of what would with the pres- 
ent device be safe. Any standard brake beam (A), 
figures 1 and 2, is suspended in the usual way by 
hangers B, which in turn are connected to lugs C on 
cross-heads D and E. Cross-heads D and E are held 
in position on truck bolster F by guides G and H, 
which in this case are riveted to bolster F, and which 
permit cross-heads D and E to move only in a verti- 
cal plane. 

Guides G in addition to being guides of cross-heads 
D and E also form so-called inside column guides, 
which limit the lateral motion of truck bolster F. 
There are two cross-heads (D) and two cross-heads 
(E) to every four-wheel truck. One cross-head (D) 
is located directly inside of brake head on one wheel, 
and one cross-head (E) is located in the same way 
on the other wheel on the same axle, and both on the 
same side of bolster F. This same arrangement is 
applied on the other side of bolster F. 

Cross-heads D and E have each a pin (I) which 
engages levers J and K. Levers J and K are identi- 
cal, except they are reversed when applied. The de- 
tail of lever J, shown in figure 3, will help to make 
clear their construction. 

There is a set of levers (J and K) on each side of 
bolster F. (See Fig. 1.) To truck bolster F in this 
case, is riveted fulcrum L, which engages levers J 
and K on the longitudinal center line of the car. On 
levers J and K are lugs M and N respectively, to which 
shoes O are attached. Shoes O each pass over truck 

Fig. 1 — Device for Regulating the Braking Power 

of Cars. 

Fig. 2 — Device for Regulating the Braking Power 

of Cars. 

February, 1905. 



bolster F and engage the lugs M and N on the levers 
on the other side of truck bolster F. (See Fig. 1.) 

Shoes O have each a lug T (see Fig. i) extending 
down on the longitudinal center line of truck bolster 
F. This center lug T engages two lugs U, in this 

Fig. 3 — Device for Regulating the Braking Power 

of Cars. 

case riveted "to truck bolster F, which permit of no 
lateral movement of shoes O and levers J and K in- 
dependent of the truck bolster. 

In substance, then, these lugs U engaging lug T 
on shoe O compel shoe O to slide on bottom of bol- 
ster P, just as the lower side bearings act on the up- 
per ones. This is done to make the levers J and K 
really a part of truck bolster F and avoid any twist- 
ing of levers J and K due to the changing position 
between the body bolster P and truck bolster F when 
car is rounding curves. 

The upper side, or the top of shoes O, also engages 
in this case, body bolster P. Levers J and K are so- 
applied to fulcrum L that the slot on lever J, which 
engages pin I on cross-head D, extends down with 
only its upper end in contact with pin I ; and lever K, 
therefore, being just the reverse, its slot extends up- 
ward and has only the lower end in contact with pin 
I. This arrangement of levers only applies to cross- 
head D on the left of Fig. 2. As for cross-head E on 
the right of Fig. 2, the arrangement of the levers is 
just the reverse. Here the slot on lever J extends up 
and has its lower end in contact with pin I of cross- 
head E, while the slot of lever K extends down with 
the upper end against pin I of cross-head E. 

It is evident that when the brakes are applied, the 
force exerted (which tends to pull the brake beam 
in the direction of the revolving wheel, and which 
force is the co-efficient of friction multiplied by the 
pressure against the wheel) will pull or push on 
hangers B, and communicate the same motion to 
cross-heads D and E. 

Let us suppose the revolving wheel as pulling down 
on hangers B, the cross-head D then will move down 
and, through pin I, will engage lever K on the left 
in Fig. 2, and the cross-head E on the right in Fig. 
2 will for the same reason move down and engage 
lever J. It is plain to be seen that through the move- 
ment down of lever K, lug N being on the other side 
of fulcrum L, will tend to raise shoe O on the right 
side of Fig. 2, while the lever J through lug M will 
raise shoe O on the left side of Fig. 2. 

Let us suppose the revolving wheel pushes up on 
hangers B. Cross-head D, then, through the medium 
of pin I, will raise lever J and tend to raise shoe O 
through lug M on the left of Fig. 2, while cross-head 
E will do the same with lever K, lug N and shoe O 
on the right of Fig. 2. 

As has been said, shoes O are in contact with the 
body center plate, or body bolster P, and any move- 
ment of the levers through the movement of cross- 
heads D and E, either up or down, will tend to raise 
body bolster P, providing the power applied on cross- 
heads D and E is sufficient to overcome the weight of 
the body of the car and separate the body and truck 
center plates. 

This cannot happen except when an excessive brak- 
ing power has been applied to the car, or more re- 
tarding force applied to the wheels than the weight 
on the rails will permit. 

Valve body Q is attached to bolster P, and valve 
R in Fig. 4 is unseated by the raising of body bolster 
center plate P from the center plate of truck bolster 
F by the yoke S and rod T, which rod (T) is attached 
to truck bolster F. 

The brake cylinder pressure enters below valve R 
in valve body Q, through a pipe from the brake cyl- 
inder to valve body Q, so valve body Q is always 
charged with brake cylinder pressure. 

When valve R, Fig. 4, is unseated, the brake cylin- 
der pressure is reduced by exhausting the excessive 
brake cylinder pressure to the atmosphere, until valve 
R closes, which will occur when the retarding force 
on the wheels has been reduced to the pre-determined 
proportion of the weight of the car on the rail. 

When the body bolster center plate P has been 
raised a certain distance from the truck bolster cen- 
ter plate F, a distance sufficient to exhaust the air 
from the brake cylinder to the atmosphere by unseat- 
ing the valve R, levers J and K lock themselves about 
pin I of cross-heads D and E, so no difficulty may 
be experienced from the severe application of hand 
brakes, or if from any cause whatever, the reduction 
in the retarding force as applied to the wheels should 
not be realized. 

The locking feature of the levers can be explained 

Fig. 4 — Device for Regulating the Braking Power 

of Cars. 



February, 1905. 

in this way: When cross-head D pulls down on the 
left end of lever K, it is evident that the other end of 
lever K will go up, and each end will travel in oppo- 
site directions one-half the length of slots minus the 
diameter of pin I. Cross-head E will then pull down 
on the right end of lever J, and in the same manner 
the left end of lever J will go up and again each end 
of lever J will travel in opposite directions one-half 
the length of the slots minus the diameter of pin I. 

We have, then, the left ends of levers J and K each 
traveling in opposite directions half the distance of 
the slots minus the diameter of pin I on cross-head 
D, which of necessity makes them lock, and since 
both sides act simultaneously we have both ends of 
both levers locked after they have separated the cen- 
ter plates enough to unseat valve R and reduce the 
excessive cylinder pressure. 

The car can be equipped with a braking power fig- 
ured as heretofore, in excess of its light weight, so 
that it will be a proper proportion to the loaded car. 
For instance, if a car is loaded to its full capacity with 
a braking power proportional to its loaded weight, 
the levers J and K will not have power enough to 
raise the body from the truck and all the braking 
power will be realized. But when that car is empty, 
the retarding force applied to the wheels will, through 
levers J and K, raise the car from the truck, unseat 
the valve R, and exhaust the excessive pressure when 
the body of the car will return to its natural position 
and exhaust from the brake- cylinder will cease, and 
there will be applied to the empty car all the retard- 
ing force the weight on the rails will permit. 

The high speed feature of this device should not 
be overlooked. It is an established fact that the co- 
efficient of friction between the wheel and the shoe 
of brake beam A reduces as the speed increases, and 
that the co-efficient between wheel and rail is not 

materially affected by the speed of the car. With this 
in mind, it is evident that with the old methods of 
braking, there was no increase in braking power for 
an increase in speed, but really a reduction in retard- 
ing force when running at a high speed. While with 
this device the original braking power, as figured, 
can be much greater than a car with an ordinary 
braking device would allow at slow speeds. 

It is evident that where this device is applied, a 
certain co-efficient of friction must be attained be- 
fore an automatic reduction in cylinder pressure 

Let us suppose the train equipped with this device 
is running at 60 miles an hour, and the retarding force 
exerted on the wheels is jtist enough to cause a max- 
imum safe reduction in speed. When the speed has 
been reduced say to 50 miles per hour, the co-efficient 
of friction has increased to such an extent as to 
necessitate a reduction in brake cylinder pressure or 
slide the wheels, which would reduce the retarding 
effect of the brakes. Just as soon as this condition 
arises the force of that co-efficient multiplied by the 
brake applied, exerted on levers J and K, will raise 
the car body and reduce the brake cylinder pressure 
to a maximum safe retarding power for this speed. 
As the co-efficient again increases, due to a still fur- 
ther reduction in speed, it is evident the levers must 
act again and raise the car body in the same manner 
and continue to do so until a higher co-efficient than 
the one of last exhaust cannot be attained. 

This device was designed by Mr. W. J. Schlacks, 
superintendent machinery of the Colorado Midland 
Railway, to whom we are indebted for the description 
and illustrations. Although Mr. Schlacks has not 
been able to give the device a trial we feel confident 
that it will be a means of avoiding a large number of 
slid wheels. 

New Shops of the Pere Marquette R. R. at 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

HE Pere Marquette R. R. Co. have put in 
operation their new shops at Grand Rapids, 
Michigan. These are situated at the junc- 
tion of the Chicago, St. Joseph, Benton 
Harbor & Grand Rapids Line; Grand 
Rapids, Traverse City & Petoskey Line; 
and Detroit, Lansing & Grand Rapids 
Line. They are designed to handle about 
125 locomotives per year. Provision has 
been made in the locomotive carpenter shop for fur- 
nishing the necessary material for the freight car re- 
pairs at this point. 

One of the notable features of the plant consists of 
a square engine house as part of the general shop 
scheme. This seems to work out very well in connec- 
tion with this plant as it was necessary to have a 

transfer table in connection with the erecting shop 
which serves the engine house at the same time. 

The general layout of the building and surrounding 
tracks are shown in the illustration. The Machine, 
Erecting, Boiler and Blacksmith shops are practically 
in the same large building, although the blacksmith 
shop is separated from the others by a brick wall and 
its roof is lower and of different design, as it was not 
necessary to have a traveling crane in this section. 
The storehouse and office building is situated a short 
distance east of the main shops, two leads to the en- 
gine house and a storehouse track intervening. The 
oil house is south of the storehouse building, but con- 
nected by the large platform, which surrounds three 
sides of the storehouse. Near it is the cinder pit. A 
system of narrow gage supply tracks connect the dif- 

February, 1905. 





p IG T — General View, New Shops of the Pere Mar ouette at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

ferent shops with each other, with the store and oil 
houses, wheel yard, and also run to the repair yard 
and engine house. The same system is laid with 
standard-gage track for most of its length. The x power 
house is located just south of the main shop building, 
the water tank and cistern being near by. 

As can be seen from the layout of the tracks, the 
Y for turning engines is placed south of the shops and 
is near the classification yard (not shown in illustra- 
tion). The coal-handling plant is on the odd leg of 
this Y and is so arranged that after an engine is coaled 

she can be taken to the cinder pit in either direction, 
depending on which way she is to be headed. The 
cross-overs on either side of the cinder pit and the 
double track through the coal-handling plant prevent 
the probability of engines getting seriously blocked, 
either going to or coming from the transfer table. It 
will be noted that there is a track leading directly into 
the main shops, and also a depressed track near the 
wheel storage yard for easy loading of wheels, and one 
near the power house for loading ashes. 

Stano ' 


Fig. 2 — General Layout, New Shops of the Pere Marquette at Grand Rapids, Mich. 



February, 1905. 

Trpnsfer Table 

Fig. 3 — Layout of Tools, New Shops of the Pere 
Marquette at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Main Shop Building. 

This building is constructed of steel on concrete 
foundations with brick walls. It is 286 ft. 4 ins. long 
by 72 ft. 6 ins. wide and contains the erecting shop 
and a bay 50 ft. 10 ins. wide for the machine shop. 
On one end is an extension 43 ft. 6 ins. by 123 ft. 
4 ins. for the blacksmith shop. 

The roof of the main building is a simple design of 
steel truss. The bay roof is of similar construction, 
but is slightly heavier for the purpose of supporting 

A wide gable skylight of steel and glass extends 
nearly the whole length of the erecting shop roof and 

similar smaller skylights are arranged over the ma- 
chine tools at frequent intervals. The space between 
the eaves of the main building and the top of the roof 
of the bay, as well as the same distance on the other 
side is of solid glass arranged in a large number of 
small sashes, many of which can be opened for the 
purpose of ventilation. The space on the end of the 
erecting shop above the blacksmith shop roof is also 
of glass. Over the pit, which has a track leading to 
the outer yard, a super-structure has been built above 
the roof extending the whole width of the erecting 
shop for the purpose of housing a stationary crane for 
lifting the locomotives from their wheels. The sides 

Fig. 4 — View of Erecting Shop, New Shops of tije 
Pere Marquette at Grand Rapids, Mich, 

February, 1905. 



Shop No. 
of Tool. Description of Tool. 

1. 84-inch 300-ton wheel press. 
90-inch driving wheel lathe. 
5-fcot Universal radial drill. 
48-inch radial drill. 
40 -inch drill press. 
42-inch engine lathe, 10-foot C.-C. 
32-inch engine lathe, 8-foot 3'/ 2 -inch C.-C. 
28-inch engine lathe, 6-foot C.-C. 
18-jnch engine lathe, 8-foot bed. 
20-inch Fox brass turret lathe, 8-foot bed. 
2x26-inch turret lathe. 
2-inch double bolt cutter. 
60 inch x 46 inch x 10 foot planer. 
48 inch x 48 inch x 10 foot planer. 
26-inch traveling head shaper. 
17-inch traveling head shaper. 
51-inch vertical boring mill. 
8-inch boring and turning mill. 































18-inch slotting machine. 

Wet emery grinder, 20x3-inch wheels. 

Dry Emery Grinder. 

48-inch grindstone and frame. 

Dudgeon crank pin press. 

Hartz fiue-welding machine. 

Fergusson flue furnace. 

Double punch and shear. 

Flange punch, 8-inch throat. 

12-foot bending rolls. 

12-foot flange clamps. 

Dry emery grinder. 

Buffalo blower. 

Buffalo exhauster. 

2,500-pound steam hammer. 

Post air hammer. 

18-inch engine lathe, 8-foot bed, 

Mortiser— Greenlee hollow chisel. 


Cut-off machine, automatic. 

Baud saAv. 

Dimension planer. 

Bench grinder. 

36-inch x 3'6-inch x 9-foot planer. 

Horizontal boring mill. 

42 -inch drill press. 

15-inch shaper. 

18 -inch engine lathe. 

Turret lathe. 

18 -inch engine lathe. 

Fox lathe. 

30-inch engine lathe. 

36-inch engine lathe. 

90-inch driving wheel lathe. 

36-inch x 36-inch x 10-foot planer. 

48-inch radial drill. 

15-inch slotter. 

Hydraulic press. 

Hydraulic car wheel press. 

Car wheel lathe. 

Axle lathe. 

Car wheel boring mill. 

Punch and shear. 

Flue rattler. 

+—+ — 

are also of steel and glass construction, and it is roofed 
with four-ply gravel. 

The double doors leading to the transfer table are of 

Fig. 5 — Lokg & Allstatter Double Punch and 
Shear, Pere Marquette Shops. 

heavy wooden construction, swing outward and are in 
tbree panels, the upper two of which are glass. There 
are also two similar doors on the other side of the 
shop, one opposite the wheel pit, and one into the 
blacksmith shop, and also one in each end of the 

There are 10 pits and three tracks for boiler work in 
the erecting shop. One of the erecting shop pits is to 
be used for wheeling and unwheeling and light repairs, 
leaving nine pits for general erecting-shop work. The 
space over both the erecting and boiler shop tracks 
is covered by a 10-ton Niles electric traveling crane 
with a 70-ft. span. 

The pits are constructed of concrete. Between 
them are large benches with vises, in the center of 
which is a post supporting two universal adjustable 
electric light fixtures, and also plug receptacles for 
four portable lights. 

Most of the larger machine tools are located slightly 
inside of the steel columns so they may be served by 
the crane. The smaller tools are located back under 
the bay and are grouped so that work on different 
parts can all be done without much transferring. The 
wood shop tools are located at one end of the shop, 
and then follows a space of air-brake and rod work. 
Then comes the link work with the small machines 
used on this class of work grouped near by. The larger 
engine lathes, shapers, etc., are grouped along the 
material track, running the full length of the shop. 
The boiler work is all collected in the opposite end of 
the shop with the heavier tools w r here they can be 
served by the crane. The tool room and wash rooms 
are located centrally against the outside wall. 

The blacksmith shop contains a 2,500-lb. steam ham- 
mer and seven forges with space for four more when 
they are needed. There is also a post hammer. Two 



February, 1905. 

Fig. 6 — Cross Section of Main Shop and Transfer Pit, New Shops of the Pere Marquette at 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 

large swinging cranes serve the steam hammer from 
six of the forges. 

All the flue work is done in one end of the black- 
smith shop, the flue rattler being outside the building. 

The heating is by hot air, the coils and fans being 
in the small addition between the machine shop and 
power house, and the air carried overhead through 
a large pipe, which gradually branches out and reduces 
as it gets farther away from the source. Outlets are 
brought down on the iron columns, and in other places 
as desired, opening about 12 ft. from the floor, throw- 
ing the draft downward and outward in two direc- 

The Power House. 

This is a brick structure containing a main section 

61 ft. by 64 ft. 10 ins. and a bay for the engine room 

32 ft. by 64 ft. 10 ins. The main section is 38 ft. 2 ins. 

high at its highest point, which height was made nec- 

essary by the vertical type boilers in use. A space of 
16 ft. between the boiler and engine room is walled off 
from both by brick walls and has a basement 7 ft. be- 
low the level of the engine room floor. This basement 
also extends a distance of 6 ft. on each side under the 
engine and boiler room floors. In this center compart- 
ment are located the pumps, heaters and all piping. 
Storage for coal is arranged for by an addition 7 ft. 
wide and 11 ft. 7 ins. high across the end of the build- 
ing adjoining the boiler room. This has numerous 
openings with adjustable doors into the boiler room 
and also doors for filling at a higher level in the out- 
side walls. The construction throughout is fireproof, 
the roof girders being of 18-in. I-beams and the floor 

srcr'cw F r 

Fig. 7 — Benches and Lights, Main Shop, Pere Mar- 
quette Shops. 

Fig. 8 — Plan and Section of Power House, Pere 
Marquette Spiops. 

February, 1905. 



Fig. 9 — Transfer Table, Pere Marquette Shops. 

of concrete. The general construction is seen in the 

In the boiler room are three Wicks vertical boilers 
of 200 h. p. each, which furnish steam for all purposes. 
They have a grate area of 36 sq. ft. and a heating sur- 
face of 2,014 sq. ft. They have water tubes connect- 
ing with a steam drum at the top. The hot gases from 
the firebox travel up one side through half of the tubes 
and down the other side, escaping to the stack at the 
bottom of the boiler. 

The steel stack is 54 ins. diameter by 114 ft. high 
and rests on a concrete foundation supported on steel 
rails forming a portion of the basement. 

The ashes are handled by a small steel car, having a 
V-shaped hopper, running on a narrow guage track 
from in front of the boilers out over the cars in the de- 
pressed track near by. The track is carried over the 
top of the cars, being supported by old rails laid across 
the pit at a height sufficient to clear the car. By this 
means it is possible to load a car without moving it. 

All pumps, piping, heater, hot well, etc., are located 
in the basement below and between the engine and 
boiler room. There is a 500 gal. pump for keeping the 
100,000 gal. elevated steel tank supplied. This pump 
draws its supply from a cistern near the tank, which 
in turn is supplied by syphoning from a number of 
wells, driven in the vicinity. Another 500 gal. pump 
supplies the condenser water and a 1,000 gal. Under- 
writers fire pump furnishes the high pressure fire sys- 

(To be 

tern. A 300 gal. high pressure pump takes hot water 
from the heater and supplies the system in the engine 
house for washing out and changing water. The con- 
densation from heating system is returned to the heat- 
er by a small "Marsh" pump. 

The main steam header is a 10-in. pipe supported 
in pump room by I-beams and connects to the boilers 
through 6-in. 90-deg. bends, the leads being taken 
from the top of the header. There is an automatic 
stop check valve at the boiler end and a gate valve at 
the header on each connection. The connections to 
the engine and air compressor are made from the top 
of the headers and each contains a separator and a 
valve at both header and engine. All pump and live 
steam supply for steam hammer, blower engines, test- 
ing, etc., are made from an auxiliary header below the 
main. All condensation from the live steam header is 
returned to the boilers. 

The exhaust line runs below the engine room floor 
the full width of the power house and then rises at 
both ends. One one end is an atmosphere exhaust 
head and on the other the syphon condenser. The 
connections are made opposite each engine and 
pump in the most direct manner possible. The 
connection to the heater coils in the shops is taken 
from the end of the exhaust line and runs through 
a tunnel to each set of coils. The condensation from 
the heating system is returned by gravity and pumped 
into the feed water system. 

There are two generators in the engine room, one 
of 50 k. w. capacity direct connected to a 75 h. p. sim- 
plex Erie engine having I2xi2-in. cylinders and the 
other of 100 k. w. capacity connected to a 150 h. p. 
cross compound Erie engine. The air compressor, 
also located in the engine room, in an Ingersoll-Ser- 
geant of a capacity of 950 ft. of free air per minute. 

The generators themselves are compound wound 
direct-current machines, but by the Westinghouse 
Electric Company and give a pressure of 230 volts. 


« » » 

Interurban Electric Traction Systems—Alternating Current Versus 

Direct Current* 

ELECTRIC traction has found its widest applica- 
tion in American communities and has been 
developed chiefly by American engineers. In America 
practically all traction work has been done" by direct 
current. The alternating current traction system has 
not until recently been favorably thought of by Ameri- 
cans. On the other hand the alternating current trac- 
tion problem has received much attention in Europe. 

* Abstract of paper by Paul M. Lincoln before the 
Electrical Section of the Canadian Society of Civil En- 


The polyphase induction motor has been developed by 
European engineers for traction purposes. American 
engineers have consistently refused to adopt the poly- 
phase induction motor for traction purposes on the 
ground that it is not suitable for these purposes. The 
principal reasons for this stand are two in number : 

1. The polyphase induction motor is inherently a 
constant speed motor and, therefore, not adapted to 
traction purposes. Continual change of speed is one 
of the characteristics of traction work. The direct- 
current series motor is peculiarly- adapted to this class 
of work because it is inherently a variable-speed 



February, 1 905. 

motor. At one definite speed the polyphase motor is 
an efficient machine while at all other speeds the effi- 
ciency can not be greater than the ratio of the actual 
speed to the synchronous speed. For instance, if the 
actual speed at which a given induction motor is work- 
ing is 10 per cent of its synchronous speed, the power 
utilized is at most only 10 per cent of the power put 
in. In traction work a large part of the work done 
is necessarily at speeds below the maximum attained 
and at those speeds the maximum economy that can 
be obtained from induction motors is necessarily 

One expedient used by European engineers to re- 
duce this source of loss is the use of motors in conta- 
tenation or in tandem; that is the secondary of one 
motor is fed into the primary of another on the same 
car. This is equivalent in direct-current practice to 
throwing two shunt motors in series. 

In order to secure the advantages of concatenation, 
however, it is necessary to add largely to the weight 
of the electrical apparatus. European practice has 
been to equip cars with four motors, two main motors 
and two others which are used only while the car is 
below half speed. Above half speed the motors are 
running idle. The energy required to take care of 
the additional weight is an offset against the energy 
which is saved by concatenating the motors. 

2. The second reason against the use of polyphase 
induction motors for traction purpose is the necessity 
for providing at least two overhead conductors. If 
the track is not used as one of the conductors, then 
the necessity arises of using at least three overhead- 

American engineers, instead of endeavoring to adopt 
the unsuitable induction motor to traction purposes, 
have devoted their energies to the development of a 
suitable alternating current motor. The only alter- 
nating-current single-phase motors which have a char- 
acteristic suitable for electric traction purposes are 
those of the commutator type. In no other type of 
motor are the speed and torque characteristics such 
as to be suitable for traction purposes. In the com- 
mutator type alternating-current motor the speed and 


> a . 







■200 40 




150 30 




100 20 


50 10 











4.0 MIN. 

torque charactertistics are practically identical with 
the corresponding characteristics in the direct-current 
series motor. 

As early as 1893, extensive experiments were made 
by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany on this class of motors. These early motors were 
considerably smaller in capacity, and the controlling 
voltage less than the modern motor of this type ; but 
the frequency and voltage were practically the same 
as the more recent ones. 

Although the early motors were successful as 
motors, the alternating current system was not 
thought of sufficient importance to continue the de- 
velopment on account of interurban electric traction 
work, as exists today, did not exist at that time. 

The principal advantages of the alternating-current 
electric traction over the direct-current are : 

1. Limits to trolley voltage are removed. 

2. Avoidance of rheostatic losses. 

3. No necessity for rotary convertor sub-stations. 

4. Manual attendance at the sub-stations is done 
away with. 

5. Danger of electrolysis by return current avoided. 
Let us take up these points more in detail : 

1. Voltage Limit Removed. — The greatest item of 
cost in the electrical equipment of interurban traction 
systems as they exist today is that of secondary dis- 
tribution. This item of cost usually varies somewhere 
between 25 and 50 per cent of the total for electrical 
equipment, and is usually much nearer the latter than 
the former. Six hundred volts at the motor in a di- 
rect-current traction system are practically the limit 
at which present designers and manufacturers are 
willing to guarantee their operation, except in ~some 
special cases. This necessarily limits the voltage fed 
into the secondary distribution system to, say 700 as 
a maximum. The consequence of this comparatively 
low voltage is naturally a high cost for conductors of 
this secondary distribution. The alternating-current 
system, providing as it does, the possibility of greatly 
increasing the voltage of the distributing system, thus 
largely cuts down the cost of the latter. Another 
point with the direct-current is the fact that when 


. I 

■~ S 0; 

a. * s 

100 250 50 





1 h\ 





1 1 



80 200 40 








60 150 30 

/ iV. 

N * 





A 1 


l j 




1 1 


40 1 00 20 



20 50 10 




1 \ 








4.0 MIN. 

Fig. 1 — Typical Run Curve for a Car Equipped with 

D. C. Motors. 

Fig. 2 — Run Curves for a Car Equipped with Alter- 
nating Current Motors. 

February, 1905. 



large units are used it is difficult to collect the large 
amount of current for their operation. 

2. Rheostatic Losses Avoided.— In the direct-cur- 
rent system the voltage at the car is practically con- 
stant, and while the counter E. M. F. of the motors 
is building up, the excess voltage must be taken up by 
resistance. At the start, therefore, a comparatively 
large rheostatic loss occurs. With the alternating-cur- 
rent system on the other hand, the voltage at the car 
may be controlled by suitable means and the rheo- 
static loss thus avoided. When stops are few and 
consequently, runs are large, the rheostatic loss in 
the direct-current system is a small proportion of the 
total, and, therefore, under these conditions this ad- 
vantage of the alternating current is not so greatly 
marked. With short runs, on the other hand, and 
consequently frequent starts, the rheostatic loss with 
the direct current system amounts to a considerably 
greater proportion of the total loss, and the alter- 
nating current system, therefore, has the greater ad- 

Figures 1 and 2 show K. W. curves for a car 
equipped in one case with direct current motors, and 
in the other with alternating current motors. The 
weight of the alternating current car is 18 per cent 
greater than the direct current, which weighs 35 tons. 
The length of run is two miles in each case, and the 
schedule speed 30 miles per hour. Were it not for the 
saving of rheostatic loss one would expect that the 
alternating current equipment would take 18 per cent 
more power. The actual difference in the areas un- 
der the curves shows 10 per cent more power for the 
alternating current, on account of avoiding rheostatic 
loss in the equipment. If the run were for about one 
mile, the consumption of power would be about equal, 
and for runs of less than one mile the alternating cur- 
rent power consumption would be less. 

3. Necessity for Rotary Converters Avoided. — 
The cost of sub-station equipment constitutes one of 
the large items in the cost of the electrical equipment 
of an interurban road. Of this the rotary converter 
is by far the largest item. In the alternating current 
equipment the rotary converter is not used. 

4. Attendance at Sub-Stations Done Away With. — 
The direct current rotary, being a piece of revolving 
machinery, requires manual attendance. Alternating 
current sub-stations consist of static transformers 
only, and therefore require attendance only for the 
purpose of operating switches. The switching devices 
are entirely automatic in their operation, which avoids 
the necessity of attendance for this purpose. 

5. Electrolysis. — Electrolysis with the direct cur- 
rent system is recognized as a serious danger. With 
the alternating current system this is entirely avoided. 

The disadvantages which necessarily accompany 
the use of the alternating current traction system are : 

1. Additional weight. 

2. Difficulty of operating on existing lines. 

3. Increased rail loss. 

4. The fact that an active E. M. F. exists between 
field turns. 

5. Possible interference with telephones. 
Taking these points up in detail : 

1. Additional Weight. — An alternating current mo- 
tor of a given capacity is somewhat heavier and more 
expensive than a direct current motor for the same 
capacity. In order to make use of the advantages of 
high trolley voltage the alternating current equipment 
should be provided with a step-down transformer on 
the car. Also, in order to obtain the advantages of 
avoiding the rheostatic losses, some provision must 
be made for controlling the voltage on the car. The 
transformer, the voltage control apparatus, and the 
greater weight of motors make the alternating cur- 
rent equipment heavier than the direct current. 

One of the most attractive methods for controlling 
the voltage on the motors is the use of an induction 
regulator. The principal advantage over other forms 
is that it does not require the interruption of the cur- 
rent and is, therefore, of particular advantage in large 
equipments. It is this problem of breaking the cur- 
rent that forms not only the greatest difficulty with 
direct current equipments of large capacity, but also 
one of the largest items in the deterioration account. 

The induction regulator has the disadvantage of 
adding considerably to the weight, and, in equipments 
of small size, where the difficulty of current inter- 
ruption is not great, it will probably be replaced by 
some other method of voltage control. 

2. Difficulty of Operating on Existing Lines. — 
Practically all interurban roads run in and through 
cities on existing tracks and, therefore, must use the 
existing sources of direct current power. To meet 
this condition the equipment for an alternating cur- 
rent interurban road must be so arranged as to oper- 
ate on alternating current outside the city and on di- 
rect current inside. 

This means the use of motors which can be oper- 
ated from both kinds of current, which is possible 
with the series alternating current motor. It means 
that another system of control must be added to the 
car. Further, means will have to be provided for dis- 
connecting all transformers when running from the 
direct current system and reconnecting them when 
running from the alternating system. All these 
things can be accomplished. The most important 
part of the equipment — the motors — can be operated 
from direct as well as alternating current. 

3. Increased Rail Loss. — Experiments have shown 
that with alternating current of 2,000 to 3,000 alter- 
nations, the actual loss which takes place with a given 
current through the iron rail is from three to five 
times that which the same direct current would give. 
The higher ratios of loss hold for the higher fre- 



February, 1905. 

quencies. This seems to be an important objection to 
the alternating current system. But when it is con- 
sidered that in order to utilize the main benefit of the 
alternating current, a higher trolley voltage is used 
and therefore smaller currents in the return con- 
ductor, the elements of rail loss in an alternating cur- 
rent proposition may be made even a smaller propor- 
tion of the total than in the direct current. The rail 
loss with direct current is usually a small proportion 
of the total, and this with alternating current, at the 
trolley voltages which are usually considered, namely, 
2,000 to 5,000, becomes a much smaller proportion. 

4. Active E. M. F. Between Field Turns. — In the 
matter of E. M. F. between field turns, the alternating 
current and direct current motors are quite different. 
The E. M. F. between the field turns of a direct cur- 
rent motor is due simply to ohmic resistance, and a 
short circuit between turns simply throws out of ac- 
tion the turns so short circuited, and, if not too severe, 
does not interfere seriously with the motor's opera- 

Between the field turns of the alternating current 
motor, on the other hand, there is an active E. M. F. 
similar to that between the turns of a transformer 
winding. A short circuit between field turns in an 
alternating current motor, therefore, means a destruc- 
tive short circuit and an immediate interruption of 
service from that motor. In other words, the effect of 
a short circuit between field turns in an alternating 
current motor has the same effect that a short circuit 
between armature turns would have in either the al- 
ternating or direct current motors. 

Roasting out of field coils is one of the most fre- 
quent causes of trouble in direct current motor equip- 
ments, and it is readily realized that the matter of 
turns in the alternating current motor is a serious 
one. As an offset against this disadvantage of an ac- 
tive E. M. F. between field turns, the alternating cur- 
rent motor possesses the advantage of being capable 
of operation at low voltage, thereby reducing the num- 
ber of turns on the series field and increasing the pro- 
portionate space for insulation. This existence of an 
active E. M. F between the field turns is the most 
serious obstacle to the use o'f a high voltage on the 
motor. • Even with low voltage, the alternating cur- 
rent motor is laboring against the handicap of occu- 
pying more space than an equivalent direct current 
motor, and the use of high voltage still further in- 
creases this handicap. 

This limitation of available space for the motor and 
the existence of an active E. M. F. between field 'turns 
makes it seem probable that the alternating current 
railway motor of the future will be operated at low 
voltage and will receive its current from a transformer 
situated on the car. 

5. Interference With Telephones. — It is a question 
whether alternating current in the rails will interfere 

with telephones and similar instruments more than the 
direct current, with which they have to contend at 
present. In any event, the amount of current in the 
rails can be reduced by the use of higher voltages so 
that this source of interference can be made less than 
it is with the present direct current system. 

In order to compare the two systems, we shall as- 
sume a certain typical interurban road, ascertain the 
first cost, and the cost of operating by both systems. 
Suppose this road to be as follows : 

Length, 60 miles ; schedule speed, 30 miles per hour ; 
cars running half hour apart; number of stops, 30; 
weight of direct current car complete, 35 tons ; weight 
of alternating current car, complete, 41.3 tons. This 
is not the minimum difference in weight that can be 

Figure 1 shows the speed, time and K. W. hours 
curve of the direct current car over a typical run of, 
two miles. Figure 2. shows the same for the alter- 
nating current run, and in addition gives the apparent 
K .W. and power factor. It will be noticed that the 
difference in power at the car is only 10 per cent in 
favor of the direct current equipment, in spite of the 
fact that the difference in weight is 18 per cent. 

The location of the power house is assumed in both 
cases to be on the line of the road, midway between 
the termini. In each case, also, one of the sub-stations 
is located in the power house. In the alternating cur- 
rent proposition the generators are wound for trolley 
voltage (3,000 volts) and feed directly into the trolley 
wire. In each case also there are supposed to be four 
feeding points beside the power house, thus making 
the sub-stations twelve miles apart. 

Further, in both cases the secondary system is a 
single network, thus gaining the advantage of two 
feeding points except beyond the end sub-stations. 
In neither system are secondary feeders figured on, 
the alternating current being simply a No. 0000 trolley 
wire throughout and the direct current a 60-pound 
conductor rail. In the direct current proposition the 
generators, transmission line, etc., are supposed to be 
three phase. 

The figures give complete comparisons of power 
consumption, the loses in various transmission and 
transformations, the first cost of the apparatus used 
and estimate of the operating expenses. The condi- 
tions are taken as nearly as possible like those in the 
typical road. 

In the first cost of the two systems no allowance 
is made for the fact that the alternating current sys- 
tem requires less energy at the power house and there- 
fore will economize to a considerable extent in both 
engines and boilers. So far as transformers are con- 
cerned, the alternating current system has the advant- 
age, because it allows the use of larger units than the 
direct current, with which three phase transmission 
is necessary. The alternating current switchboards 

-':""'] '-'- ' 


inzle thase trir. : 

also have the advantage in that I 

car.el ire returned instead :: three 

"Tore copper is re q u ir ed :: 
sion than for three-phase, which makes the cost 
copper for the alternating current system somewhat 
more ersper. - me The largest difference in the high 
tension lines : : res fr:m the tart that the teles ftr 
alternating current system are spate! snffi nent ; rlose 
the erhe trail-rets t: e s ;rrrei frtnt 

- me poles 

: r'ar - - - ; eie . : :. transit renters ire : : : :e: red the 
titz turreur system has the ai"antare re sin- 
gle release :ver three thase in that larger : ire 
used. By far the largest item : : saving 1 in sub-station 
equipment between the twr systems is of course 
the omission of rotarv converters In the alterna- 2 

mere system. 

_ r e ~ e a t es t :;t : : : m ; e ;_ r r me r 

- stem; is i tourse the great lifference In the ::s: 
of the secondary nervork. A glance at the compara- 
tive " - .11 show that thi- iterente rase 
considered amounts to nearly S100.000. and is there- 
fore nearly 30 per cent of the total cost of the direct 
turner.: svstem 

first : e alternatmr 

- - -' - 

rent equipments 7 act thai 

ttsts ere hrtretl :: in: :ae 

- : - ' _ ret! tn. 
the cost of the alternating turner.: tar eqtriptrm 

----- : *:eer nmished -7 at t e: m :•:•: 

In op iterant savm 

- - - - ------ ran te is am 

The matter :i inspection at rernatmg cnrm 

. . _ . _ } _ . , ; . rn tar e t : :r - te: en: 

tne :ise t: et- ~r rumen: su:- : et~ ~m 

: ~ : _ ~ '-- rent ~ ; r -e:t : -rent = - 

- rr ; 

The a! . rurrenr mrm - eg lower hi vt 

trams: thee- rh: it 
. . -. _ er __._-_. 

to have 1st no higher than th e 

eat mtttrs The -re-: ment : - 

- -. - . _ .. . . . - -f 5-;-- 

- re t .'"- - term 

tht rr ntt : :n exnemente ; —remit" renre- 

the comparative cc r s em as it is at s- 

• it this r. - 


^S-~ '-■".-'" " ~"'~ ~ -~ -T5TT 

nnfbs :: "r:: _- r~ 

Ave: - . 
N r . errs rt 

rm : ' - 

V: ;e';-r:t:e ; 

Avenge Nc : r~ ;:-:. m -me rim 
Mean - amps, per ear. 

n % amps, per sub-station = ni 
With sub-statiotis 12 miles apart. SO-Ib- track rail 

and 60-lb. third rail resistance between 
- > is 



us : 



: - ~ — 


::--r : 
::-m ; 

Mean 2 


- : - —— - 

. cars per stLb-ssatStEi 

ps. per ear (3,999 Tote) 

- ret -" -- - t"e"r = — 

. Li 


P. C. fine loss per sub-station, 

Average K.W. per sub-station i 
:?E W. per sub-station 

Per cent I; s - lird rail 

t. 0-3 ohms 
liJ. K~ 
[ Yi 3 

and Xo. 9999 trolley between sab- 
1 lo-wms foe incxeased rail resistance. 
-~ re r-eil lr-= j : - ; e 


. I — 


Per cent loss in step-down transformers. I r ~ 

Per cent loss in rotaries 1' 

Per cent loss in high-tension fine i 5 

: : l;ss Jt^r-r: rre r>: - ." : ~- 

Total perceniage loss from cars to P. F.. . 

nsnmed by 8 cars at Ute cars T 3 ! X.W. 

: power house for 8 car- 1 3 ':' " 

>fax. load per sub-starien— wv>rsr ' c-oadition i 

- 1 _ : . 

One 400 K.W. rotary will take c:^ "ais 40 per 

- : ;••-;■;' : e ' 

. load on rotary . . 30 

Rotary sub-stations are of sufiaent siie so that one 

m be out out temperar: 
Max. load on power house, say 
Can be taken car- ith three 400 K."VT. gen- 

erators — 01 - - are. 

: -K.W. tr*Est".7-.m:s — 

: ; ;ren - ee e:= = "'.? 

= 115 : 

-- : _ 71: ~e "; 1 - ----ez 1. 

--- :ss ^ ._ - - - : ^r ... __ ._._ : --^^ : - 

-- er re: ..- ~ : e . . - 
-•rss r 5-rrt— t r tmnsfrrm-rrs 



- r - 


One 3SP-~ "' 
- rran- : 

ret ; e r ? 

t ." "-- : ": -~ yll 

"rcr :- : . 

~ :r :! 

:r : - . - 

-- ' 

- '?: 

; etr =— ret el-ma'- - rr>-? 

»wer house in apparer- --- LH W 

-:e •: —.~ :lr~ , T "". ~ trrer- 
fisr spe 

. -■ — 



One No. 6 B. & S. gauge line each way from power One No. 3 B. & S. gauge line each way from power 

house 20,000-volt, 3-ph. house, 20,000-volt, 1-ph. 

Max. loss, about 8.25% Max. loss, about 8.2% 

Aver, loss, about 2.50% Aver, loss, about 2.7% 


b'ive sub-stations in all— one in power house. Four sub-stations— power house feeds directly into 300-volt 
Each of four sub-stations to contain: trolley. 

Three 135-K.W. step-down transformers. Each sub-station to contain: 

One 400-K.W. rotary converter. One 350-K.W. transformer. 

Switchboard. Switchboard. 

Step-down transformers omitted in power house sub- 


Entire length of track equipped with 60-lb. conductor rail. Entire length of track equipped with No. 0000 B. & S. gauge 



Each car equipped with two 150-H.P., D.C. railway motors Each car equipped with two 165-H.P., A.C. railway motors 
and multiple-control apparatus complete. and multiple-control apparatus complete. 



Three 400-K.W., 25-cycle, 360-volt, 3-ph., A.C. gens., Three 450-K.W., 25-cycle, 3000-volt, 1-ph., 2000-alt. 

at $6,500 each < $19,500 gens., at $7,000 eacb $21,000 

Seven 150-K.W., 350 to 20,000 volt, self-cooling, oil- Three 400-K.W., 17-cycle, 3000 to 20,000 volt, O.I.S.C. 

insulated trans., 25-cycle, at $1,225 8,575 trans., at $2,500 7,500 

Switchboard 4,500 Switchboard 3,800 

' $32,575 $32,300 


Forty-eight miles of 20,000-volt, 3-ph. transmission Forty-eight miles of 20,000-volt, 1-ph. transmission 

line— No. 6 B. & S. gauge conductors, at $900 per line— No. 3 B. & S. gauge conductors, at $1,200 

mile $43,200 per mile ; . $57,600 

Lightning protection 2,500 Lightning protection - 2,000 

$45,700 ■ $59,600 


Twelve 135-K.W., 20,000 and 360-volt, 25-cycle, O.I. Four 350-K.W., 2000-alt., 2000 to 3000-volt, O.I.S.C. 

S.C. transformers, at $1,175 each.... $14,100 transformers, at $2,200 each $8,800 

Five 400-K.W., 600-volt, 25-cycle rotary converters, Five switchboards, at $1,500 each 7,500 

at $5,200 each 26,000 Auxiliary signaling lines for operating sub-station 

Five switchboards at $2,800 each 14,000 switches 7,500 

$54,100 $23,800 


Sixty-three miles of 60-lb. conducting rail, at $2,500 Sixty-three miles of No. 0000 trolley wire in place 

per mile, installed $157,500 at $900 per mile $56,700 

Bonding main track— 63 miles at $400 per mile 25,200 Bonding main track 63 miles, at $400 per mile 25,200 

■ Fifteen miles of pole construction, not including H.P. 

$182,700 lines, at $630 per mile. . ; 9,400 

r 7-.— $91,300 


Twelve D.C. car equipments complete, consisting of Twelve A.C. car equipments complete, consisting of 
2 No. 50-C.motors, with mUltiple-control outfit 2 165-H.P. motors, with multiple control outfit, 
heaters and contact shoes, at $5,217 each $62,604 heaters and trolley, at $8,482 each $101,774 

Total first cost electrical equipment $377,179 Total first cost electrical .equipment $308,774 


Five men at power house— 2 shifts, average wage Five men at power house— 2 shifts, average wage 

$900 per year $9,000 $900 per year $9,000 

One' man at each of 4 sub-stations— 2 shifts— at $900 Fuel, water, oil, etc., at y 2 c per K.W.-hour 23,050 

per year 7,200 Repairs and maintenance of power house (3 per cent 

Fuel, water, oil, etc., at %c per K.W.-hour, 4,890,000 of cost) 969 

K.W. hour 24,450 Repairs and maintenance of H.T. lines (5 per cent 

Repairs and maintenance of power bouse (3 per cent per year) 2,980 

of cost per year) ? 971 Repairs and maintenance of trolley (4 per cent 

Repairs and maintenance of H.T. line (5 per cent of per year) 3,652 

cost per year) 2,285 Repairs and maintenance of car equipments (10 

Repairs and maintenance of 3d rail (1 per cent of per cent) 10,177 

of cost per year) 1,822 

Repairs and maintenance of car equipments (12 per 

cent of cost per year) 7,512 

Total yearly operating expenses $55,404 Total yearly operating expenses $51,256 

February, 1905. 



Trailing Trucks 

THE Rigid Trailing Truck consists of a pair of 
wheels mounted on an axle having outside jour- 
nals, which are carried in journal boxes working in 
pedestals attached to secondary or external frames. 
A limited amount of lateral motion is provided in the 
bearings. This type of trailing truck is used with 
engines of a moderate wheel base intended to run on 
roads of light curvature. 

The Radial Truck with inside bearings has a contin- 
uous axle box, with suitable journal bearings at either 
end, and formed at the frame pedestals with front and 
back wearing surfaces struck to the arcs of concentric 

Radial Truck, Inside Bearings. 

circles of proper radius. To the lower side of the con- 
tinuous axle box is attached a spring housing fitted 
with transverse coil springs, with suitable followers, 
and with horizontal thrust rods extending to the ped- 
estal tie bars, these thrust rods having ball and socket 
connections at either end. This combination of spring 
and thrust rods permits the truck to travel in its cir- 
cular path, and also permits the continuous axle box to 
rise and fall relatively to the frames. The circular 
arc motion is limited by suitable stops at the central 
spring casing, and when the engine is running on a 
tangent the springs tend to bring the truck to its 

proper central position. The load is transmitted to 
the continuous ?ixle box from a cradle on which the 
necessary springs and equalizers bear, hardened steel 
sliding plates being interposed immediately over the 
journal bearings. The cradle is guided vertically by 
guides attached to the engine frames. 

The Radial Truck with outside bearings has journal 
boxes which are rigidly attached to the back ends of 
a radius bar V form, the front or apex end of which 
is centered on a pivot pin in a cross brace inserted 
between the engine frames. These journal boxes are 
also connected at the rear by a U-bar, at the center 
of which is mounted a spring housing containing 
springs, followers, etc., which perform the same func- 
tions as in the case of the radial truck with inside bear- 
ings. The load is transmitted to the journal boxes 
by a cradle, which is vertically guided, but in this case 
the sliding surfaces of the two are circular in plan 
and show inclined planes in section. They may be used 
either with or without interposed hardened rollers, 
but when the truck is displaced laterally (as on a 
curve) the mutual action of these inclined planes is 
to furnish a yielding resistance to such displacement, 
but to constantly tend to restore the truck to its nor- 
mal or central position. 

We are indebted to Mr. F. J. Cole, mechanical en- 
gineer of the American Locomotive Company, for the 
above information. 

■» » » 

ST liOUIS 10O4 

Radial Truck, Outside Bearings. 

Railroad Transportation at the World's Fair 

THE Railway and Engineer- 
neering Review, in its 

issue of Dec. 31, 1904, has 
given a most exhaustive and 

complete description of the rail- 
road transportation exhibits at 
the recent world's fair at St. 
Louis. This number as an ex- 
ample of modern trade journal- 
ism is a monumental work, being- one of the largest 
single issues ever published of any trade paper. Its 
value is of a permanent nature, and its usefulness as 
a work of reference is most apparent. Its two hundred 
and four pages of reading matter contained about 
500,000 words ; 619 illustrations. The subject is 
treated topically under the following chapters : The 
Transportation Building and General Arrangement of 
Exhibits, Earthwork and Ballast, Track Construction, 
Track Tools, Historic Track, Railroad Bridges, Tun- 
nel Construction, Buildings, Plants and Fixtures, Rail- 
way Water Service, Signals and Interlocking, Rail- 
road Terminals, Miscellaneous Construction and Ap- 
pliances, General Improvements and Reconstruction, 
Tie and Timber Preservation and Timber Testing, 
Cement and Concrete, Locomotive- Exhibits, Historic 
Locomotives, Locomotive Testing Plant, Electric 



February, 1905. 

Railway Tests, Coal Testing, Passenger Cars, Freight 
Cars, Locomotive Appliances, Car Appliances, Shop 
Tools, Machine Tool Drives, Power Installations, 
Traffic Exhibits and Statistics, Passenger Travel to 
the Exposition, St. Louis Terminals, their Reconstruc- 
tion and Working, Awards of Diplomas and Medals. 
The foregoing brief reference to the matter con- 
tained in this issue gives only the barest outlines of a 
description of the largest and most complete railway 
transportation exhibits ever gathered together under 
one roof. It has been, of course, impossible for the 
Railway Master Mechanic, owing to its limited space, 
to more than briefly refer to some of the more impor- 
tant features of the transportation exhibits. 

The credit for the planning and carrying to success- 
ful completion the transportation exhibits is due in 
most part to the chief of the department, Mr. Willard 
A. Smith, publisher of the Railway and Engineering 
Review, whose wide knowledge of railway affairs in 
general, and his experience as chief of this same de- 
partment at the Chicago world's fair, and his connec- 
tion with the Paris exposition, made him eminently 
fitted for this position. 

We quote somewhat at length from an editorial in 
the world's fair issue of the Railway and Engineering 
Review that which refers especially to the mechanical 
department, and so, of course, is of particular interest 
to our readers: 

"* * * World's fairs are made possible by mod- 
ern transportation — the 'unconsidered miracle.' At 
the first one, in London, in 1851, as well as at all sub- 
sequent universal expositions, vehicles and boats and 
locomotives and cars were shown with other 
apparatus and machinery. It was not until the 
World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 that the sub- 
ject was dignified by making it a great exhibit de- 
partment. * * * The stages of engineering progress 
pass by almost as rapidly as the fashions of the day. 
Of the two most advanced types of locomotives shown 
at Chicago, one, which held the record as the fastest 
passenger locomotive in the world, is now hauling a 
milk train ; and the other has retired to museum 
shades. 'What has a decade wrought?' was the ques- 
tion to be answered by the contemporaneous exhibit 
at St. Louis. * * * At the Chicago exposition, omit- 
ting narrow-gage, switching and light foreign locomo- 
tives, there were 29 engines having an average weight 
of 128,588 lbs. At the St. Louis exposition there were 
the same number (29) having an average weight of 
195,239 lbs. This average was greater than the weight 
of the heaviest at Chicago, which was 195,000. The 
tremendous weight of this locomotive was severely 
criticised in the discussion of the technical societies in 
1893 an( 3 1894. It was believed that the limit had been 
reached and that no more locomotives of such 'ex- 
cessive* weight would be built. The prophets were 
wrong again, for the 'St. Louis' is over twice as 
heavy — weighing light, engine and tender, 393,012 lbs. 

This, however, is a mountain climber and still an ex- 
periment, and does not represent really the practice of 
to-day as properly as the ponderous Santa Fe with its 
287,580 lbs. There were six others weighing over 
200,000 lbs. each. The heaviest engine at Chicago was 
exceptional, weighing 26,000 lbs. more than the next 
heaviest, which in turn weighed 13,000 lbs. more than 
the next. Perhaps it would be fairer to omit the heavi- 
est at St. Louis as being entirely exceptional — a 
sporadic case. We would then have the average 
weight at St. Louis of 188,176 lbs., as against an aver- 
age of 128,588 in Chicago — an increase of about 46^2 
per cent. If the Mallet compound is included in the 
comparison, the increase has been over 50 per cent. 

"The most recent trend of locomotive improvement 
on both sides of the Atlantic is toward the balanced 
compound and the use of superheaters. There were 
four balanced compounds, representing the most ad- 
vanced practice; one from Germany, one from France, 
and one each from the two principal locomotive build- 
ing establishments of this country. Germany has 
shown more interest in superheating than any other 
country;, but exhibited only one device, and that not 
the one in most extensive use. The latter was to have 
been represented on a locomotive for testing, which, 
however, it was impossible to provide for in the final 
program. This interesting field of experiment and in- 
vestigation is evidently just beginning to attract the 
attention of American engineers. 

"In 1893 the use of steel for the parts of cars hither- 
to built of wood made its first appearance. It was 
then hardly more than an indication of coming things. 
So far has the use of steel advanced in eleven years 
that it hardly appeared to the manufacturers to be 
wprth while to exhibit wooden freight cars at St. 
Louis — the only exception being refrigerator cars. 
Steel freight cars for every kind of service and steel 
parts for cars constituted an important and impressive 
exhibit of the new things which have come to stay. 
In passenger equipment steel underframing also made 
its appearance. The passenger cars exhibited marked 
improvement in design ; and in some respects a new 
era was marked. The ornamentation and architectural 
features showed a simpler and nobler taste. The mere- 
tricious has largely disappeared, and, together with' 
an improved taste which is abreast of the best in home 
and public architecture, there was evident care for 
sanitary considerations. * * *" 

♦ * »■ 

Device for Centering and Boring Driving Wheel 


THE accompanying cut shows a centering device 
and clamp for boring driving wheel boxes. 
This is applied to a boring machine and saves the lay- 
ing out of the brass for boring. 

It consists of two movable arms mounted on car- 
riages. These carriages are mounted on a bed and at- 

February, I905. 



Device for Centering and Boring Driving 
Wheel Boxes 

tached to a long screw, one end having a right hand 
and the other a left hand thread. By" turning the 
screw the carriages and movable arms either come 
together or separate. The box is placed with the two 
movable arms resting against the bottom flanges of 
the box. When the screw is tightened the arms come 
together equally on both sides, pressing down and 
toward the center. This centers and holds the box 
like a vise. In the middle of the cut towards the back 
part of the table a set screw is shown which is used 
to regulate the depth of cut. 

The whole device is fastened on a boring mill table 
and after being centered once can be used for boring 
any number of boxes without going through the tedi- 
ous operation of laying all of them out. 

We are indebted to Mr. Willard Kells, master me- 
chanic of the Lehigh Valley Railroad at Sayre, for the 
above information. 



Th& Employment and Preparation of Firemen* 

By Mr. E. W. Pratt, M. M. C. & N. W. Ry. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the acknowledged value 
of. the "personal equation" in railroading today, 
the modern times have thrown around the heads of de- 
partments of our large railways such manifold duties 
and responsibilities and such unavoidable minutia in 
technical details that he is an exception who can sum- 
mon the courage necessary to leave details upon sub- 
ordinates, place technicalities in the hands of the me- 
chanical engineer, and delegate himself as chief em- 
ploy officer and regulator of discipline of his men of 
every class, and particularly so of locomotive engi- 
neers and firemen. 

Where a railroad system is very extensive, the division 
master mechanics should be the final employing officers 
for firemen, and at least such shopmen as are to be con- 

*Paper presented before the Western Railway Club, 
January meeting. 

sidered prospective firemen, instead of leaving this duty 
entirely in the hands of the division foremen or travel- 
ing engineer. 

Practically all locomotive engineers of this country have 
received their early training as firemen; if not on the 
same railroad, yet it is so in most cases. Many firemen 
come from minor positions in the roundhouse or shops. 
Hence it is seen how important is the duty of employing 
firemen and shopmen, and their training after suitable 
men are employed. Although the obtaining and filing of 
applications can be intrusted to clerks or minor officers, 
I believe that the final employing officer of a railroad, no 
matter how large the system, should be an officer of as 
high rank as possible and in passing upon the applicant 
the latter should be present. The influence thereby im- 
parted to a prospective tmploye is very great. The appli- 
cation blank should include all available information and 
attached thereto letters of reference obtained direct from 
former employers or business men whom the candidate 
has givn as references of his education and character. 
The application blank should show name, home address, 
nationality, where born, age, height, weight, school ad- 
vantages, if married or single and those dependent upon 
him for support ; a list of those employers for whom he 
has worked, his occupation with them and dates ; whether 
his general health has been good and if he is addicted to 
the use of intoxicating liquors. He should be questioned 
particularly on these last two matters, as robust health is 
esential to his future success ; he should be asked if he 
thinks that an employe in the engine or train service of 
today should drink at all, either on or off duty, and no 
effort made to conceal your own views thereon. Do not 
employ all men of the same nationality— mix them judi- 

There is not a railroad company in this country whose 
business fluctuates that does not prepare locomotives and 
cars for their expected busy season, yet how many are 
there who as carefully prepare for the obtaining of suit- 
able men for firemen with which to meet such increased 
business? Is it not quite often the case that during the 
duller seasons of the year a letter or. personal applicant 
receives no reply, or else the mere information is con- 
veyed that "we are not hiring men now" ? Why not take 
a lesson from the world powers, and "in time of peace 
prepare for war"? Before the period of business in- 
crease, the employing officer should have on file a list of 
applications with as full particulars as possible. This 
work, being properly outlined, can be carried out by a 
clerk, the use of perhaps five or six letters of inquiry 
in each case, the thought being to always keep in 
touch with any change in the address of applicants 
and to advise them from time to time as to the prob- 
able date they may expect to be called for. Last fall, 
before hiring some seventy-five firemen, the writer 
had a list of over one hundred applicants, many of 
them experienced men, and a large number of the re- 
mainder had taken up and completed some corre- 
spondence course on combustion and locomotive firing. 
In this way a rapid increase in business can be cared 
for without the delay to traffic due to shortage of men 



February, 1905. 

and without the demoralizing necessity of dropping 
all other urgent business at such time in order to of- 
tain the men needed. 

Have a series of blank forms, and number them so 
that you can briefly refer to them in that way. When 
you receive a letter from an applicant, send him form 
No. 100. When you want more applications than you 
have on file, send form No. 107 to the station agents 
and roadmasters along your line. Form 103 sends an 
employed man to some division foreman for a fireman 
and obtains in reply his record of starting work. Form 
No. 102 starts a man in roundhouse or shop work as 
a training for firing, etc. These several forms are 
shown at the end of this paper merely as suggestions 
in the way of carrying out a policy with as little labor 
as possible. 

There are perhaps five classes of young men from 
which we may obtain our future enginemen : 

First, the farmer boy, whose training usually re- 
sults in producing an industrious man, but whose 
school advantages are generally limited to the country 
school accomplishments of "the three R.'s." 

Second, the country lad, who may or may not have 
spent much of his time on the farm, but who has lived 
in or near a small town and had school training up to 
or better than the eighth grade or entrance to high 
school. Either of these two classes may have followed 
threshing outfits and perhaps fired or run a portable 

Third, the city chap, who has more assurance than 
industry, more education than application; who needs 
more watching than the former classes, yet in excep- 
tional cases make a most competent and efficient em- 

Fourth, the sons of older railway employes, who en- 
ter the service with greater aptitude on account of 
their general knowledge of its requirements and hard- 
ships, and whose parents, themselves often deficient 
in early school advantages, have seen to it that their 
sons are better prepared therein to enter their life 
work. This class of men are more likely to stick to 
their "jobs" and carry out their undertakings, as they 
are acquainted with the fact that the fireman on a 
modern locomotive has something else to do besides 
sit on the seat and flirt with the passing country girls, 
or at least he combines that with his other duties.. 

Fifth, the technical school graduate, with whom I 
must confess to have had very limited experience, and 
whose success or failure as a fireman I will have to 
leave to others to describe; for the few that I have 
had work for me as firemen have evidently taken up 
the work awaiting some more congenial employment 
rather than as a life work. However, I believe that 
in future years many members of the college football 
team will be found first on the left, then on the right 
side of the locomotive, and my gravest concern is that 
they will, when that time comes, be more contented 
and not get "off-side." 

While a few months roundhouse experience is of 
advantage to boys of all these cbsses, I believe it 

should be required of any who have never fired even 
a stationary boiler. In the roundhouse they should 
not be kept at cleaning and sweeping until they be- 
come discouraged and quit, but effort should be made 
to employ them cleaning fires, hoeing ashpans, calling, 
firing stationary boilers, helping the engine hostlers 
and firing up locomotives. I call this training most 
valuable because a young man learns something of the 
details of railroading, such as the importance of 
promptness in the service, the results of good and 
poor firing as seen in the shape of fires in engines at 
terminals; he also learns the uses of the various parts 
of the boiler, he learns the signals, and above all else 
gains the confidence necessary to fire an engine prop- 
erly. If he can help a roundhouse machinist or help 
the boiler-washer, it will also be of advantage; he may 
even have an occasional chance to fire a switching en- 
gine for a few hours in an emergency. The foreman 
should arrange to permit such boys as he judges will 
be recommended for firemen to deadhead over the 
road two or three trips on an engine with a first-class 

In the case of men starting in the shops and with 
others shortly before the probable rush period, send 
applicants to the company's examining surgeons so 
that they will be immediately available in case of nec- 
essity for firing. The foreman of each terminal shop 
should have working under him few of such men and 
the authority to use them as firemen whenever needed. 
This is of great advantage, besides saving considera- 
ble expense in deadhead time. 

In so far as possible all experienced firemen should 
start work on yard or way freight engines, where 
there is apt to be less delay to traffic from lack of 
steam while they are learning the rudiments of stok- 
• irfg. If the company does not furnish a book of in- 
structions on locomotive firing and combustion, keep 
some good but inexpensive book or correspondence 
curse on hand, recommend it to all inexperienced men 
and even sell it to them at cost if necessary. What 
you are after is results, so, if you believe in a thing, 
carry it into execution. 

Avoid, if possible, hiring men who are "broke." 
New men do not understand that their first pay does 
not come for over a month, and some small sum oh 
hand to start with may prevent garnishment of their 
first wages and their consequent discouragement. 
Some of the best firemen that I ever had gave up the 
work on this account. 

It is my opinion that new firemen should not be 
regularly listed and given rank for the first six months 
of their service. The older man 'should be given the 
preference in work at his terminal by the foreman, but 
not the privilege of going to some distant part of the 
division to displace a man who is a few days younger 
in the service. During this six months' period they 
should also understand that they are on probation. 
To gain full advantage in this respect, it is necessary 
to obtain such reports from division foremen, road 
foremen, and traveling firemen (see form No. 104) as 

February, 190^. 



will enable you to intelligently (drop from the service 
inside of the six months, regardless of their relative 
age in employment, such men as seem the least 
adapted to the work or appear likely to become "dis- 
turbers of the peace." Treat such unfortunates with 
courtesy and consideration, explaining to them their 
weak points and probable inaptitude which makes 
them less desirable than others. Give them passes 
home, if within reason to do so, and wish them well 
in their future occupations. The reputation of a fine 
gentleman, now a railroad president, but then the 
manager of a small road, is worthy of imitation : 

An engineer, old in the service, had become in- 
volved in serious trouble, and was called to the man- 
ager's office and the gravest discipline accorded. The 
"boys," waiting outside, accosted the engineer, who, 
though serious, was anything but depressed. 

"Well, they said, "what did the old man have to 

"There," he replied, "is the finest gentlefnan I ever 

"Why," they said, "did he put you back to work?" 
"No, indeed; he discharged me, but he talked to me 
like a father and explained things to me as I had 
never understood them before. I would rather be dis- 
charged by that man than to be put back to work by 
any other man I ever met." 

It is needless to say that, with discipline so effec- 
tively received, he was not long out of the service. 

After dismissing all undesirable men, if necessary 
to further reduce the list in times of slack business, 
have a "lay-off" list on which you place the youngest 
men first. Men on this list are given to understand 
that they will be re-employed, the oldest first, pro- 
vided they keep you advised of their address. On the 
railway with which I am connected, for many of the 
men we find temporary employment on other divis- 
ions, where they serve without rank until recalled. 

Both in hiring and in dismissing men one should 
bear in mind the future as well as the immediate 
needs, and endeavor to make a reputation that will be 
of growing benefit to himself and to his company. The 
company's attitude will, whether you wish it or not, 
be considerably advertised, and ultimately result in 
the securing of better men in the years to follow. 

As is quite generally known, the Chicago & North- 
western Railway, as one of the first to adopt it, have a 
system of first, second and third years' progressive 
mechanical examinations. Each fireman is given the 
first year's book of questions, together with the Book 
of Rules and time card immediately he is employed. 
As soon as convenient after the expiration of his first 
year's service, he is given a written examination there- 
on by the traveling engineer or traveling fireman, who 
also examines him orally. If successful in passing 
this, he is given the second year's book of questions, 
upon which he is examined a )^ear hence in the same 
manner. At the end of his third year the fireman is 
examined by a joint board of' examiners appointed for 
the whole system, which board sits in Chicago each 
spring and fall. Some of the traveling engineers and 

the air-brake intsructor compose this board, and their 
favorable report makes the man eligible to promotion 
to an engineer whenever needed as such on his own 
division thereafter. 

The failure to pass any one of these progressive ex- 
aminations results in a second trial six months later; 
two successive failures drop a man from the locomo- 
tive service at once, as no men are permitted to waive 
their right to promotion. 

When firemen have passed their mechanical exam- 
inations for. promotion to engineers, they should, as 
soon as possible, be sent to the train department for 
time card and Book of Rules examination so as to be 
eligible for use as engineers at any time. 

Just previous to the expected busy season, such fire- 
men should be required to fire on runs where they can 
readily be had for running and a new fireman put in 
their place ; for, if they are permitted to take work 
where their lay-over is at outlying points, too much 
delay is occasioned in relieving them and getting them 
to the main terminals where needed. 

If it happens that on any division promotion is so 
slow that a fireman has to fire for considerable more 
than three years, it should be required that he fire in 
freight service at least three months immediately pre- 
vious to being promoted, this because a long period 
of firing in passenger service is not good experience 
immediately preceding promotion to an engineer, 
where he will begin Work in extra freight service. 

During one busy season it was required as an ex- 
periment that each inexperienced man employed 
should take a certain course on firing and combustion; 
the cost of which was very small. That fall, among 
the seventy-five men hired, there was not a single in- 
stance of burned-out locomotive grates, and compared 
with the year previous, on the ton-mileage basis, a 
saving of over $60,000 in coai was effected, besides 
considerable in running repairs ; for much of the boiler 
repairs to locomotives results from poor firing — usu- 
ally too heavy firing. 

I believe that the time is not far distant when the 
leading railroads of the country will demand a knowl- 
edge of combustion and at least the theory of firing, 
and have an examination covering those subjects 
which an applicant must pass before employing him 
for a locomotive fireman; also that he should know 
the signals and flagging rules. When we consider 
that a few weeks' study and a small tuition will give 
a young man this information, there is nothing un- 
reasonable in demanding this previous preparation for 
a position that pays from seventy to one hundred dol- 
lars per month; but there is a practical difficultv to- 
day, namely, with less rigid requirements, many roaas 
find it impossible to obtain enough men who can 
stand the service, due to the advent of modern coal- 
burning locomotives of such great size. Nor can we 
look for marked change in condition until mechanical 
stokers of successful design are inaugurated and ex- 
tensively used. When we have to hire "coal heav- 
ers," we cannot expect to be paying for much brains ; 
hence I believe the railroads of the country are not 



February, 1 905. 

paying sufficient attention to the use and develpoment 
of these labor-saving devices for the fireman, for sev- 
eral of them are as efficient as some other apparatus 
when first applied to the locomotive, and it would not 
be unreasonable to expect great improvement therein 
were sufficient inducement offered. 

Form E. W. P. No. 100. 



Office of the Master Mechanic. 

Missouri Valley, Iowa, , 190 .. . 




E. W. P. Form 101. 

• Missouri Valley, Iowa, ,190... 


Dear Sir: — 

You will please come lwe at once and report to this office. 
If your application is approved by the doctor we have use for a few 
firemen at once. Hence advise me by return mail if anything should prevent 
your immediate coming. 

Yours truly, 

E. W. Pratt, 
Master Mechanic. 

Dear Sir: — 

Replying to your letter of application, would say v.e are likely to need 

more locomotive firemen on short notice about or there- 

aft3r, so you must keep us posted as to any change of address and also notify 
us at any time if conditions should change so that you could not come at any 
time we might send for you. 

You will please fill out the first l 1 /; pages of enclosed application Form No. 
...., paying particular attention to answering all questions fully and care- 
fully filling out each column of question 8 so that it will show your exact his- 
tory for the past five years. You will also please write me a letter stating 
your weight, height and just what school advantages you have had, also 
giving the names and business occupation' of three men as references, whom 
we can write as to your habits, character and reliability. If you would 
desire work about the roundhouse or shops until such time as we need more 
firemen or until we find you to be a man advantageous for us to continue 
in our employe, please state so in your reply and if we can find a place for 
you, you will be duly advised. 

If you have not already advised me, I should be pleased to know if you 
have studied the subjects of COMBUSTION and LOCOMOTIVE FIRING 
■or intend taking up such a course. 

Yours truly, 

E. W. Pratt, 
Master Mechanic. 
Form E. W. P. No. 102. 

Office of ihe Master Mechanic. 

Missouri Valley, Iowa , 190. . . 

Mr ' 

Div. Foreman, 

Dear Sir: — 

This will introduce to you Mr 

who goes to you for any and all kinds of round house work. 

If you find him capable, his habits good, and think that he will make 
us a good fireman, you may put him to firing when needed, fining out the 
blank below and returning the same to this office. 

I have his application complete and he has passed examination of the 
Company 's surgeou. 

Yours truly, 

Master Mechanic. 

Mr. E. W. Pratt, M. M., 

Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

Dear Sir: — 

The above named man began work as a fireman on (date) 

190 at (hour) M., on Engine No with engineer 

on train No ; or switching 

(Signed) . 

Division Foreman. 
Form E. W. P No. 103. 

Office of the Master Mechanic N. & TV.- Div. 

Missouri Valley, Iowa, , 190 .. . 

Mr .' 


Dear Sir: — 

The bearer, Mr is a fireman 

whom you-wilL place on your list and put at work he is able to perform, 
advising this office on blank lines below, the date, hour and trip that he 
starts work. 

Yours truly, 

Form E. W. P. No. 107. 



Office of the Master Mechanic. 

Missouri Valley, Iowa, , 190. . . 

Mr I 

Agent ; , 

Dear Sir: — 

About (date) and thereafter we are likely to 

need more firemen on short notice. If you know of any young men of good 
character, reliable habits and at least an 8th grade school education, I would 
b? glad to entertain their application. Please hare any such as you can 
recommend write to me, giving their age, weight, height and school advantages 
and I will communicate with them, if satisfactory. 

It is desirable that those not familiar with service in the Mechanical 
Department should, for a few months, work at any and all kinds of round- 
house and shop work. To that intent, we find places for as many prospective 
firemen as possible at our various division points. 

Yours truly, 

E. W. Pratt, 
Master Mechanic. 

Form E. W. P. No. 104. 

Office of the Matter Mechanic. 

Missouri V alley, Iowa, , 190. . . 

To the Road Foreman of Engines and the Traveling Fireman : — 
Gentlemen : — 

Mr .' has been employed as a fireman 

on this ' division and started work at , date 

He claims to have had experience. You will please 

become acquainted with him, ride with him on the road and criticize his 
work as soon as possible and as often as your other duties will permit, advis- 

ing me as to your estimate of him within •four months from date, using blank 

Yours truly, 

E. W. Pratt, 
Master Mechanic. 
Mr. E. W. Pratt, M. M., 

Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

(Date) .... .i 190 

Dear Sir: — 

I have ridden with the above named fireman times and taking all 

points into consideration I would consider him to be a 

(Good, Fair, or Poor) man. 

His good points are 

His undesirable points ' are - 

The engineers and division foremen for whom he has worked think him a 
fireman, and desirable to retain in the service 


Boad Foreman of Engs. Trav. Fireman. 

Form E. W. P. No. 106. 



(Place) (date) .190 

Mr. E. W. Pratt, M. M., 

Missouri Valley, Iowa. 
Dear Sir: — 

During the past month of I have fired principally as 

follows : 

Did Engine Was Engine Were You Able to Have 
Engine No. Engineer. Steam Well? Light on Coal? Fires Light and in 

Good Shape at Terminals? 

M. M. 

Mr. E. W. Pratt. M. M.,. 

Missouri Valley, Iowa. 
Dear Sir: — 

The above man began work as a fireman on (date) 

19 , at (hour) M., on Engine No 

with engineeman on train No , or 




Have you improved and gained greater skill in firing the past month? 

Ave you able to stand the hard work of firing heavy engines? 

Do you make it a practice to obtain good rest and sleep when off duty? 

YourS truly, 



The above blank is to be filled out by each fireman for the "first six 
months of his service. Division Foremen please check up and send in. 

February, 1905. 



Railway Mechanical Training as Viewed by a 
Technical Graduate 

ON page 489 of our December issue we , published 
a letter signed by "Q." on the above subject. 
The following is in answer to "Q.'s" letter: 
Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

The discussions of the "special apprentice" ques- 
tion recently appearing in the Master Mechanic have 
been very interesting to me as a former special ap- 
prentice, and I think several points have been brought 
out which will be of benefit to others entering these 
same lines. 

The question has several times been asked, "Why 
do so many special apprentices leave railroad work?" 

The correct answer to this question has, in my 
opinion, the elements of the whole special apprentice 
question. I believe the reason so many special appren- 
tices leave railroad work is due to the fact that they 
enter the work because their future in railroad work 
has been to a certain degree misrepresented and 
painted overbright by their college professor, and not 
because they have an3 r special preference or ability 
for the work. It is usually impressed on the student 
by his professor that the heads of the mechanical de- 
partment are anxiously awaiting the egress of the 
student into railroad work, and at the first oppor- 
tunity after serving his apprenticeship the said me- 
chanical department will place the newly fledged 
"railroad man" into a position of trust and responsi- 
bility, regardless of his ability, from which he will 
quickly reach the top of the ladder and the large sala- 
ries attached thereto. 

It is safe to say that the rapid rise is in most in- 
stances a dream and the high salaries to be gained 
in the mechanical department a nightmare of huge 
proportions, as any railway mechanical man knows to 
his sorrow. 

Consequently, as soon as the embryo would-be su- 
perintendent of motive power awakens to these facts 
he immediately gets into other lines, and leaves be- 
hind only those who are really in love with the rail- 
way work. 

All who remain in the service cannot expect to be- 
come superintendent of motive power, for their 
natural abilities do not permit them to advance as fast 
as some more fortunate individual, who has had less 
education, but is endowed with much more natural 
ability; consequently the few technical mechanics 
who do remain in the service will advance as much 
faster in proportion to their fellow workmen as they 
possess the two chief requisites of a railroad career — 
the ability to handle men and business. 

By handling men I not only mean to so manipulate 
and organize the forces at command that the work in 
hand may be turned out in the quickest time and at 
the cheapest cost, while keeping the men so organized 
in a healthy and friendly state of mind; but the suc- 
cessful railroad man must develop the ability to read 
men, not only to be able to place the right man in the 

positions best suited for him, but also to understand 
the characters of his superiors and be able to make 
personal friends of them, which latter accomplish- 
ment is one of the most important adjuncts and one 
for which no little credit is due the individual. 

By ability to handle business I mean that besides 
the ability to grasp the details of cost and expendi- 
ture, and so get the best service out of the equipment 
under charge at least expenditure, while maintaining 
the standard of good equipment, the higher officials 
must have a grasp of general market conditions and 
ability to master the intricacies of a vast organization, 
so that the whole may run smoothly with itself and 
the other departments with which it comes in contact. 

Most of the above mentioned qualities can be 
largely developed, provided the natural abilities are 
present, and the young man who looks forward to be- 
coming a superintendent of motive power should re- 
member that the heads of the mechanical departments 
of our large railways have attained that goal only 
through a life time of hard work and application to 
the service, combined with the exercise of their great 
natural talents. 

However, to the young man who likes the work, 
who is prepared to give long hours to the service at 
comparatively small pay, and who has the right in- 
gredients, the railway field presents a very bright fu- 
ture, and the way is sure to lead up from machinist to 
foreman, general foreman, master mechanic, and per- 
haps superintendent of motive power, or higher yet. 
My own opinion is that the years spent in the railway 
service were the most profitable of my life, as far as 
gaining knowledge and experience goes, and the 
fundamental principles gained therein have been very 
useful to me since. 

Yours truly, 


•»» » 


Mr. H. H. Harvey has been appointed general car 
inspector of the Chicago, Burlington & Ouincy at Chi- 

Mr. R. Wharton, general foreman in the car depart- 
ment of the Chicago & Northwestern, died the latter 
part of December. Mr. Wharton was well known in 
car work in Chicago. 

Mr. C. J. Nash has resigned as mechanical engineer 
of the Pullman Company, to accept the position of 
superintendent of the Standard Car Co. 

Mr. W. C. Smith has been appointed division master 
mechanic of the Missouri Pacific, with headquarters 
at Fort Scott, Kan. 

Mr. W. L. Kellogg has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Pere Marquette, in charge of motive 
power and equipment, with headquarters at Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Mr. Samuel L. Hawks, superintendent of air brakes 
of the Chicago & Alton, died at Bloomington, 111., on 
Jan. 2, aged 73. 



February, 1905. 

Mr. F. A. Deckert has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Riverside shops of the Louisville & 
Nashville at Knoxville, Tenn. 

Mr. J. P. Young has been appointed master car- 
builder of the Missouri Pacific at St. Louis, Mo., in 
place of Mr. W. D. Lowry, resigned. 

Mr. J. F. Sheahan, master mechanic of the Southern 
Railway at Columbia, S. C, has been transferred to 
Spencer, N. C, in a similar position, to succeed Mr. 
G. R. Richards, resigned. 

Mr. J. W. Marden, formerly general foreman of the 
car department of the Boston & Maine, has been ap- 
pointed assistant master car builder, with headquarters 
at Boston, Mass. 

Mr. R. A. Billingham, formerly general master me- 
chanic of the Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern, has 
been appointed superintendent of motive power, with 
office at St. Marys, Pa., and the former office has been 

Mr. W. D. Lowey, who has been general foreman 
of the car department of the Missouri Pacific, has re- 
signed that position, to become master car builder of 
the Pere Marquette. 

Mr. D. J. Tiinbin has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Rio Grande, Sierra Madre & Pacific, 
with headquarters at El Paso, Tex., succeeding Mr. 
M. D. Stewart. 

Mr. William Bowden, formerly general foreman of 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy at North St. Louis, 
Mo., has been appointed master mechanic of the Ter- 
minal Railroad Association of St. Louis, to succeed 
Mr. William Miller, resigned. 

Mr. David Anderson, formerly division master me- 
chanic of the Lake Erie & Western at Muncie, Ind., 
has been appointed superintendent of equipment of 
the Chicago, Indiana & Eastern, with headquarters at 

Mr. William Miller, formerly master mechanic of 
the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, has 
been appointed assistant superintendent of motive 
power of the Denver & Rio Grande, with headquarters 1 
at Denver, Colo. 

Mr. J. B. Phillips, general foreman of the locomo- 
tive department of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Coast Lines at Albuquerque, N. M., has been trans- 
ferred to San Bernardino, Cal., as general foreman,, 
succeeding Mr. A. H. Gavins, resigned. Mr. J. A. 
Conley, roundhouse foreman at Albuquerque, has been 
appointed general foreman in place of Mr. Phillips. 

Mr. George W. Cooper has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Mexican Central at Monterey, Mex., 
to succeed Mr. T. H. Ogden, transferred. 

The adjustable wrenches will be found to be well fitted and 
tedserviceable. The stocks are drop forged and the jaws 
milled out of the best tool steel, so as to grip the squares of 
the taps evenly and firmly. 

The handles are made of bicycle tubing and firmly fixed. 
The motion to the jaw is given by means of the knurled 
thumb nut through differential screws. 

Taps and Dies. 

The accompanying illustration represents some of the taps, 
dies and tap wrenches of the Wiley & Kussel Mfg. Co., Green- 
field, Mass. These taps and dies are made for accurate and 
fa si work. The work accomplished is done better and faster 
than with adjustable cutters of the old style. 

Wiley & Russell Taps and Dies. 

The "R. A." or "Ajax" Vestibule Diaphrams 

The "Ajax" or "K. A., canvas belting riveter diaphragm 
contains the best and most durable material and embodies 
the best features known to modern practice. 

The A. C. & F. and Pullman types are made of especially 
selected quality of three-ply cotton belting, 11 in. in width 
and is folded in center and riveted, enclosing steel stiffening 
rods, avoiding any sewed seams on inside edge and removing 
a great element of weakness. They are riveted at the folds 
with brass rivets which are heavily black japanned, pre- 
venting rust, corrosion or tarnishing. By the use of these 
rivets there are no threads exposed to the weather to rot 
away, and no rubber coating canvas or cemented joints to 
crack. These diaphragms are further reinforced by a gal- 
vanized steel rod, which runs enrirely around the diaphragm 
inside the inner folds. This rod supports ' and effectually 
prevents sagging at the corners or top, buckling or getting 
out of shape; thus they are kept in perfect alignment and 
always present a neat appearance. 

All edges and joints are bound with leather cloth in order 
to give the greatest neatness and enduring service. Exten- 
sive experience has shown that leather cloth is superior in 
wearing qualities to leather or any other form of binding. 
Thp diaphragms have a' top shield or hood made of heavy 
enameled duck for shedding cinders and moisture of all 

These diaphragms are handsome in appearance, being- 
stained a deep black, neatly bound, and fit perfectly at the 

The Gould type of Ajax diaphragm is made of a contin- 
uous strip of belting reinforced with a galvanized steel rod 

February, 1905. 



extending around the inner edge on inside diaphragm and 
around outer edge of outer diaphragm to support and keep 
it in alignment. This style is made in narrow folds and 
from one piece with no corners. There are two diaphragms 
to each vestibule and four per car. 

These diaphragms are sold by the Railway Appliances Co., 
Old Colony Building, Chicago, 111. 

♦ » »■ 

Notes of the Month 

The Pittsburg & Lake Erie Railroad will install a compressed 
air plant in its freight classification yards at Hazelton, Pa., 
for changing and testing air brake systems of all trains made 
up in those yards. 

The American Locomotive Company has presented to Pur- 
due University, Lafayette; Indiana, the full-sized model loco- 
motive cylinders sectioned to show the piston valve construc- 
tion, which formed a part of its exhibit at the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition. 

The New York Board of Trade and Transportation, on De- 
cember 28, unanimously adopted the report of ,a committee 
in opposition to the Quarlers-Cooper bill in Congress, which 
proposes to confer on the Interstate Commerce Commission 
the power to fix rates to be charged in lieu of any rates of 
which it may disapprove-. 

The Pennsylvania R. R. Co. has recently completed a large 
power plant near its passenger yards in Pittsburg, Pa., which 
is to furnish steam for heating the cars in the yards, com- 
pressed air for testing the brakes and other purposes, as well 
as electricity for charging the storage batteries of electrically 
lighted cars. 

The great merit of the celebrated Moncrieff Scotch gauge 
glasses has been strikingly brought out in the fact that these 
glasses were the only ones awarded a gold medal at the recent 
St. Louis Exposition. They received th highest possible 
award. The H. H. Rogers Company, of New York, sole agents 
in the United States, report a large and steadily increasing 
demand for these well-known goods. 

The Union Pacific road has successfully welded a broken 
frame on a Pacific type engine by the alumino-thermit pro- 
cess. This is one of a few attempts to be recorded of the 
use of thermit to weld a broken locomotive frame. The sav- 
ing effected by welding a frame in position, making dismant- 
ling unnecessary, will be the force that will push thermit 
welding to a front place in locomotive repairs. 

The Hancock Inspirator Co. of 85 to 89 Liberty street, New 
York, have issued a miniature of their large catalogue for 
pocket purposes. This booklet contains a description of their 
factory, the history of the Hancock inspirator, methods of 
selecting the proper size of inspirator, together with illustra- 
tions of the various kinds of Hancock inspirators, specifica- 
tions, dimensions, directions, repair parts and price lists. 

Arrangements are being made for the installation of wire- 
less telegraphy on the New York Central and Lake Shore rail- 
roads. It is proposed to equip the Twentieth Century limited, 
so that passengers may send or receive messages at any time, 
whether the train is standing still or running at a high rate of 
speed. Another object in installing wireless system of teleg- 
raphy is to avoid loss of communication when the wires are 

The Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., of Cuyahoga Falls. Ohio, are 
in receipt of an order for several thousand feet of double re- 
fined charcoal hollow iron bars, to be used in a number of 

locomotives that the Baldwin Locomotive Works are building 
for a railroad in Brazil. During the year the Falls Hollow 
Staybolt Company made a number of improvements in their 
plant, so as to increase the output. This Avas necessitated on 
account of doubling the amount of iron sold. 

The extent and cost of the work of track elevation, which 
has been carried on in the city of Chicago by various railway 
companies during the last few years, are not generally real- 
ized. Already 82.8 miles of main lines and 425 miles, includ- 
ing all tracks, have been elevated on solid earth embank- 
ments or steel viaducts, at an expenditure of nearly $30,000,- 
000 and work is progressing, or is proposed, which will cost 
over $18,000,000 more. 

The Hayden & Derby Mfg. Co., of No. 85 to 89 Liberty street, 
New York, has issued a miniature of their large catalogue. 
This miniature is made for pocket purposes and contains illus- 
trations of the Metropolitan automatic injectors, Metropolitan 
"1898" injectors, Metropolitan double-tube injectors, H-D eject- 
ors and jet apparatus. It also has tables of dimensions, direc- 
tions for connecting up, reasons why injectors do not work, 
and skeleton injectors with names of repair parts. 

Mr. Harry W. Frost desires to announce to the railway trade 
the organization of the Monarch Railway Supply Company to 
handle railway specialties, with headquarters in Detroit, Mich. 
In addition to several other manufactures, they have made 
arrangements with the Pressed Steel Car Company for the 
sale of the following specialties manufactured by them: 
Trucks, bolsters, brake beams and steel carlines. The tempo- 
rary offices of the company are at 614-618 Majestic Building. 
Detroit, and permanent offices will be located in the Penob- 
scot building, Detroit, after May 1, 1905. 

It may be of interest to have the facts of the starting of 
the firm of Manning, Maxwell & Moore of New York recalled. 
In 1873 the firm of H. S. Manning & Company was started 
which was succeeded by the firm of Manning, Maxwell & 
Moore in 1881. The growth of the business was steady and 
the firm now has branch offices in Chicago, Cleveland, St. 
Louis, Pittsburg, Boston and Philadelphia. The various manu- 
facturing interests have been acquired so that today the firm 
is interested in the manufacturing industries of the Ashcroft 
Mfg. Co., manufacturing steam gauges, indicators, pipe fitting 
tools, etc. The Consolidated Safety Valve Company, manu- 
facturing safety valves, the Hayden & Derby Mfg. Co., manu- 
facturing Metropolitan injectors and ejectors; the Hancock 
Inspirator Company, manufacturing Hancock inspirators and 
valves of various kinds and the Shaw Electric Crane Company, 
manufacturing electric traveling cranes. On January 9, 1905, 
Mr. Henry S. Manning sold his entire interest in the firm of 
Manning, Maxwell & Moore together with his interest in the 
various manufacturing concerns to Mr. C. A. Moore. There 
will be no change in the name or character of the firm and its 
business will be conducted in the future by Mr. Moore and the 
men who have been associated with him. The reason of Mr. 
Manning's retiring from the firm is due to his desire to retire 
from business and be relieved of business cares and problems. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad system were awarded the fol- 
lowing awards by the juries of the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position: A special commemorative grand prize for its orig- 
inal series of scientific investigations of locomotive perform- 
ance; a grand prize for the model of the terminal passenger 
station in New York City; a grand prize for the locomotive 
testing plant and laboratory; a grand prize for the railway 
postal and mail car; a grand prize for the model of the West 
Philadelphia terminal; a grand prize for the model of the 



February, 1905. 

.New York and Long Island railroad tunnels; a grand prize 
for the full-sized section of the tunnel under tne .North river; 
a grand prize for exhibits of maps and drawings illustrating 
tne following improvements, viz.; chauge of line at Irwin, 
ra.j .brilliant branch through the city of Pittsburg; cnange 
of line at Coatesville, Pa., and stone arch bridge over Brandy- 
wine creek; change of line east of Duncannon; change of 
line from Wiltmore to Surnmerhill; change of line from 
.Ully to Portage; change of line at Trenton ana Morris- 
vine; track elevations at Wilmington; stone arch briuge at 
Silver Lake; stone arch bridge at i\ew isruiiswicii, jn. j., and 
liockville bridge over the Susquehanna river, a granu prize 
to the Societe Alsacienne de Construction Mecaniques tor tne 
i»e Ulehn four-cylinder compound; a gold meuai ior tne ex- 
nibit of the pension, relief and saving fund department, and 
a gold medal for the exhibit of the Y. M. (J. A. 


Negotiations have been completed whereby Purdue Univer- 
sity is to receive from the JNew lork, JNew naven & nart- 
lord Kaiiroad, tnrougn tne courtesy of Mr. Samuel xiiggins, 
general manager, the historic locomotive •'Daniel JNelson.." a 
lew years ago the University interested itseir in securing 
iroiu railways, samples of such classes 01 locomotives as are 
now being superceded by machines of more inouern construc- 
tion, its purpose being to preserve as museum exnibits types 
of design wnich were in danger of becoming extinct, as a 
result of this plan, a number of valuable relics are already 
upon its grounds. Prom the beginning of this movement, an 
effort has been made to secure a representative of a type 
which was common throughout New England thirty years 
ago, namely, an 8-wheeled engine having cylinders inside the 
frames connecting with the crank axle, This effort has now 
been crowned with success. The "Daniel Nelson" is said to 
have been built in 1858. It was exhibited in Chicago -in 1893 
and has since been held as a relic at Poxbury, Mass. The 
engine weighs about twenty-five tons, is complete with its 
tender and will be shipped to the University at Lafayette, 
Indiana, upon its own wheels. 

4-~* ■ / 

In the year 1874 Mr. J. D. Cox, in a very modest way, es- 
tablished himself in Cleveland for the manufacture of tools. 
Pive years later Mr. P. F. Prentiss joined him as partner. 
Por twenty-five years this partnership went on uninterrupted 
and was known to the business world as "Cleveland Twist 
Drill Co." During this period by careful management and 
with constant vigil for producing tools of the highest quality, 

the business prospered, until today its product is found wher- 
ever civilization exists. • The immense factory, built up as 
increased business demanded, and equipped with special and 
modern machinery and appliances, further attests the result 
of successful business methods. After thirty years of con- 
stant activity, Mr. Cox has decided that he has earned a lit- 
tle rest and relief from responsibility, which was further 
emphasized by his health demanding a change, and with this 
in view, the partnership was merged into a stock company, 
Dec. 31, 1904, and hereafter will be known as "The Cleveland 
Twist Drill Co." Before transferring the partnership affairs 
to the stock company, several of the old employees were in- 
vited to take stock. This opportunity was readily accepted 
by all to whom the privilege was accorded. While Mr. Cox 
will be relieved of active duties, he will still retain his large 
holdings and also serve in the capacity of vice-president and 
director. The other officers of the company are: Mr. F. F. 
Prentiss, president and general manager; Mr. E. G. Buckwell, 
secretary; Mr. Geo. F. Kast, treasurer. Notwithstanding that 
this change has taken place, the personnel of the company 
remains intact, and the same guiding spirit of the past will 
be maintained in the future. The office and factory are lo- 
cated at Cleveland, 0. 


Technical Publications. 

Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Convention of the Travel- 
ing Engineers' Association. 
These proceedings are nicely bound and have 285 pages of 
reading matter. The papers presented and discussed at the 
convention are the future engineer, the water tube, the high 
speed brakes, headlights, location, type, operation and care, 
valve motion, the use of grease on locomotive bearings, and 
progressive examination of firemen and new men. 

♦ » » 

"Illustrated Points for Men on the Head End." By W. G. 
Wallace, Supt. M. P. of the D. M. & N. Pocket size; bound 
in leather, gilt edges; 71 pages; 36 illustrations. Published 
by The World Railway Publishing Co., Chicago. Price, $1. 

This is a handy reference book for all connected with loco- 
motive service. The illustrations are all clear and described 
in the language of the roundhouse. It contains information 
on instructions to firemen; how to make an engine steam; 
care of rods, wedges, driving boxesj getting over the road; 
lubrication, emergencies, etc. It also teaches how to figure 
tractive power, train resistance due to curves, grade, speed 
and many other things. 

■» » » 

Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest of 

CHARLES E. COPP &&J& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. <Sb M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

Paint Burners Versus Paint Removers. 

We are not yet convinced of the practicability of . paint 
removers of any sort in place of the gas flame for removing 
paint from the exterior of cars, a matter which our esteemed 
Mr. Pitard calls our attention to in the last issue, taking 
rather an affirmative and hopeful view of the question and 
situation. Some whose shops have been destroyed during 
the past year, by having a flame in too close proximity with 
a varnish remover they were using, have seized one horn 
of the dilemma and thrown out the varnish remover— a good 
servant; now Mr. Pitard has got hold of the other horn and 
proceeds to throw out the flame— another good servant — on 

the hypothesis that it is a hard master. Now for our part 
we cannot see any necessity for throwing out either. Keep 
them at a proper distance from each other and they will not 
quarrel but produce good work and plenty of it. We are 
using both right along in a shop of ten-car capacity and 
have for a year or two. When we learned the inflammable 
nature of varnish removers we began to exercise due care 
and caution. . That is all that is necessary in their safe use. 
Burning off a car outside at the same time that varnish 
remover is being used inside, or near enough to have its 
fumes take fire, is where the trouble originates. In short 
days, where lighting up with other than electric lights is 

February, 1905. 



necessary, let the varnish removing rest until daylight can 
be substituted for the artificial light, and then pitch in and. 
do the varnish removing and quit when lighting up time 
comes. If a car must be burned off at the same time the 
varnish remover is being used, separate the two jobs to dif- 
ferent points in the shop and there will be no trouble. This 
is not half the scare-crow that some try to make it out to 
be when looked at rationally. Instil into the men the same 
knowledge of these things that the foreman has himself, 
nnd they will all turn loyal guards against trouble of this 
character, because they will see their bread and butter and 
have a care to keep the premises from burning down, and 
thus be thrown out of employment indefinitely. 

On the face of it the invention of a successful paint re- 
mover, which is not yet upon the market, that will, when 
applied with a brush, remove the many coats of paint and 
varnish from a car "as slick as grease" from not only the 
plain surface but from all beads of sheathing and corners 
and crevices, appears to be a great desideratum; but whether 
it will ever be done remains to be seen. We know that a 
paste of lime and soda can be made very cheaply to remove 
at one operation, no matter how many coats of paint and 
varnish, from a car; but its use would be hazardous from the 
after effect:? of the alkali that might work out of cracks and 
crevices, no matter how thoroughly the car was washed off 
with water, and attack the newly applied paint and varnish. 
Whether other chemicals can be employed whose high cost 
would not be prohibitive for this work, in comparison with 
the low cost of the gas -flame to do this work successfully, 
remains to be seen. It is' up to the chemist. Personally we 
are "a doubting Thomas" in this regard. The health of the 
men who use these chemicals will also have to be taken into 
account. Already some of the varnish removers in use are 
very bad in this respect and their makers and consumers 
would seem to be well nigh indictable for putting such 
things into the hands of men who are ignorant of their nature. 
It would seem that a company would have to answer for the 
carelessness and negligence of the person in authority who 
is responsible for the use of some of these things whose 
nature can be revealed by a simple test. It would be better 
to run a little risk of burning a shop in the use of a flame 
than to ruin the health of even one man by the use of ques- 
tionable chemicals, if not to kill him, whose nature he does 
not understand, and if he did he would not use them. Many 
of them that are comparatively harmless to a man's consti- 
tution are injurious to the skin of his hands, rendering it 
necessary to wear while working in them some sort of gloves 
as a protection. When the paint can be removed from a 60- 
foot vestibuled coach exterior for $12 worth of labor, and 
the little additional cost of compressed air and gas, some- 
body has a job on their hands to devise a chemical compound 
that will displace this practice, all things considered. Still, 
our watchword has never been, "it cannot be done." We'll 
wait and watch, and work. 

♦ « ♦ 

Maintaining Car Interiors. 

The exterior of passenger equipment is almost religiously 
maintained with its annual cleaning, cutting-in and varnish- 
ing, until this course of treatment is no longer considered the 
thing— in about seven ©r eight years from painting— when it 
is burned off and repainted again from the wood; and so the 
battle goes on merrily from year to year against the elements 
as the years and the cars come and go. But as to the in- 
teriors—well, they largely shift for themselves, as it were. 
Too often it is the case that they are sponged and mopped 
out hurriedly at a piece-work gait with dirty water, as it 
costs the workman money to bring clean water from a dis- 
tance, and so they rapidly accumulate the grime of age in 
corners and crevices, if not all over their surface, only to 

be varnished-in when they need it(?). And then what? A 
drastic measure will have to be resorted to to get down to 
that beautiful wood that has become buried. No wonder var- 
nish removers are becoming popular. One is' led to suggest 
by way of illustration, however, that if a white man will 
only wash his face clean regualrly he need not resemble a 
negro, nor resort to a chemical to skin the cuticle from it to 
again look white. In other words, if car interiors are prop- 
erly scrubbed with soap and pumice and washed with plenty 
of clean water, being particular at each washing to see that 
all corners and crevices are "stuck out" clean, there need 
be no trouble' in keeping car interiors presentable a reason 
able length of time, varnishing occasionally when required. 
Concerning this last item we would urge that it be done as 
sparingly as possible, probably not oftener than once in five 
years for coaches and three years for smokers, if a durable 
article for varnish is used, to avoid as long as possible un- 
seemly accumulation of needless material and its consequent 
cracking. Still, if the surface is dead and dry it must be en- 
livened with a coat of varnish now and then to avoid the 
disintegration and perishing of the surface which has been 
obtained at so great cost. If there is any part of a coach 
that should be kept in good order it is the interior where 
people accustomed to well-kept homes must ride all day long 
and view it in its neatness or slovenliness,, as the case may be. 
To return to the matter of cleaning, it is an apt saying 
that "what's everybody's business is nobody's business," and 
this illustrates the difficulties encountered on a road with a 
half dozen or more shops for the annual shopping of its 
equipment where the cars are shifted around on the various 
divisions and mixed up so that John Smith of the so-and-so 
shop never sees the same car twice, and Tom Brown of an- 
other shop doesn't care whether he does or not. And it will 
take an omnipresent, omniscient Master Painter, always on 
the wing, to see and correct all these evils of interior negli- 
gence. They may have existed before his day. At any rate 
they exist, and to correct them is the awful hill he has to 
climb and against great odds. Nothing but a liberal use of 
elbow grease and varnish remover will do it now and the 
refinishing of the entire surface; and for this men, material 
and outlay must be made, and here he will have difficulty 
in convincing his superiors of its needs. They have only 
been looking <at the cost of putting on material, hardly 
dreaming that it has got to come off some day. 

Sometimes the interiors of cars have been gotten into a 
bad state by the use of ill-advised renovators and oil clean- 
ers for cleaning, when they should have had soap and water 
and pumice stone. If this is the case the cost of its use has 
got to be again paid for in eradication and putting back into 
right shape. No material of this kind that will dry as a film 
on the surface should be used, as it will only gum up cor- 
ners and produce bad results and likely get varnished-in into 
the bargain. An oil cleaner or renovator that has an evap- 
orating quality but no drying propensity will do to enliven a 
surface that has had a previous proper cleaning where a 
coat of varnish is not necessary; and this is about the extent 
of its use on car interiors that have had a year or more of 
service running after smoke and steam. 

Wooden headlinings, with tilting deck-sash to allow the 
sulphurous acid of smoke, etc., to course across them, will 
have to be especially looked after in the matter of cleaning 
and to see that they have an extra coat of varnish now and 
then, above what the rest of the interior gets, in order to 
keep them in the right condition. And as to toilet rooms, 
where urine literally cuts a figure, everyone knows that much 
care and labor must be expended here to make them and 
keep them presentable. Also window-seats, where cinders 
and smoke grind off the varnish and grind in the dirt, which 
are directly under the eye of the passenger—these, like "our 
liberties," must be preserved. 



February, 1905 

An Interesting Relic 

Herewith is a cut of an engine that was exhibited at the 
late St. Louis Exposition that has a -history of interest to our 
readers. "It was built-by Seth Wilmarth, who was an en- 
gine builder of some note in the early fifties. His shops were 
situated at South Boston and he built many engines for the 
Boston & Worcester, the Hudson River, the Eastern of Mas- 
sachusetts and the Old Colony R. Rs. His designs were gen- 
erally patterned after the Hinckley engine of those days; but 
they had some points of originality, as for instance, leading 
and trailing four-wheel trucks, he being, probably, the first 
to design this wheel arrangement which was repeated by 
later builders," says the Railroad Gazette of Dec. 16, from 
which we take the cut. 

"The 'Pioneer' has cylinders 9 inches diameter by 14 inches 
stroke, driving wheels 54 inches diameter, weight 13 tons. It 
is a tank engine and has a single pair of driving wheels — 
types of the locomotive that are not, and never were, so com- 
mon in the United States as in Great Britain. The boiler has 
a wagon top arid the steam and exhaust pipes come outside 
the smokebox, where they enter the valve chest at the back 
side. The valve chest cover is on the front side of the chest 
instead of- the top, and neither the pipes nor chests have any 
lagging. -The sand boxes are on the driving wheel guards, but 
side elevations of the engine which have been published sIioav 
a sand dome on the boiler barrel, which was probabiv its 
original position. The engine has link motion. The connect- 
ing rods, and other working parts are very light, but the en- 
gine was probably never used for heavy work. It was built 
for the Cumberland Valley Railroad in 1851, and is said to 
have never been changed or remodeled. As the engine ran 
for forty years, this is a remarkable record." 

Our associate, Mr. D. A. Little, of the Pennsylvania R. R. at 
Altoona, was at the St. Louis Fair and saw this engine and 
writes as follows concerning it: "I enclose clipping from 
Railroad Gazette with cut of the 'Pioneer,' a locomotive that 
was on exhibition at St. Louis, and built in your town of Bos- 
ton and hauled trains of two" ears, one combination and one 
coach 74 miles from Harrisburg to Hagerstown, Md., up to 
about the year 1868, and afterward used for a yard engine. 
This is John Honser's engine and we have both ridden behind 
her on her regular runs. T thought it might interest you in- 
asmuch as it is a Yankee-built engine, besides having hauled 
vour two good friends." 

Henry Laidler. 



Mr. Henry Laidler was born and reared in Rochester, N. Y., 
and learned his trade there of Mr. John Bond at general work. 
From there he moved to Jamestown, N. Y., and som^ years 
later to Northumberland, Pa., and from there to Sunbury, Pa., 
to work for the Pennsylvania R. R., where he worked in the 
shop for two years, when he was promoted to the position 
of foreman painter, which was twenty-five years ago; and he 
held this position until his death, December 11, 1904. He 
leaves a wife, daughter and son to mourn their loss. 

I worked with him for Mr. Bond when he served his ap- 
prenticeship, and a better boy could not be wanted in a 
shop. All the members of our association who had the 
pleasure of his acquaintance at our conventions and else- 
where, will agree that he was as good a man as a boy. Mrs. 
Laing and myself attended the funeral at Sunbury, Decem- 
ber 14th. Eugene Laing, 

Northern Central Ry., Elmira, N. Y. 

•» * ♦• 

An Interesting Rklic. 

Treatment of Round-Top Cars 

The Boston & Maine railroad has of its own and leased 
lines, upwards of one hundred what are termed "round-top" 
passenger cars, that is, circular roofs without any decks 
or decklights, but with two rows of globe ventilators on top 
opening to registers within. These cars, finished in mahog- 
any throughout, including the ceiling, or headlining, were 
ail right when new and the mahogany was light in color, 
but now that they arc getting old and the peculiarity of thai 
wood is to grow darker with age, it is becoming a problem 
what to do with them to relieve them of their gloom. They 
appeared to be the coming car fifteen years ago, but they 
soon became unpopular and none have been constructed since 
Mr. J. T. Chamberlain became Master Car Builder early in 
1890. We have seen in some railway publication some scheme 

February, 1905. 



of a western man for putting in "eye-winkers," or side roof- 
lights into this kind of a car, but with what success we 
never learned. Mr. Chamberlain had a regular monitor roof 
put on to one of these cars some years ago, but why he 
stopped the good work with that car we never knew, but 
surmised that it was too expensive to adopt for the whole, 
or else there was too much other more necessary work de- 
manding attention. A year or more ago he sent the writer 
to the Boston & Albany shops at Allston to see what they 
were doing with this kind of car and to paint the ceiling 
of one like theirs; which he did and, by permission, has done 
others until seven in all have been so treated. This consists 
in painting the mahogany ceiling a tint off from white, leav- 
ing the two longitudinal mouldings that run the length of 
the car to cover the joints of the ceiling pieces, and also 
some of the cross mouldings the natural wood color. A 
border is stenciled on either side above the crown-moulding 
above the hat racks the entire length of car, and all is given 
a light coat of varnish. This experiment has so pleased the 
patrons of the road that favorable comment has been made 
and. we clip the following editorial from a recent issue of 
the Boston Herald under the title of "Train Illumination*': 

"With excellent results the Boston & Maine has acted upon 
the suggestion made in these columns a few months ago to 
the effect that it would be a great improvement in lighting 
passenger coaches if the ceiling and the interior finish in 
general were made as light colored as possible. In one of 
the arched-roofed coaches the ceiling has been painted white. 
It may have seemed a pity to sacrifice the beautiful cherry 
finish and to paint over the natural wood. The transformed 
ceiling, however, not only looks handsome, with its clean 
white surface, but the reflection from white is so much 
greater than it was from red that the illumination in the car 
seems to be fully doubled. The improvement is thoroughly 
appreciated by the passengers, for it enables them to read 
in comfort. Previously, the strain upon their eyes was alto- 
gether too great. It seems strange that a method for in- 
creased illumination so simple, so efficacious and so cheap 
should not have been adopted years ago. It deserves to be 
made use of universally." 

It would need a good deal of argument, however, to con- 
vince Mr. Chamberlain that the volume of light in a car of 
whatever name or nature can be increased by any color of 
paint or system of reflection. He is, however, willing to ad- 
mit, of course, that some colors absorb light, as well as heat, 
while others of light tint reflect it and so make the car in- 
terior appear to be much lighter than it would be otherwise. 
The amount of actual light in a car is that of course which 
is produced by the flames of the lamps within it. Reflected 
light is that which is taken from it by a proper surface and 
so its reflection can be multiplied indefinitely. There is no 
more light in the sun for what the moon and other orbs "bor- 
row" and give us by night. There was no more volume to 
the preacher's voice for what the "sounding board" erected 
above him did in the old churches in the colonial days in New 

♦ * » 

Among the Supply Men. 

W. P. Mellon. 

There have been two words woven together, using the let- 
ters of one to help spell out the other, for so long in adver- 
tisements and elsewhere that they have become familiar to 
all. We refer to "Valentine's Varnishes;" and had we the 
type here we would reproduce them as they appear. At any 
rate, we will reproduce the picture of one of their representa- 
tives, Mr. W. P. Mellon, whom many will remember as attend- 
ing our recent conventions. Mr. Mellon says he can't conceive 

Wm. P. Mellon. 

why we should want his picture in the February issue, unless 
it is because it is "Valentine's Day," as melons cannot be ex- 
pected to be ripe yet. 

Coming from a railroading family, he says, his gravitation 
seemed natural, f;o he made his bow to the railroad trade 
in October, 1900, having made his advent into the varnish 
business about fifteen years ago Avhen he was twenty-four 
years of age, thus he has not yet reached forty and may 
reasonably be expected to visit our conventions for thirty- 
five or forty years more. Consequently there is much in store 
for him and others who will have the pleasure of his com- 
pany. About a year ago he took charge of Valentine & Com- 
pany's western railroad interests and makes his headquarters 
at the Dearborn street office of that company, where "Char- 
ley" Morrill, who used to call on this scribe in the East 
"drumming" varnish thirty-two years ago, holds forth as 
president. Long life to him and his husky western repre- 

Notes and Comments. 

The marriage is announced of Mr. Thomas J. Hutchinson 
to Augusta E., daughter of Mrs. Amelia Moore, which happy 
event took place at London, Ontario, December 31, 1904. We 
wish them not only "a happy new year" but all the joy in 
the world and as few of its sorrows as are good for them. 
Mr. Hutchinson is the successful and*honored foreman painter 
of the Grand Trunk Ry. at that point and our fellow-asso- 
ciate in M. C. & L. P. A. work. 

Steel car painting continues to be a live subject, both with 
makers and consumers of paints. The Detroit Graphite Mfg. 
Co. are just out with a little booklet on "D. G. M." Colors 
for Steel Cars, wherein they describe their specialties in this 
line, consisting of No. 125, primer; No. 126, brown; No. 127, 
red; No. 128, dark slate; No. 129, green, and No. 130, black, 
which they say "are the results of continued tests made to 
produce shades conforming to the standards in use, and, by 
reason of their tough, elastic quality and permanency of 



February, 1905. 

color, adapted to withstand the service and prevent corro- 

We learn indirectly that our old friend and colleague Mr. 
Wm. J. Orr closed his labors as foreman painter with the 
Central Vermont R. R. at St. Albans Thursday, Dec. 29, and 
went to accept a similar position with the Erie at their Buf- 
falo shops. "Billy" shouldn't have shaken the dust of New 
England off so unceremoniously. But for a friendly hint from 
;i supply man we would be still ignorant of his whereabouts 
and perhaps have gone clear up there to see him to find the 
bird had flown! By the way, this is the third appointment to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of our good friend 
•'Dan" Vail a year or so ago. It would seem that "Dan's" 
s-hoes are hard to fill, but trust this appointment will be suc- 

In the absence of other interesting items which would be 
welcome from his associates regarding shop news, practice, 
etc., this scribe has to swell up and blow his own horn, as it 
were, very much to his dislike. If the reader does not like it 
the prettiest way to choke it off is to send in something bet- 
ter. Meanwhile we will say that the Boston & Maine passen- 
ger output from its paint shops for the month of December, 
1904, was 209 cars, which covers all arrearages for two years, 
lacking only two cars, so that by the time the first month of 
the new year is completed we will be on "easy street," as it 
were, regarding this vexatious matter and thus "a happy new 
year" will begin. 

Mr. J. W. Marden, heretofore general foreman of the ear 
department of the Boston & Maine R. R. at Boston, is ap- 
pointed assistant master car builder, effective January 1, 
1905. At the time of the lease of the Fitchburg R. R. by the 
Boston & Maine, July 1, 1900, he was superintendent rolling 
stock of that road. He was then made general foreman of 
the Eitchburg division car department. Subsequently, at 
the retirement of Mr. John Hubbard, general foreman of the 
Somerville shop, his authority was extended over that shop, 
which is but a mile from the Boston Terminal. On the death 
of the late Mr. Jas. E. Pickering, general foreman of in- 
spection, cleaning, light repairs, Pintsch gas plant, etc., which 
occurred a year ago last summer, he succeeded to his duties 
also. Car repairs and inspection at Mystic Junction, Mystic 
Wharf and East Boston were also sometime ago added to 
his duties, so that it may be said that all car repairs and in- 
spection on the B. & M. within a radius of fifteen miles of 
Boston, are under his supervision, and he ought to be. a 
valuable assistant to Mr. J. T. Chamberlain, the master car 
builder, which doubtless he is. He is an ex-president of the 
N. E. R. R. Club and of the M. C B. Association. 

In a brief call at the new big shops of the N. Y., N. H. & 
H. R. R. at Readville, January 19, we found the foreman 
painter, Samuel Pickford, very busy, with 200 men on his 
list, fourteen of whom are freight-car painters. Mr. E. F. 
Bigelow, son of E. L., formerly with the B. & 0., and now 
assistant foreman at the Fitchburg shops of the B. & M., was 
on Monday, January 16, mnde assistant foreman for Mr. 
Pickford. The New Haven road has gone to the other ex- 
treme by abolishing its six stripes around their, car bodies 
and putting on none at all. They have done one good thing, 
however; they have gone back to the use of gold leaf in place 
of paint for letters and numbers on all cars repainted. Such 
ax are good enough to cut in and revarnish they of course 
leave the old painted letters. They stripe in gold all parlor, 
dining, sleeping, state room and private cars. They have 
returned to the use of the black letter formerly in use, aban- 

doning the Roman. This was likely on account of making 
them correspond with the metallic letters on the copper cars 
which were made to that style. It is, however, much the 
more expensive letter to apply and maintain. With an 
equipment second only in size to that of the Pennsylvania 
R. R., and only one shop to do it in, it can be readily imagined 
that the Readville shop is a busy place, with scores of cars 
waiting to be shopped. 

We clip the following interesting items from the January 1 
issue of the "Boston & Maine" Messenger, a monthly publi- 
cation issued by the passenger department of that road, re- 
garding new equipment ordered: "The Boston & Maine Rail- 
road has contracted with the Laconia Car Company for the 
construction of three hundred 36-foot box cars for delivery in 
the near future. These cars are to be similar in construction 
to those which were built some time ago at the Concord, N. 
H., and Fitchburg shops of the company, both as regards 
carrying capacity, which will be 60,000 pounds, and as to 
trucks, which are steel, as formerly. Twenty passenger 
coaches will also be purchased from the Pullman company, 
same to be delivered in July, 1905. These coaches will be 
uniform in construction with those which wei'e delivered by 
the Pullman company during the past summer, that is to say, 
60 feet in length, lighted by Pintsch gas, and otherwise of the 
most modern type. 

"The motive power of the Boston & Maine is to be sup- 
plemented by eight more ten-wheelers from the Schenectady 
works of the American Locomotive Company, ten more mo- 
guls and ten more switching engines from the Manchester 
works of the American Locomotive Company. These engines 
are to be the same as those ordered earlier this year, men- 
tion of which was made in the Messenger at that time. 

"The Concord, N. H., shops are now building four new sixty- 
foot baggage cars and two new mail cars, while the Law- 
rence shop is building one sixty-foot mule-end mail car with 
six wheel trucks." 

We are in receipt of a clipping from an Altoona paper of 
over a column in length recording the sudden death of John 
W. Webber, of that city, January 13, with an interesting 
account of his long and useful life, having been one of 
Altoona's most prominent citizens. It appears that he was 
once the master painter at the Altoona car shops, and likely 
Mr. Ball's predecessor. We extract the following: "John W. 
Webber was the oldest son of Andrew and Sarah (Wilson) 
Webber, and was born May 22, 1829, in Venango county, Pa. 
He was reared in his native county and acquired a good com- 
mon school education. After leaving school he learned the 
trade of house and sign painting, and shortly afterwards, in 
1849, removed from Venango to Huntington county, where 
he worked at his trade until 1852. He then came to Altoona, 
where he has since resided. In the same year he entered 
the employ of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in the paint 
department of the Altoona car shops, and a few years later 
was promoted to the position of master painter, which posi- 
tion he held until 1875, when he resigned. He then engaged 
in the contract painting business under the firm name of 
Webber & Darr, in Philadelphia. This partnership existed 
until 1886, when it was dissolved, Mr. Webber continuing the 
business. His contracts were mostly with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company along its lines between New York and 
Pittsburg, and consisted of painting stations, bridges, towers, 
etc. He prospered and was very successful in his business 
affairs. The past several years the business was managed by 
his son, James L. Webber, from Philadelphia. On January 1, 
1903, Mr. Webber took his son into partnership with him and 
since then the business was conducted under the firm name 
of J. W. Webber & Son." 

March, 1905. 



Established 1878 


ublished by the 

Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 503 The Plymouth Building 
305 Dearborn Street, Chicago 



Harrison 3357 
Automatic 7357 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second- Class Matter 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 
solicited. : 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Cran- 
dall Company. 

Papers should reach subscribers by the tenth of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent. 

Vol. XXIX. 




Editorial 79 

Mr. Thomas Fitzgerald, General Manager B. & 80* 

New Round House of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 81* 
2-6-2 Type of Locomotive for the Chicago & Western 

Indiana 84* 

New Shops for the Pere Marquette at Grand Rapids 86* 

Forging and Coupler Pocket Machine 92* 

Forty-Two Inch Boring and Turning Mill : 93* 

A New Turret Screw Machine 94* 

The Railroad Y. M. C. A 95* 

Communication from a Railroad Apprentice 97 

Cast Steel Trucks 98* 

Fire Alarm Systems 99* 

The Alternating Current Series Motor 99* 

Cleaning Crown Sheets with a Sand Blast 102* 

Personals 102 

Universal Safety Tread. 103* 

No. 2 Stockbridge Index Center 103* 

New Style Auxiliary Grain Door. 103* 

Lackawanna Railroad New Ferry Boats 104 

American Railway Appliance Exhibition 105 

Notes of the Month 105 

Paint Department 107 

Railway Mechanical Index Advertising Pages 20-21-22-24 

Index to Trade Catalogues Advertising Pages 24-26 

BEGINNING with this issue we will publish in the 
advertising pages an index of the contents of 
trade catalogues. By referring to the index the name 
of the firm and number of their publication can be 
obtained, after which it is an easy matter to get the 
desired catalogue. 

The Railway Mechanical Index has been of such 
benefit to the busy man that Ave are endeavoring to 
help him in more ways. One prominent motive power 
official writes us regarding the mechanical index, giving 

as his opinion that the "idea is a capital one" and that as 
a subscriber to a number of railway publications he fre- 
quently reads an item, and afterwards wants to refer 
to it, and more time is occupied in looking for the article 
than the average man can devote to it. This index, he 
thinks, ought to overcome this loss of time, and will be 
a great help to a busy man. 

The same point comes up in catalogues every day. 
A man will glance through them when they arrive 
and later will try to remember where he saw the 
machine in question. By referring to the Index of 
Trade Catalogues, it can be found in a very short 

♦ « » 

IN our February issue we gave a general description 
of the buildings of the Lake Shore round-house, at 
Elkhart, Ind. The question of light in the building was 
not given the attention which is due it. The outside wall 
is nearly all windows, as can be seen by referring to the 
illustrations. Besides this the doors are provided with 
windows, making the light as good as in any machine 

This issue has a description of the sand house, oil 
house, electric wiring, washing out system and heating 
system. The washing out system is of interest on account 
of its simplicity, and using the heat in the old water 
for heating the washing water. This is accomplished 
without pumping hot water through pumps. 

The system of heating has proved very efficient dur- 
ing the cold weather, as the temperature of the houses 
never fell below 50 degrees. 

When these houses were first designed it was the 
intention to seal the inside of the roof with one inch 
hemlock in order to remove all obstruction to the free 
passage of smoke and gases that would enter the house 
when an engine is brought in or for other causes removed 
from under the jack. This plan was later abandoned on 
account of the gases having no occasion to pass any 
other way but up to the highest point of the house. 
Without the sealing these could pass over the cross- 
beam without any interference, while if the sealing were 
put in they would find this obstruction, which would 
force them down. 

•» » » 

p HE subject of making the shop men and espe- 
■*■ c.ially the foreman familiar with the cost of ma- 
terial is continually brought to mind in passing 
through a shop. Workmen will not take care of the 
tools entrusted to them if they do not know their 
value. If a workman could be made to understand 
that the files given to him are worth from fifty cents 
to a dollar and a quarter he would take better care 
of them. Very few foremen and men have ideas as 
to the cost of any class of work. On this account a 
man will consume from seventy-five cents to a dol- 
lar's worth of time in repairing a valve that can be 
bought for twenty-five cents. Again, expensive ma- 
terial will be scrapped when the price of repairing 
seems too high to the man not familiar with the orig- 



March, 1905. 

inal cost. A good system of familiarizing the men get in twice that length of time. That is, he sees and 

with the cost of material is to put the original cost on does work as it is done in different places. This is the 

all goods in the storehouse. In shops where material reason why a "tramp machinist" makes a better man than 

is manufactured to any extent the shop order plan works one who has always been in the same shop or on me same 

well. This consists of a lot order being taken out for road. One railroad considered the experience gained in 

any material manufactured, and the shop should charge other shops of such value that an apprentice, after serv- 

all the time and draw the material for the order. When ing his time, was discharged and could not enter the 

the order is completed the total cost is obtained from service of the road again until he had had several years' 

the time and material charged. The foreman should then experience in other shops, 
be made familiar with these 

costs in order that he may 
devise some means to re- 
duce the price. The figures 
should also be sent to the 
purchasing agent to ascer- 
tain whether he can buy 
the same material in the 
market at a smaller cost. 

This is carried out to 
such an extent on one sys- 
tem that a man in the me- 
chanical engineer's office 
receives the cost of all arti- 
cles manufactured on the 
system. He enters these 
on a card index, taking in- 
to account the amount of 
material manufactured in 
the lot. If there is any 
great difference in the price 
of manufacturing the same 
article at different points, 
the subject is investigated. 
By this means the shops 
become competitors and 
many devices are made to 
manufacture material at 

less cost. 

_ ■♦ <. » 

THE question of the 
special apprentice has 
been pretty thoroughly dis- 
cussed within the last few 
years. In the December 
issue we published a com- 
munication from a techni- 
cal graduate, who had 
served his time as a special 
apprentice. This commu- 
nication, as well as those 

Mr. Thomas Fitzgerald, 
general manager baltimore and ohio railroad. 

Mr. Fitzgerald has been in the continuous service of the Baltimore <St Ohio 
since 1867, when he began as water boy. He served successfully as telegraph mes- 
senger, telegraph operator at various points, train dispatcher, chief train dis- 
patcher, superintendent of trains and train master until October 5, 1883, when he 
was appointed master of transportation of the Trans-Ohio division. On January 
1, 1886, he was made superintendent of the Central Ohio, Lake Erie and Straitsville 
divisions, and on September 1st of the same year was transferred to the superin- 
tendency of the eastern division. On May 20, 1893, he was appointed superinten- 
dent of transportation, and on February 1, 1894, was also made general superin- 
tendent of the main system and branches and the Philadelphia division. He was 
general superintendent of the entire system from July 1, 1899, to March 1, 1900 i 
and since the latter date has been general superintendent of the Philadelphia 
division, main line and branches. On February 1, 19U5, Mr. Fitzgerald was ap- 
pointed general manage^:. 

A great many master 
mechanics do not care to 
take in a man for only 
three months, saying that 
when they are able to do 
the works satisfactorily 
that their time would be up 
and thus would be unprofit- 
able. This is based simply 
on theory, prejudice, or 
possibly on one trial, in 
which the young man tried, 
proved to be one who 
would never make a rail- 
road man. A prominent 
general superintendent of 
motive power, in express- 
ing his views on this sub- 
ject, said that he employed 
quite a number of college 
n ien in his shops during 
their vacation and found 
that in nearly all cases they 
were very valuable, and he 
considered it a good invest- 
ment for the company, be- 
sides being of great advan- 
tage to the student. 

There is no doubt that 
mixing theory and practice 
makes the best man. If a 
man works during his va- 
cation he gets the practical 
end at a time when he 
needs it most. This is be- 
cause he can see in practice 
what he is studying the- 
oretically, and also in the 
latter part of h'is college 
life, when a large part of 
his work consists of prac- 
tical research, he combines 

following in the January 

and February issues, dealt with the vital points in the his knowledge of the shops with that acquired by books. 

special apprentice problem. There is however, another Why would it not be just as well to take a man as 

point in regard to the technical press. This is the described and start him in the roundhouse as a machinist 

as soon as he graduates, to let him work up the ladder 
of responsibility in place of taking men with no experi- 
ence and keeping them at special work for three or four 
years, after which it is an acknowledged fact that they 

gets more practical experience than the apprentice will are not fitted for any position. 



man, who works in the railroad repair 
construction shops during his summer vacat- 
ion es machinist's helper. If this man works his 
three summer vacations in as many different shops he 

March, 1905. 



New Roundhouse of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 

Railway at Elkhart, Ind. 

(Continued from page 52.) 


The sand is handled by Lake Shore standard appa- 
ratus. That is, after the sand goes through the drier it 
is forced by air pressure to the height of the bins, after 
which it is distributed on a belt conveyor to the separate 


The oil house, although small, is of interest. Tanks 
are placed in a basement so as to be easily filled from a 
tank car. The level of the floor above the tanks is the 
same height as the floor of a car so that when oil is 
received in barrels it can be rolled in and the barrels 
emptied into the tanks through holes in the • floor. In 
the store room are a number of Bowser oil pumps con- 
nected to the corresponding tanks in the oil house. From 
these oil is pumped directly into the cans as required. 

There is a suspended platform above the floor of the 

oil house for storing waste. The waste is elevated by 
means of a 4-inch air hoist to this platform. 


The electric power for the plant is at present bought 
from outside parties, but the wiring was laid out for the 
purpose of making the system perfectly balanced, so that 
if at any time the company decides to install its own 
power plant it can do so without any serious difficulty. 

The power is delivered at 2,200 bolts, 2-phase, and a 
Shaw transformer reduces the voltage and divides it 
into three phases for the motors. For lighting 2-phase 
current is used. 

There are six motors used in connection with the 
plant. Three of these are in the coal and sand house, 
while two are on the turn tables, and one is in the machine 
shop. These are all 3-phase, 400-volt induction motors. 
The feed wires for the turn-tables are run under ground 


Fig. 1 — System of Boilerwashing, Elkhart Roundhouse. 


Fig. 2 — System of Boilerwashing, 
Elkhart Round house. 

Fig. 3 — System of Boilerwashing, Elkhart Round house. 



March, 1905. 

wr off 

Fig. 4 — Heater for Boiler Washing, Elkhart Roundhouse. 

in a pipe, laid in asphalt, to the center of the table. The 150 across the outside wires. This system was adopted 

current is taken off of collector rings at this point for the to perfectly balance the power on the 2-phases. The 

motors. wires are carried on posts on top of the house, where 

The wiring for lighting is on the 2-phase, 3-wire sys- they are tapped between each stall for arc and incan- 

tem for no-volt lamps. This makes a voltage of about descent lighting. They are brought down in loricated 

Fig. 5 — View of Piping in Tunnels, Elkhart Round- 

Fig. 6 — Connection Between "Mixing Box" and 
Blow-off Cocks, Elkhart Roundhouse. 

Fig. 7 — "Mixing Box," Elkhart Roundhouse. 

March, 1905. 



Fig. 8 — Heating Pipes in Pit, Cast Iron Coping for 
Pipes and Windows in Doors, Elkhart 


pipes to a common fuse box located 14 feet above the 
floor. From this box another pipe leads to the arc lamps 
and one runs down the posts to a twin receptacle for 
incandescent lamps and plugs. All wires in the build- 

ing are run in loricated pipe to protect them from 
gases, which injure the insulation. 

washing out system. 

The system of washing out was installed by the Erie 
Heating Co. of Chicago. This is their patented system, 
with the exception of the "mixing boxes," located on the 
posts, which were designed by Mr. R. B. Kendig, M. E., 
of the Lake Shore. 

There are three pipes in the tunnels leading from the 
power house around the outside of both houses, with 
taps between the pits. These taps join in the "mixing 
box," shown in the illustration. Every fourth post has 
another pipe leading from the "mixing box" to an over- 
head pipe for connection to the dome. 

For washing boilers the dome connection is made 
first, and all the steam blown out through the blow-off 
pipe. Then the water is blown off through the blow- 
off cocks at the side of the fire box through the same 
pipe. Then either cold or hot water is pumped, either 
from the top, sides or both, for washing. The water 
pressure for this is 100 lbs. If it is desired to fill a 
boiler quickly three connections can be made, one on 
each side and one in the dome. 

Figures 1, 2 and 3 represent diagramatic views of 
this system, with overhead piping, but which serve t<"> 

Fig. 9 — View of Drop Pits, Elkhart Roundhouse. Fig. 10 — System of Wiring, Elkhart Roundhouse. 

8 4 


March, 1905, 

Fig. 11 — View of Wiring and Smoke Jacks on Roof 
Elkhart Roundhouse. 

illustrate the system. When steam or hot water are 
blown off they enter the heater through the blow-off 
pipe shown in Fig. 4. The steam will rise to the upper 
drums and the hot water will enter the lower dome. The 
inside of these drums are full of pipes, through which 
cold water is pumped for heating. This is the source 
of the hot water used for washing and filling the boilers, 

At present twenty boilers are washed a day in these 
two houses, whose total number of stalls is fifty. 

If it is desired to only change the water in the boiler 
without washing, the blow-off cocks at the side are 
connected up to the "mixing box," and the overhead pipe 
is connected to the dome. Hot or cold water can then 
be put in the top while the old water is removed through 
the bottom. 

The connection between the "mixing; box" and blow- 

SHarHTilelor ■> 1 


Fig. 12 — Cross Section of Oil House, Elkhart 

off cocks consists of six McLaughlin joints mounted on 
a small truck. On the truck there is a tool box to carry 
all the wrenches needed for coupling or removing plugs, 
from the engine. 


The heating of the house is by direct radiation from 
steam pipes. The pipes in the pits are protected by an 
iron coping. This system was installed after a thorough 
trial of the hot air system. 

The steam is supplied from the exhaust of the air com- 
pressor and pumps, with a small amount of live steam 
from the boilers. 

•» •» . 

2-6-2 Type of Locomotive for the Chicago & Western Indiana 

HE Chicago & Western Indiana recently 
received three suburban locomotives from 
the Rogers Locomotive Works. These are 
to be made to handle the suburban passen- 
ger traffic formerly handled by the C. & E. 
I. This is quite a heavy service, as the 
engines will have to handle ten coaches, 
making fifteen stops in eleven miles. 

The engines are provided with radial 
swing rear trucks. The side water tanks are con- 
nected with the water space under the floor of the coal 
pocket. A well extends above the coal which makes 
it possible to take water from the standpipe in the 
usual way. 

The general dimensions are as follows : 

Name of road Chicago & Western Indiana 

No. of engines built 3 

Type 2-6-2 double ender 

fuel Illinois bituminous coal 

Cylinders 18 in.x26 in. 

Driving wheels— number 3 pr. 

Driving wheels— diameter 63 in. 

Driving wheel centers— material . Cast steel 

Driving wheel tires— size 3% in.x5% in. 

Driving wheel axles — material Steel 

Driving wheel axles — journals 9 in.xl2 in. 

Driving wheel— wheel base . .14 ft. 

Total wheel base of engine 31 ft. 2 in. 

Weight on drivers 130,000 lbs. 

Weight on truck 20,000 lbs. 

Weight on trailers 40,000 lbs. 

Weight— total 190,000 lbs. 

Heating surf ace— flues 1,694 . 9 sq. ft. 

Heating surface— firebox 146.5 sq. ft. 

Heating surface— total 1,841.4 sq. ft. 

Grate area 46 . 8 sq. ft. 

Boiler— type straight top, radial stayed wide firebox 

Boiler — diameter, inside 1st course 60 in. 

Boiler— material Flanged steel 

March, 1905. 



Fig. 1 — 2-6-2 Type of Locomotive for the C. & W. I. Railroad. 

Fig. 2 — Elevation of 2-6-2 Type of 'Locomotive for the C. & W. I. R. R. 


- « — 7-'^- 

Figs. 3 and 4 — Cross Sections of the 2-6-2 Type of Locomotive for the C. & N. \Y. I. R..R. 



March, 1905. 

Fig. 5 — Cross Section of the 2-6-2 Type of Locomo- 
tive for the C. & W. I. R. R. 

Boiler— working pressure 200 lbs. 

Boiler— thickness of barrel 21-32 in. 

Boiler— thickness of dome course, 21-32 in. 

Fire box— thickness of crown 13-32 in. 

Fire box— thickness, flue sheet % in. 

Fire box— thickness sides .11-32 in. 

Fire box— thickness back % in. 

Grate— length 102 in. 

(Irate— width 66 in. 

Flues— number 249 

Flues— thickness No. 11 B. W. G. 

Flues— length ' 13 ft. 10 in. 

Flues— diameter 2 in. 

Flues — material Charcoal iron 

Engine truck— style . Radial swing bolster 

Engine truck wheels— diameter . . 36 in. 

Engine truck wheels— kind Cast steel center, steel tired 

Trailing wheels — diameter 42 in. 

Trailing wheels— kind Cast steel center 

Trailing wheels — journals 8 in.xl3% in. 

Tank— capacity, water, 3,500 gal. 

Tank— Capacity, coal 5 tons 

Safety valves two, 2y 2 in. 

Lubricator Triple sight feed 

Headlight 16 in. 

Brakes Automatic air 

Boiler covering Sectional magnesia 

Gauge 4 ft. 8% in. 

Valves Balanced slide 

Cab material Ash 

Tractive effort 22,700 

Ratio weight on drivers to tractive effort 5.73 

Ratio tractive effort to total heating surface 12.3 

Ratio total heating surface to fire box heating surface. . .12.6 

Ratio total heating surface to grate area 39.4 

Ratio fire box heating surface to grate area 3.14 

Ratio of total heating surface to volume of both cylinders. .241 
Ratio of total heating surface to weight of one cylinder 

lull of steam at boiler pressure 1,023 

Ratio of grate area to volume of both cylinders 6.11 

♦ » » 

New Shops for the Pere Marquette R. R. 
at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

This is a two-story building of brick walls and 
wooden roof and supporting structure. It rests on a 
foundation of the same style as the other buildings, 
and is of the same general type of architecture. The 
first floor is 4 ft. above the surrounding level and 
opens onto a large platform, enclosing three sides of 
the building. This part is arranged for the storage of 
heavy material, and the second story is for lighter 
material and offices. A number of double rolling lift 
doors are arranged in one side of the building, for un- 
loading to and from cars, which are placed on the 
storehouse track, located close to the building. The 
main entrance to the offices is in the end nearest the 
shops, where there is an inclined way leading up to 
the platform. The floor plans and general construc- 
tion are shown in the illustrations. 

The Oil House. 
This is a brick and steel building 41x49 ft., located 
near the store house to which it is connected by the 
platform. It is arranged with a basement, where the 
storage oil tanks are located, and a single story above 
containing the room for issuing oil and storing waste 

and cans. There are five storage tanks of which there 
are 7 ft. diameter by 26 ft. long and two are 7x8 ft. 
They are arranged for filling direct from tank cars, 
standing on an adjacent track, by gravity, and can also 
be filled from barrels through an opening in the floor 
above each tank. The oil is drawn off by gravity into 
an auxiliary tank from which it is forced by air pres- 
sure to the faucets above. By this means it is not nec- 
essary to have pressure on the large tanks at any time. 
Racks are provided for storing the engineer's cans. 
This makes it unnecessary to carry them to and from 
the engine house, as is the case at most terminals. 

The building is heated by direct radiation from coils 
located on the side walls, and is so equipped with 
electric lamps that the use of oil lamps is avoided. 

Cinder Pit. 

The cinder pit is situated near the oil house and is 
of the usual type, built of concrete throughout. It is 
the standard pit of the Pere Marquette and has a wide 
shelf between the pit proper and the depressed track 
for convenience in shoveling. There is^oom to clinker 
two engines at once. 

March, 1905. 



Fig. 1 — Elevation _ of Coaling Plant, Pere Marquette Shops at Grand Rapids. 

Coaling Plant. 

This building is located on the odd leg of the "Y" 
near the classification yards. It is entirely automatic 
in operation and is one of twelve similar plants de- 
signed and erected by the Fairbanks, Morse & Co. for 
this railroad company. It is of wooden construction 
and covers two main tracks and a supply track. The 
accompanying line drawings outline the conveyor sys- 
tem and the general construction of the building. The 
coal is received on the supply track, which is elevated 
about two feet above the main track. It is dumped 
from the car into a 30-ft. receiving hopper below the 
track. From this it is carried by an automatic loader 
and delivered at a uniform rate to a boot, through 
which the conveyor buckets pass. This conveyor ele- 
vates the coal to the top of the building and carrying 

it across one of the main tracks, delivers it into the 
100-ton storage pocket. The conveyor buckets are 30 
ins. long and 24 ins. wide, built of heavy steel and 
mounted on two stands of heavy malleable chain. 
When moving at the rate of 100 ft. per minute, it has 
a capacity of delivering 80 tons of coal per hour. 

The storage pocket is mounted on a scale, by means 
of which it is possible to determine accurately how 
much coal was delivered to a locomotive or how much 
is still in the pocket. The bottom of the pocket is 
hoppered so delivering is made directly to the loco- 
motives on either main track through special drop 
gates and movable aprons. 

The motive power for driving the conveyor is ob- 
tained from a 12 h. p. Fairbanks, Morse vertical gaso- 
line engine located on the ground floor below the 

Fig. 2 — Plan of tpie Coaling Plant, Pere Marquette Fig. 3 — View of Storehouse, Pere Marquette Shops 
Shops at Grand Rapids. at Grand Rapids. 



March,- 1905. 













1 ="> 

- fl- *^N 

Fig. 4 — Elevation, Plan and Section of Storehouse, Pere Marquette Shops at Grand Rapids. 

storage pocket and driving the conveyor through a 
series of belts and cable drives with countershafts by 
means of which a speed reduction suitable for the con- 
veyor is obtained. 

The Engine House. 

This is a rectangular building 433 ft. 9 ins. by 86 
ft. 6 ins. in size, built of brick on a concrete founda- 
tion and covered with a composition roof of wooden 
construction. It is divided by brick walls into three 
separate rooms, each of which contains eight pits, 
giving a total capacity of 24 engines. By the use of 
rolling wood shutters it was possible to locate the 
building very near the transfer table pit, which will be 
covered when completed. 

The roof slopes towards the outer wall from above 
the second post, at which point there is a vertical drop 
of about 6 ft. and then slopes towards the inner side. 
The roof is covered with four ply gavel laid on ij^-in. 
sheeting: nailed to 2xio-in. joists. 

There are two Dickinson cast iron smoke jacks over 
every alternate pit, and one over each of the inter- 
mediate pits, thus accommodating engines headed in 
either direction. There is a 30-in. cast iron ventilator 
over each pit and pivoted sash in the vertical sky- 
lights are arranged for clearing the house of smoke. 

The doors are made of narrow strips of hard wood 
flexibly fastened together and are rolled upon a. large 
roller which is operated through reduction gears from 
the floor by a pendant chain. The doors are provided 
with substantial girders anchored to the brick work 
on each side. 

The pits are of the type now being installed in all 
the later engine houses, being made of solid concrete 
bottoms and sides' with a catch basin located on the 
inner end towards which the pits drain. The rails are 
spiked to wooden timbers laid on top of the concrete. 
Arrangement has also been made for a solid support 

for the jacks to rest on along the sides at either end 
of the pit. The concrete has simply been carried out 
eight inches farther and 8xi2-in. blocks 7 ft. long 
anchored on top. A drop pit serves three engine pits 
and can be used for either drivers or trucks. This is 
of simple concrete construction arranged to use a 
hydraulic jack on a carriage. The removable sections 
of the rails are spiked to large timbers resting on pro- 
jections in the sides of the concrete drop pit and are 
simply moved to one side when it is desired to drop 

The natural lighting is very good, the windows 
being spaced close together in the outside walls and 
two end walls as well as the continuous glass surface 
in the vertical section of the roof. The electric light- 
ing is by means of enclosed arc lamps hanging be- 
tween each pit and rows of incandescent lights along 
the cross walls. There is also a plug for portable 
lights on alternate posts. 

The heating is by a hot blast entering through three 
15-in. openings with dampers into each pit. The heat- 
ing coils and fan are located in the small fan house at 
the outside near the center of the house, and the air 
is carried through a concrete duct just inside the outer 
foundation and below the surface of the floor. Con- 
nections are made to this duct between alternate pits 
by means of tiling which has three branches coming 
into the pits. 

The boiler feed and hot water system has been 
worked out with much care in order to have as little 
steam escape into the engine room as possible and to 
save all possible heat. This system comprises a steam 
blow-off pipe running the full lnegth of the engine 
house along the roof trusses over the center of the 
pits and having a standard connection above the center 
of each pit, to which a standard connection to be 
placed on the domes of all engines, will be connected 
for blowing-off the steam. Beneath the pit is a 
larger pipe, also running the full length of the house, 

March, 1905. 



Dickinson CI 5moke 

Fig. 5 — Cross Section of Engine House, Pere Marquette Shops at Grand Rapids. 

which has a connection between the pits to which a 
hose is connected for blowing off all hot water. At 
the end of the house these two pipes are connected 
together and pass underground through a conduit to 
a concrete, steel-lined tank just outside the power 
hose. This tank is divided into two parts by a brick 
wall rising from the bottom to near the top. The 
water; steam and sludge blown over from the engine 
house is discharged through a" perforated tie near the 
bottom of one of these compartments. There is also 
a similar connection for blowing off the power house 
boilers. This half of the tank acts as a settling basin 
and the clear water rising to the top finally overflows 
'the brick wall into the other compartment. At a point 
a little below the dividing wall an outlet from this 
compartment is located. This is provided with water 

seal and removable filter receptacle through which 
all water passes, flowing by gravity into the heater. 
There are connections to the sewer from the bottom 
of both compartments of the blow-off tanks, with 
valves inside the power house, through which the sedi- 
ment can be blown out. The water, after passing 
through the filter, goes to a heater and then to the 
boilers. There is a connection from the hot well to 
the heater and also to the blow-off settling tank for 
use in conjunction with the supply from the engine 

The Transfer Table. 

The transfer table is equipped with both electric and 

gasoline power. This is to avoid any possible chance 

of the electric power giving out and for running the 

table Avhen the rest of the plant is idle. The electric 

Fig. 6 — Interior View of Engine House, Pere Marquette Shops at Grand Rapids. 



March, 1905. 

Fig. 7 — Railway Materials Co. Combined Case Hard- 
ening and Spring Furnace, Pere Marquette 
Shops at Grand Rapids. 

power consists of two 25 h. p. series wound street rail- 
way motors connected through a series parallel con- 
troller. The current is collected by two trolley wires 
supported by insulators in a recess in the side wall of 
the pit nearer the machine shop, where they are well 
protected from the weather. The gasoline engine is 
mounted on a rigid extension at one side of the table 
near the center. Both engine and motors drive the 
table through a set of gears which have an interlock- 
ing set of friction clutches, making it impossible to 
throw more than one gear into operation at the same 

A large cab covers the machinery, with the excep- 
tion of the motors, and contains the controller, levers 
and other operating mechanism. The engine and 
gears are readily accessible from the outside through 
doors provided for the purpose. The equipment also 
includes a winding drum and cable for moving dead 
engines and cars. 

The frame work is built of steel in commercial 
shapes and is designed to give as shallow a pit as 
possible. There are two electric lights at the ends of 
the table arranged with reflectors for showing when 
the rails are lined up. 

At present the pit is not covered, but it is the in- 
tention to entirely enclose it when the shop plans are 
completely carried out. The pit is walled with cement 
on the sides and the rails are laid on concrete stringers 
running the full length of the pit. This table was 
designed and built by the Geo. P. Nichols & Bros., of 
Chicago, under specifications of the railway com- 
pany's engineers. 

Power Distribution. 

The electrical distribution, of power and light from 
the generators is shown in the accompanying wiring 
diagram. It will be seen that the lights are all on a 
three-wire system, while the motors are on a 220-volt 

■ ■ 


W f 

i :.'■ 


f J l 


:' '/ 



J , 




" -I-" > 





Fig. 8 — View of Flue Shop, Pere Marquette Shops 
at Grand Rapids. 

two-wire circuit. The method of taking care of the 
unbalanced lighting load is as follows : At four equal 
distance points on the armature are taken off con- 
nections to four collector rings located beside the com- 
mutator on the generator shaft. Four brushes on 
these rings connect two-phase alternating current on 
switch to two transformers. The center of each coil 
is tapped and the common connection forms the neu- 
tral wire of the three-wire lighting system. 

The connection of the generators to the main bus 
bars is made through circuit breakers, as indicated in 
the wiring diagram. From the main bus bars are car- 
ried two power circuits through tile pipe underground 
to a point near the center of the machine shop, where 
an accessible concrete box is located. At this point the 
main circuits split up into a number of separate cir- 
cuits, each of which pass through a D. & W. service 
box located in the distributing box. Two power cir- 
cuits for the machine shop pass upward and along the 
roof trusses in either direction, extending the full 
length of the shop. Connections to the motors and 
lighting circuits are made through D. & W. service 
boxes at the nearest convenient point. A separate 
circuit is taken from the main leads for the Crane 
motors, and also one for the transfer table. The cir- 
cuit to the plug lights in the engine house is carried 
from the distributing box in the machine shop under- 
ground. All of the circuits supplying the motors in 
the vicinity of this main distributing center in the ma- 
chine shop are tapped off through D. & W. boxes lo- 
cated in this concrete box. All of this wiring is car- 
ried underground through iron pipe to the machine. 



Fig. 9 — Cross Section of Pit in Engine House, Pere 
Marquette Shops at Grand Rapids. 

March, 1905. 




Dimension Parser 
Pip bau 

Band Sow 


Cut Off Machine 


f?adioi Drill 
Grind Stone 
40" Drill Press 
24' Shaper 
18' Shaper 

IS 1 Lathe 

2' >?&' Turret Lotlm 

IB' Lathe 

20' Brass Lathe 

Bench Grinder 

wet Onnder 
28' Lathe 
30" Lathe 
St' Bonng Hill 

Flange Punch 
48" Radiol Onll 

Flue Welder 
Bolt Cuthsr 
Flue Cutter 

l. fCont roller 

- 1 t=[£G=8=@ isip ( Flue tattler 
:jJj=0=G=8^§) 13 *> (Blower 

torp ( 4?" Lathe 
(I» r Planer 60"i46"i 10' 
i5H> ( Planer 4S'r4i'rlO' 
is tf ( Punch'Si Shear. 
7jr» (IS" Slotter 
.25 IP ( Bending Polls 
13 /P Q Boring Hill 

fj=8=@ sn> { 


ijrt> r Wheel Press 

' Si" Boring Hill 
Cor wneel Press 
Car rvheei Borer 
Car Wheei 'lathe 
Axle Lathe 

10 Ton Crane 

80 Ton Crone 


W/c*s Vert/c/e Boilers 

Store Hou$e\ 100 Inc lamps on iz Circuits 
Light*, J from 2-0/s trt dating &oar0$ 

Fig. 10— Distribution of Power, Pere Marquette Shops at Grand Rapids. 

The lighting is taken from a number of centrally 
located distributing panels which contain three copper 
bars on a marble board, from which the separate light- 
ing circuits are taken off through fuse switches. These 
lights are so connected across the three bars that they 
will cause little or no unbalanced load under ordi- 
nary circumstances. A three-pole switch on each 
board controls that group of lights. 

The lighting circuit for the engine house comes 
directly from the power house, where it is controlled 
by a switch on the main switchboard. The lighting 
circuit for the yards, oil house and storehouse also 
comes from the main power house, but those in the 
store and oil house will be controlled at their distribu- 
tion boards. Lights for the power house have a small 
distributing board connected to the main bus base, 
as shown in the diagram. 

The machines are driven in groups from a 
countershaft. The motors driving these counter- 
shafts are located on brackets fastened to the columns 
or to the shop wall and are belted to the countershafts. 
Circuit breakers are used in all cases in place of 
switches. The motors driving group machines have 
a starting box, and those on individual machines a 
controller, for giving variable speed. 

In connection with the building of these shops two 
features are worthy of particular mention — the record 
time made in completing the enterprise and the evi- 
dent economical expenditure of the appropriation 
available for the purpose. The plans for the shops 
were not started until late in March of last year, and 
power was turned on October 15, a period of less than 
seven months intervening, which is certainly a remark- 
able record. 

The engineering work in connection with the plan- 
ning of the entire plant was entrusted to the Arnold 
Electric Power Station Company, consulting engi- 
neers, Chicago, who drew plans and specifications for 
the complete light, heat, water, compressed air and 
electric power system, as well as buildings, including 
layout, structural steel work, cranes and transfer table. 

The contract for the building was awarded to 
George B. Swift & Co., of Chicago, on account of their 
reputation for handling this class of work expeditious- 
ly. The structural steel work was furnished and 
erected by the Illinois Steel Gompany. The work of 
installing the power plant equipment, as well as heat- 
ing system, piping work, and wiring, was taken care 
of by the Arnold company, being included in one con- 
struction contract. 



March, 1905, 

All plans were developed under the supervision of 
Mr. Frank H. Alfred, chief engineer of the Pere Mar- 
quette Railroad Company, subject to the approval of 
Mr. M. J. Carpenter, vice-president and general man- 
ager, who has since resigned. The motive power de- 
partment was efficiently represented by Mr. W. K. 
Christie, master mechanic. 

♦ ♦ » 

Forging and Coupler Pocket Machine 

THE accompanying illustrations show a machine 
for removing coupler pockets and forming 
heavy forgings. For removing pockets the coupler 
is placed as shown in Fig. 1 and the rivets are sheared 
by pressing the body of the coupler out from the 
pocket. In making forgings like followers this ma- mM 
chine gives a heavy enough pressure to form iron 
which bulldozers of ordinary construction cannot ac- 
complish. The pressure on the ram is 5,000 pounds 
per square inch, or a total of about 300,000 pounds. 
This is enough to put on lugs and round the corners 
of followers in one operation. 

This machine is operated by means of oil under 
air pressure for quick stroke until the Avork is reached 
when the air pump attached to the machine is started, 

Fig. 1 — Forging and Coupler Pocket Machine. 

Fig. 2 — Forging and Coupler Pocket Machine. 

which pumps the oil into the cylinder at a pressure of 
5,000 pounds per square inch. 

The pressure pump consists of two cylinders with 
their pistons as extensions of the piston rod of the air 
pump, located between them as shown in Figs. 2 
and 3. In the air cylinder, Fig. 2, are seen little pro- 
jections in the heads, which are attached to a small 
slide valve not shown on the drawings. This slide 
valve operates the piston valve shown in Fig. 3, which, 
in turn, operates the piston of the pump. This opera- 
tion is similar to the air pump on a locomotive. The 
throttle valve of the pump is shown on the left side 
of Fig. 3. The oil is fed into the pump by air pres- 
sure, which makes it more positive feed than suction. 
The ram is controlled by the 3-way cock shown a 
little above the throttle valve for the pump. When 

March, 1905. 



and admits air under the lifting cylinder to raise the 

We are indebted to Mr. L. G. Parish and Mr. R. 
Fildes of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Railway for the above drawings and information. 

Forty-Two Inch Borimg and Turning Mill 

*W* HE accompanying cut illustrates a boring and turn- 
•*■ ing mill with one turret head and one swivel head, 
as manufactured by the Baush Machine Tool Co., of 
Springfield, Mass. 

The capacity is 44 inches in diameter and 37 inches in 
height under the cross rail or 31 inches under the tool 
holder. The table is 42 inches in diameter, is powerfully 
geared, and has ten changes of speed ; five with back gears 
and five without. The maximum speed of the table is 20 
R. P. M., and the minimum speed 6 R. P. M. The teeth 
on both table and pinion are steel, and are accurately 
planed. On the under side of the table there is an outer 
bearing nearly equal to the diameter and 20^ inches in 
length. The spindle has a straight bearing, which acts in 
conjunction with an angular bearing to receive the side 
strains. There is also a thrust ball bearing on the lower 
step of the spindle/ which acts as a preventive against 
any lifting tendency, and which relieves the friction of 
table when a heavy cut is being taken. The height of the 
table from the floor is 2 ft. 6 in. The size of the slots are 

Ij4x2^2xij4 m - 

Fig. 3 — Forging and Coupler Pocket Machine. 

this is turned for letting the ram down air is admit- 
ted on top of the oil reservoir shown at the left of 
Fig. 2 ; it exhausts the air from the bottom of the 
raising cylinder shown at the top of Fig. 2, and closes 
the release valve and bleeder shown in Fig. 3 to the 
right of the upper spring of the piston valve. This 
forces the oil from the reservoir through the pump 
checks into the 'cylinder above the ram and gives a 
quick travel of the ram until it reaches the work, 
when the pump is started, which gives the high pres- 
sure to do the actual work. 

For releasing, the pump is stopped and the 3-way 
cock is turned in the opposite direction. This ex- 
hausts the air pressure from the oil reservoir; oper- 
ates the bleeder and release valve, which allows the 
oil above the ram to flow directly into the reservoir, 

Fig. 1 — 42-iNCH Boring and Turning Mill. 



March, 1905. 

The turret slide (right hand) can be set to bore, turn' 
and cut 8 and n>4 threads per inch, and has a vertical 
movement of 24 inches. It has five sides 10 inches across 
flats, and has five 2 5-16-inch holes. The heads are en- 
tirely independent in their movement, both as to direction 
and amount of feed. The left hand head can be set at 
any angle and has a movement of 24 inches. Either head 
can be brought to the center for boring. Both heads have 
a vertical movement of 24 inches. They are attached to 
steel feed screws by slit nuts, which can be opened, and 
a rapid movement obtained by ratchet and pinion, engag- 
ing a steel rack on the cross-rail. 

The feeds are positive and have fifteen changes, rang- 
ing from 1-64 inch to 61-64 inch horizontally, and 1-64 
inch to 9-16 inch in angular and vertical directions. 

The cross-rail is raised and lowered by power, which 
can be done without revolving the table. The band brake 
which operates on the main driving cone, by hand, stops 
the table instantly. The back gears can be changed by 
means of a lever without the use of a lock nut. 

The plain table is ordinarily furnished with this ma- 
chine, as illustrated ; but when wanted, a three or four- 
jaw independent and universal chuck can be supplied. 
This machine can be made with two regular swivel heads 
if wanted. The counter shaft has tight and loose pul- 
leys ; the driving pulley is 20 inches in diameter, for ^/z- 
inch belt, and should run 800 R. P. M. The machine is 
self-contained, and therefore does not require an expen- 
sive foundation. The weight is 16,200 pounds and the 
floor space 8 ft. 5 ins. by 9 ft. 

■» * »■ 

A New Turret Screw Machine 

THE illustration shows a Turret Screw Machine of 
new design by the Warner & Swasey Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, this size being one of a complete line 
of this type of machines made by this company. 

This machine takes bar stock up to 3^-in. in diameter, 
through the automatic chuck. The travel of the turret 
slide is 14 inches. The swing over bed is 20 inches. The 
head and bed are cast in one piece, insuring the greatest 

strength and rigidity. The cone has three steps for 4-in. 
belt, is geared 1.85 to 1 and back-geared 7.44 to I; the 
back gears being engaged and disengaged by friction 
clutches. There are twelve spindle speeds, from 15 to 
156 r. p. m. 1 

The automatic chuck and the power roller feed handle 
bar stock of any shape. The chuck is operated by the 
long lever in front of the head, working through a 
system of compound levers which gives a powerful move- 
ment for closing the jaws, and the same lever also en- 
gages and disengages the roller feed. The chuck jaws 
are adjustable for variations from actual size to 1-16 
inch smaller. An outer stock support accompanies the 

The turret saddle is provided with a supplementary 
taper base, by means of which the center of the tool 
holes in the turret can be adjusted to the exact height 
of the center of the spindle. Taper gibs, fitted the whole 
length of the saddle on each side, provide means of 
adjusting the slide sideways. The turret slide is equipped 
with geared automatic feed, with four changes in either 
direction, from 20 to 102 (revolutions of spindle to feed 
one inch.) The turret is hexagon in form, has six tool 
holes 2y 2 inches in diameter and also bolt holes for 
attaching- tools to the faces. It is so arranged that stock 
of any diameter smaller than the tool-holes can pass 
entirely through. The index is nearly the full diameter 
of the turret, and the lock bolt is placed directly under 
the working tool. Independent adjustable stops are pro- 
vided for each face. 

The carriage has geared automatic cross feed, , with 
four changes in either direction, from 61 to 306 (revo- 
lutions of spindle to feed one inch), and hand longitudi- 
nal feed. A tool post for holding, forming and turning 
tools, and a cutting-off tool holder are provided. 

The geared feeds insure a positive drive, and any one 
of the changes is instantly available by shifting a lever. 
The turret and carriage feeds are independent o£ each 
other, and both are piovided with adjustable, automatic 

The pan and oil reservoir are of large dimensions. 

A New Turret Screw Machine. 

March, 1905. 



The geared pump delivers a copious flow of oil to the 
cutting tools ■ for both the turret and carriage, through 
two systems of piping. It operates when running in 
either direction. 

A double friction countershaft accompanies the 
machine, as regularly furnished, arranged for belt drive. 
Motor drive can readily be applied. 

The net weight of the machine is about 6,000 lbs. 

♦ » » 

The Railroad Y. M. C. A. 

'The Railroad Young Men's Christian Association is good for the Men, better for the 
company, but best of all for the public." — Paul Morton. 

THE Railway Master Mechanic has in years past 
illustrated and described some of the more im- 
portant and interesting railroad Y. M. C. A. buildings 
as they have been erected. The report of this association 
for the past year shows a most gratifying growth and 
some reference to this progress will, no doubt, be of in- 
terest to many of our readers. We are indebted to Mr. 
E. M. Willis, office secretary of the railroad department, 
for the accompanying illustrations and for data regarding 
the organization and growth of the association. 

Nearly thirty years ago there was organized in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, an association for the betterment of railroad 
employes, under direction and influence of Christian 
men. It was the first Railroad Young Men's Christian 
Association. Starting with the first association at Cleve- 
land, the number has grown, there now being 208 asso- 
ciation at divisional points, junctions or railroad centers. 
There are 70,110 men enrolled as members, with many 
more who are daily entering the buildings. One hundred 
and thirty buildings are owned or occupied, the value of 
the buildings exceeding $2,000,000, many of them being 
as well equipped as the average clubhouse. Well ap- 
pointed, attractive, wash and bath rooms ; restaurants, 
where good, wholesome food can be secured at a very 
low cost ; social and game rooms, including billiards and 
bowling alleys ; well-selected libraries, and good comfort- 
able beds in the dormitories. These buildings are so 

well arranged to meet the needs of the members that 
many of the men, when entering the terminal go direct 
to the railroad men's building, and, whether the lay-over 
be short or long, spend the entire time within its walls. 
The men pay a membership fee of $5 per year, which in- 
cludes all the privileges, except the rest rooms and restau- 
rant, the charge for rest rooms being only 10 cents. The 
associations are all under the the direction of a general 
secretary, who seeks in every possible way to be of help 
to the men. A committee of management has the direct 
oversight of the work of the secretary, the members of 
the committee consisting of officials and employes. There 
are 355 secretaries, assistants and physical directors giv- 
ing their entire time to this service. 

The general supervision of these associations is under 
the direction of the International Committee, who employ 
nine secretaries for this purpose, five are assigned in vari- 
ous parts of the country caring for a number of associa- 
tions on certain railroad systems, two are engaged in spe- 
cial religious work, and two at the office, 3 West 29th 
street. One with the general supervision of the entire 
field, and one for office correspondence and special mat- 
ters. The work of these secretaries is directed by a sub- 
committee of practical and successful railroad officials ; 
the chairman being John J. McCook — and members — 
Charles F. Cox, Dr. John P. Munn, Wm. A. Patton and 
B. D. Caldwell, with Morris K. Jesup as advisory mem- 
ber. The work of this committee is supplemented by the 
state committees and secretaries in many of the states. 

Fig. 2— Y. M. C. A. Building, B. & A., B. & M., and 
Fig. i— Y. M. C. A. Building, Penn R. R., Tyrone, Pa. N. Y., N. H. & H., Springfield, Mass. 

9 6 


March, 1905. 


Fig. 3 — Y. M. C. A. Building, New Decatur, Ala. 

The appreciation of railroad officials is increasing year 
by year, and with few exceptions associations are now on 
all of the railroad systems of the country. Men like Presi- 
dent Cassatt, of the Pennsylvania; Air. Stevens, of the 
C. & 0. ; Mr. Tuttle, of Boston & Maine ; Mr. Ingalls, of 
the Big Four, and many other leading operating officials , 
give their unqualified endorsement. During the year 1904 
the railroad corporations appropriated $260,000 toward 
the current expenses of the local associations. The value 
of this work from the standpoint of railroad officials, may 
be summed up in the statement of Hon. Paul Morton, 
Secretary of the Navy, at a recent dinner. Mr. Mor : 
ton, previous to his entering the Cabinet of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, was the second vice-president of the 
Santa Fe System. Mr. Morton said : "The Rail- 
road Young Men's Christian Associations is good for 
the men, better for the company, but best of all for the 

The year ending January 1, 1905, has been one of un- 
usual growth, and new buildings at sixteen points were 
occupied during the year by railroad associations. The 
following buildings being owned : Fort Erie, Ontario — 
Grand Trunk and Wabash, at a cost of $6,000. New De- 
catur, Alabama — Louisville & Nashville, costing $25,000. 
Van Buren, Arkansas — Iron Mountain, costing $19,000. 
Sapulpa, I. T. — Frisco, costing $10,000. Mar-shalltown, 
Iowa — Iowa Central, costing $28,500. Horace, Kans. — 
Missouri Pacific, costing $4,500. Springfield, Mass. — 
Boston & Albany, Boston & Maine, K Y., N. H. & H., 


1 '""'lui v 



Fig. 5 — Y. M. C. A. Biiildixg, New Decatur, Ala 

costing $16,000. Mechanicville, N. Y. — Boston & Maine, 
Delaware & Hudson, costing $20,000. Bellevue, Ohio — ■ 
N. Y C. & St. L., costing $18,000. Tyrone, Pa.— Penn- 
sylvania, costing $12,500. 

In addition to the buildings owned, six have been set 
aside for association purposes. Four buildings erected in 
former years have been enlarged to accommodate the 
growing membership. The extent of this work and the 
hearty support accorded it by the corporations is indicated 
by the fact that twenty-nine different railroad companies 
co-operated with their employes in contributing toward 
the $306,300 expended on these twenty buildings. 

Many associations have within the year taken up edu- 
cational class work and practical lectures for the first 
time. The result has been a gain of over 40 per cent in 
the educational work within twelve months. Over 9,800 
members have been added making the total membership 
of 208 associations 72,148. The total average daily at- 
tendance at these buildings during 1904 was 37,419. 

Although nearly every prominent railroad in North 
America is officially committed to appropriations for the 
support of this work, only a small proportion of the needy 
fields have been equipped. Appeals are constantly being 
made by the railroad men at these unorganized division 
points, with assurances of hearty support from the men. 
For example the railroad men of one town recently pre- 
sented a pledged membership list of 750 men, and also 
a subscription list amounting to over $7,000 toward a 
building, all conditioned upon the co-operation of the cor- 
poration being secured. The rate of advance in provid- 
ing for these needy fields is determined by the financial 
backing accorded by the company. The support of- the 

A c c /" 

Bisi i"''jr"i'! r iTF 


* *' 

. ■ '■ B 



3c/, £•/• 

Fig. 4 — Y. M. C. A. Building, Nev\ De< auk, Ala. 

Fig. 6— Y. M. C. A. Building. L. & X. R. R.. New De- 
catur, Ala. 

March, 1905. 



Fig. 7— Y. M. C. A. Bhilding, St. L., I. M. & S. R. R., 
Van Buren, Ark 

men can always be counted upon, and the type of work 
needed in each particular railroad community has been 
well determined by experience. In every community, 
however, the association needs a well-equipped building, 
to enable it to attract and maintain a helpful influence over 
large numbers of men in" all classes of railroad service. 

The International Committee of the Y. M. C. A. is au- 
thorized and prepared to negotiate through its railroad 
secretaries with any inter-state railway lines that are ready 
to bear a fair proportion of the cost of one or more build- 
ings and their maintenance, with a view to assuming re- 
sponsibility for organizing associations at such points. 

The accompanying illustrations are of the new build- 
ings occupied during the past year. The floor plans of 
the new building at New Decatur, Ala., are also given 
to indicate the general character and arrangement of the 
average Railroad Y. M. C. A. building. 

♦ « » 

Communication from a Railroad Apprentice 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic : 

At the' last convention of the Master Mechanics' As- 
sociation at Saratoga, the subject of the Railway Ap- 
prentice was given considerable discussion, and this was 
all from the Master Mechanics' standpoint. Possibly 
some of those taking part in the discussion had at one 
time been an .apprentice, at any rate I would like to pre- 

■'■■■■■■ : ; ■ " ' , 

■ . 

Fig. 8— Y. M. C. A. Building, N. Y., C. & St. L. R. R., 

Bellevue, O. 

Fig. 9— Y. M. C. A. Building, B. & M. and D. & H. R. 
R., Mechanicville, N. Y. 

sent the matter from the standpoint of the apprentice, 
having been through the mill myself. 

Circumstances prevented my beginning the course 
until I was in my 19th year, having had experience in 
various branches of machine work most of the time since 
my 15th year, earning on special work from $1 to $1.75 
per day. On going into the railroad shop I was told 
that my experience did not count, they would prefer I 
had no experience, and was started in at 10 cents an 
hour the first year, being then on my own resources, my 
parents not being in a position to help me. I was put 
at work in the rod gang, which at that time did all the 
rod and valve motion work, with men I had known from 
boyhood. The latter part of the first year the working 
time was but eight hours a day, and my pay was 11 
cents an hour, out of which I paid $4.50 a week for my 
board, yet I found I could spare a little each month to 
send home. 

The second year found me still in the rod gang at 12 
cents an hour, being later transferred to the machine 
room, where I was taught to do all kinds of planing 
from a rod key to an engine plane. In the second year 
there was a change in the master mechanic, and at the 
beginning of the third and last year I was told that I 
could continue at the 12 cent rate or get out. At the 
same time it was decided to reduce expenses, and two 
planer hands were taken off, leaving one man and myself 
to do the work of four men. It was the usual thing to 
have four and at times five planers running between us, 
I he man getting 35 cents and the boy 12 cents an hour. 
At the end of the third year I was offered 17^ cents, 
lint finalh- got 20 cents, at which figure I worked a year 
or more, and seeing nothing better there, went else- 
where. Such was my experience at learning a trade. I 
was kept at the specialty in which I was considered the 
most useful to the company. This is too often the case 
with apprentices, they may learn one branch well, while 
of the others they know little or nothing, except as in 
m}' case, what they can pick up. 

Yet I left that shop a young man thinking I knew it 
all. But I soon found there were some things I didn't 
know, and that other shops could do good work. Pos- 
sibly the special apprentice may have a better opportun- 

9 8 


March, 1905. 

ity to learn the business than the regular, though I can 
see no reason or justice in putting him ahead of the 
regular apprentice. Both are giving their time to learn 
a trade, and other things being equal, both parties 
should have the same opportunities. 

Some of the members of the association were of the 
opinion that the railroad needed the technical graduate. 
No doubt they do. He is a valuable man if his theory 
is combined with practice, b^ut with his theory alone he 
is not as valuable a man. I studied theory after going 
through the practical, and found it a valuable help, but 
if one was denied me should say give me the practical. 
It is so easy to see someone else do a thing, but practice 
alone enables you to do it. The shop in which I began, 
while not up to date in tools and appointments, built 
most of the engines for the division, and any complaint 
on the crudeness of the tools would be met with, that's 
all right, Joe, any one could do good work if they had 
good tools. A fellow apprentice was put on a lathe 
making bolts and he did nothing else until he left in 

My idea of the proper training of the apprentice to 
make a successful railroad machinist would be to start 
him on a four years' course, the time to be divided as 
follows: If he has had no experience start him in with 
the floor gang, continuing with this gang at least one 
year, at the end of this time he should know how to 
fit up driving boxes and wedges, take out and put in 
good condition throttle, steam and exhaust pipes, in fact 
do all that usually falls to the floor gang to do. Above 
all, impress on him the importance of doing his work 
quickly, at the same time doing it well. The next 
eighteen months should be spent in the machine room 
learning to drill (not one railraod machinist in fifty can 
do a good job at drilling), and do a good job on the 
lathe, the slotter, and particularly the planer. The next 
six months put him in with the air pump man, who gen- 
erally also repairs the pops and injectors, while the fourth 
and last year should be spent with the rod and valve 
gang, during which time he should be taught to set 
valves properly, and if the shojp has a drawing room 
connected with it, he should be taught the principles of 
laying out valve motion. If your apprentice is of the 
right stuff, at the end of four years, you will turn out a 

machinist you can be proud of, one who can go anywhere 
and do anything required of him. The first year he 
should be worth nine cents an hour, the second year 12 
cents, the third year 15 cents and the fourth year 17^ 
cents. If he isn't worth these figures he missed his call- 
ing and should be treated accordingly. 

Yours truly, 

J. V. N. Cheney. 

■»« » 

Cast Steel Trucks 

THE accompanying illustrations show two trucks 
used on Lima engines of the Buffalo & Sus- 
quehanna Railroad. Figure 1 is the truck received 
with the engines and consists of wrought iron bars 
with an indefinite number of bolts and parts. This 
construction gave considerable trouble and required 
repairs every time the engine went on the road. 

For this reason Mr. C. R. Williams, general master 
mechanic of the B. & S., designed the truck shown in 
Figure 2. This is made of cast steel with very few 
parts and very light in comparison to the trucks pre- 
viously vised. It has been in service on several engines 
for some time and thus far has not cost anything for 

We are indebted to Mr. C. R. Williams, general 
master mechanic of the Buffalo & Susquehanna Rail- 
road, for the above information. 

■» » » 

Fire Alarm System 

NEARLY all railroad shops have a volunteer fire 
department composed of the employees. The 
value of such a department consists principally in the 
quickness with which they respond to a fire. 

The usual outfit is composed of fire pumps in the 
power house, hydrants in or near all the buildings, 
and a signal whistle. When a fire starts the engineer 
has to be notified, upon which he blows the fire whis- 
tle and starts the pumps. In a large plant where 
no signal system is used to notify the engineer, it 
is a serious problem for the department to reach the 
fire in time to prevent any great damage. 

The system described here consists of simple and 
inexpensive means for notifying the engineer to blow 
the whistle and start the pumps. For this purpose 

Fig. 1 — Original Truck on Lima Engines. 

Fig. 2 — Cast Steel Truck on Lima Engines. 

March, 1905. 



of this system as applied in the Collinwood shops of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. 

■» » » 

Annunciator Fire Alarm System. 

alarm boxes are placed in conspicuous places in the 
various buildings. The boxes consist of a switch 
closed by means of a circular glass. By breaking 
the glass the switch is opened, which sounds the 
alarm in the power house. The wiring is on the 
closed circuit system which has a battery current on 
the line continually. When the glass is broken it 
opens the circuit and closes the bell circuit by means 
of magnets, and also indicates on the annunciator 
which building the alarm comes from. The bell will 
continue ringing until shut off by the engineer. All 
the boxes in one building can be connected in series 
so as to sound the same signal on the annunciator, 
or if the building is very large it can be arranged to 
have different signals for the various departments. Hav- 
ing all the signals in one building connected in series 
makes it impossible to send in more than one alarm un- 
til the glass is replaced. This is no serious disadvantage, 
however, as the glass can be replaced by the department 
before leaving the building. 

The closed circuit system has this advantage over the 
open circuit system in that it will sound the alarm when 
there is a break in the line. With the open circuit sys- 
tem this is not detected without testing every station. 

When there are several buildings in the same general 
direction from the power house, one common return 
wire can be used, without interfering with the signals 
for the buildings, and make the cost of erection consid- 
erably cheaper. 

The accompanying cut shows the annunciator and bell 

The Alternating Current Series Motor 

Paper by F. D. Newbury before the Testing Section 
of the Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co. 

IT IS a matter of common experience that in a 
direct current series motor, if the direction of 
current in both armature and field be changed, the 
armature will continue to revolve in the same direc- 
cion. Then, with alternating current in the motor, 
and with the armature and field in series, the direc- 
tion of rotation will not change with the reversals of 
che alternating current and the armature will revolve 
just as it does with direct current. 

So far as the production of mechanical energy is 
concerned the action of the motor is the same whether 
direct or alternating current is used. The alternat- 
ing current, as such, is not essential to the operation 
of the new motor; on the contrary, the problem has 
been to develop a motor that would operate in spite 
of certain difficulties inherent in the alternating cur- 
rent, so that it would have the proper speed char- 
acteristic for railway work, and at the same time, en- 
able the simple voltage transformation possible with 
alternating currents to be used in other parts of the 
railway system. The direct current series motor may 
be considered a special case of the more general alter- 
nating current motor, for while the alternating cur- 
rent motor makes an equally successful direct current 
motor, the reverse is not true. From the similarity 
of the two motors it follows that changes in voltage, 
load and so on have corresponding effects on speed 
and torque in the alternating current motor as simi- 
lar changes in the direct current motor. The practi- 
cal operation of the two motors is also the same. The 
alternating current motor is started by lowering the 
voltage, either by resistance, as in the direct current 
motor, or, more economically, by some form of trans- 
former. The motor is reversed by interchanging 
either the field or armature connections, as in the 
ordinary railway motor. On account of its self-induc- 
tion the alternating current motor will stand rough- 
er usage than the direct current motor. For example, 
a 100 horse power motor has frequently been started 
by full voltage and has been reversed, when running 
under full load and voltage, by simply throwing over 
a double-throw switch. 

While, in general, the alternating current series 
motor works on the same principles as the direct cur- 
rent motor, several things happen inside of the form- 
er, by reason of the varying magnetic field produced 
by' the alternating current, that are not found in the 
direct current motor. A more detailed explanation 
of the action of the alternating current motor may, 
therefore, be of interest. The phenomena character- 
istic of the alternating current motor are : 

1. An e. m. f. generated in the armature winding 



March, 1905. 




Fig. 1. 

by the alternating magnetic field, in addition to the 
e. m. f. generated by the rotation of the armature. 

2. A local current circulating in the armature coils 
short circuited by the brushes, do to the e. m. f. in 1. 

3. An iron loss occurring in the entire magnetic 
circuit, due to the alternating magnetic field. 

4. An active e. m. f. existing between the turns of 
the field coils — what may be called the counter e. m. f. 
of the field coils. 

1. The electrically generated e. m. f. With an 
alternating field there are two distinct e. m. f.'s gen- 
erated in the armature coil; the first by the move- 
ment of the coil through the field, with a maximum 
value when the coil is in the position AB, Fig. 1, and 
a zero value in the position CD; and the second by 
the alternating magnetism, with the maximum value 
occurring when the coil is in the position CD and a 
zero value in the position A. B. The first, or mechan- 
ically-generated e. m. f. is proportional to the speed; 
the second, or electrically-generated e. m. f. is pro- 
portional to the current frequency. While these two 
e. m. f.'s exist in the armature winding, only one — 
the mechanically-generated e. m. f. — appears at the 
terminals of the motor. The reason for this is shown 
by Figure 2. In this sketch the directions of the e. 
m. f.'s in each part of the winding, at one instant, are 
shown by the arrows, the full arrows representing the 
mechanically-generated e. m. f., and the dotted arrows 
the electrically-generated e. m. f. On the two sides 
of the line C D the mechanically-generated e. m. f. is 
in opposite directions, and on the two sides of the 
line A B the electrically-generated e. m. 1 is in the 
opposite directions. It is evident from Figure 2 that 
so far as the outside circuit is concerned the elec- 
trically-generated e. m. f. neutralizes itself, and plays 
no part in determining the current taken by the mo- 
tor. This is only true when the brushes are on the 

Fig. 3. 
neutral points. The electrically-generated e. m. f. is 
of only theoretical interest, except for its effect on the 
armature coil short-circuited by the brush, as ex- 
plained in the following paragraph. 

2. The local armature current. At each brush there 
is a local circuit in which the electrically-generated 
e. m. f. is not neutralized, a current results, which, if 
not prevented, effects commutation and increases the 
motor loss. Figure 3 shows this local circuit made 
up of an armature coil and the brush. It is seen that 
when the coil is short-circuited by the brush it is in 
the position of maximum value of the electrically-gen- 
erated e. m. f., corresponding with the position C D 
Figure 1. This local circuit may be compared with 
the short-circuited secondary of a transformer, of 
which the field coil is the primary. The loss is occa- 
sioned by the local current, appears as a part of the 
energy component of the field voltage, the action be- 
ing the same as in a transformer. 

3. The Alternating-Current Iron Loss. — The total 
iron loss occurring in the motor may be divided in two 
parts — that occurring in the armature and pole-faces, 
due to the rotation of the armature, and that occur- 
ring in the entire magnetic circuit, due to the alter- 
nating magnetic field. The former is analagous to 
the iron-loss occurring in a direct-current motor, and 
for that reason may be called the direct-current iron- 
loss. It is supplied mechanically, its effect being to in- 
crease the fractional torque of the motor. The latter 
will be called the alternating current iron-loss. This 
is supplied electrically by an increase in the energy — 
component of the voltage of both armature and field. 

4. The Counter E. M. F. of the Field Coils. — The 
three properties of the alternating-current motor, al- 
ready considered, are chiefly of interest to those con- 
cerned with the design of the motor. For instance, 
the presence of an e. m. f. in the coil short-circuited 
by the brush introduces a problem for the designer to 
solve, and when he has solved it, its action is of no 
further importance. On the contrary, the existence of 
a generated e. m. f. in the field coils is a thing with 
which the man who operates the motor is very actively 
concerned. The field coil of the alternating-current 
motor is simply a choke coil, and has generated in it 
the familiar counter e. m. f. of self induction. This 


Fig. 4. 

March, 1905. 



counter e. m. f. affects the operation of the motor in 
two ways : 

a. It introduces a voltage in the alternating-cur- 
rent motor that is not present in the direct current 
motor, which increases the total voltage required to 
run the motor, particularly at starting. This voltage, 
however, is very nearly at right angles with the arma- 
ture voltage, so that the different voltages are not 
directly added and subtracted; i. e., the numerical 
sum of the armature voltage and field voltage is not 
equal to the total voltage of the motor, as measured 
across the terminals. 

b. It increases the seriousness of a short circuit in 
the field coil. With direct current a short circuit 
simply means cutting out the short-circuited turns ; it 
does not usually put the motor out of service. With 
alternating current, however, it is obvious that this 
counter e. m. f. will cause a destructive' current to 
flow in the short circuited turns, burning them out 
and opening the motor-circuit. This is taken care of 
in the motor by additional insulation in the field turns. 

A more detailed explanation of these effects can be 
made most clearly by a diagram of the motor voltages. 

! ; 

^**^% "* 

'4b / 

/ ' A,/ 

/ I "A\ 

/ v ~^ 






their numerical sum. The total voltage is also the 
resultant of the total inductive component, A Z, and of 
the total energy component, Z C. 

Since the motor is a series machine, the total in- 
ductive component is always the same for the same 
current ; it does not depend on the impressed voltage 
Or power developed. For example, in a shunt motor, 
the magnetizing current — and, therefore, the inductive 
voltage — would depend on the impressed voltage. 
Suppose that the motor is just starting, and is taking 
the same current as when operating under the con- 
ditions shown in the diagram, in which it is running 
at high speed and developing considerable power. 
Since the current is the same, the total inductive volt- 
age is the same. The energy component of the field 
voltage is the same, but the energy component of the 
armature voltage is very much less, since on starting 
the power developed is inconsiderable, although the 
torque may be the same. The total energy component 
approximates Z D, Figure 5. Then on starting, the 
motor voltage (the resultant of the total inductive and 
total energy components) is A D. It is evident that 
the field counter e. m. f. has a much greater effect on 
the total motor voltage on starting than when up to 
speed. With alternating current the starting voltage 
is about one-half the full rated voltage; with direct 
current in the same motor and under the same condi- 
tions the respective voltages would be approximately 

Toul McchaniCAl 

Useful Mechanic* I Energy 

Mechanically Supplied 


C Iron Lou 
Friction Losses 

Total Electrical Enerjy - 

Electrical]/ Supplied Losses 

I 1 R Losses 

A-CIron Lou 

Short Circuit Lots 

Fig. 5. 

Figure 4 represents the motor circuit and Figure 5 
the voltage diagram. The two sketches are similarly 
lettered, so that the line A B in Figure 5 represents 
the voltage of the current A B in Figure 4. Starting 
at one terminal, A, and with the direction of current 
as shown, the field voltage is in line A B. It is made 
up of two components, the e. m. f. used in overcoming 
the counter e. m. f. of self-induction, A X, and the e. 
m. f. representing the losses supplied by the field, X B ; 
or, in other words, of the inductive component, A X, 
and of the energy component, X B. It is seen that 
the energy component is small compared to with the 
inductive component, which makes the field voltage 
nearly 90 degrees ahead of the current. The line B C 
is the armature voltage. This also is the resultant of 
energy and inductive components B Y and Y C. In 
the armature, the energy component is the larger, 
since it represents, in addition to the armature losses, 
the energy transformed into mechanical work. It is 
also seen that the armature self-induction is small, 
compared with that of the field. The total voltage of 
the motor is A C, and is the resultant of the armature 
and field voltages. It is considerably smaller than 

Fig. 6. 

equal to the energy component Z C and Z D in Fig- 
ure 5. The relation, instead of one-half, would be 
about one-sixth. The power factor is also low on 
starting, as shown by the diagram, the angle Y rep- 
resenting the phase difference between voltage and 
current. This follows naturally from the fact that the 
inductive component is about the same as when the 
motor is loaded, while the energy component is very 
much smaller. It may be noted that the low-power 
factor at starting implies less power from the circuit 
than a high power factor. The angle represents the 
phc;se difference under running conditions. The pow- 
er factor on high speed is greater with small cur- 
rents than with heavy currents, as the inductive e. m. f. 
of the field is less. 

The alternating-current series motor serves as a 
very interesting illustration of the fact, true of all 
motors, that certain losses are supplied directly frorri 
the electrical energy, and others, indirectly, by the 
mechanical energy produced by the motor. The chart. 
Figure 6, shows this more correctly, distinguishing 
these two classes of losses in the alternating-current 



March, 1905. 

Cleaning Crown-Sheets With a Sand Blast 

AT a recent visit to a roundhouse, the writer saw a 
crown sheet which had ^-inch scale removed 
by the use of a sand blast. The engine was a switch 
engine and time could not be taken to remove the fire- 
box or flues to remove the scale. For this reason the 
sand blast was put in operation through the dome. In- 
eleven hours every particle of scale was removed from 
the crown sheet and crown bars. 

■♦ »» 


Mr. A. R. Ayers has been appointed night round- 
house foreman of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
at Elkhart, Ind. Mr. Ayers graduated from Cornell 
University in 1900 after which he served a three years' 
special apprentice course on the Lake Shore. He was then 
appointed special inspector on the eastern division in 
charge of soda ash handling and blowing off engines. 
Later he was in charge of the construction of the Elk- 
hart roundhouse and on February 1 was appointed night 
roundhouse foreman. This promotion is in line with 
what this paper advocated and we feel confident that Mr. 
Ayers will rise rapidly. 

Mr. C. E. Boss has been appointed acting master me- 
chanic of the Ft. Worth & Rio Grande and St. Louis, 
San Francisco & Texas, with headquarters at Sherman, 

Mr. John E. Cullen, master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific at Herrington, Kan., died on Jan- 
uary 21. 

Mr. Albert Nugent has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Spokane Falls & Northern, with office at 
Spokane, Wash. 

Mr. C. G. Arthur, foreman locomotive repairs of the 
Southern Railway at Columbia, S. C, has been appointed 
master mechanic at that point, in place of Mr. J. F.Shea- 
han, transferred. 

Mr. Fred Mertsheimer, who recently resigned as 
superintendent of motive power and car departments of 
the Denver & Rio Grande, has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton, with headquarters at Lima, O., vice. Mr. C. H. 
Cory, resigned. 

Mr. M. D. Franey has been appointed superintendent 
of shops of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, with 
headquarters at Collinwood, vice Mr. George WagstafL 
promoted. Mr. Franey will have charge of the Collin- 
wood locomotive shop. 

Mr. George Wagstaff, formerly assistant master me- 
chanic of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at Collin- 
wood, has been appointed supervisor of boilers of the 
New York Central Lines. 

Mr. Benjamin B. Allen, formerly master mechanic of 
the Southern Pacific in California, died at Seattle, Wash., 
on January 19. 

Mr. R. R. Young has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Atlantic Coast Line, with headquarters at Way- 
cross, Ga., succeeding Mr. W. H. Dyer, resigned. Mr. 
C. M. Weathers has been appointed acting road foreman 
of engines of the first division at Wilmington, N. C, 
in place of Mr. Young. 

Mr. N. A. Waldon has been appointed general store- 
keeper of the St. Louis Southern Railway, with head- 
quarters at Pine Bluff, Ark. 

Mr. F. R. Cooper has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Georgia, Florida & Alabama and the Carrabelle, 
Tallahasse & Georgia, with headquarters at Bainbridge, 

Mr. H. H. Kendall has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico, 
with headquarters at Kingsville, Tex., to succeed Mr. 
C. B. Chase, resigned. 

Mr. N. A. Waldron has been appointed storekeeper 
of the St. Louis Southwestern, with headquarters at Pine 
Bluff, Ark., and of the St. Louis Southwestern of Texas, 
with office at Tyler, Tex. 

Mr. Robert H. Rogers has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Plymouth division of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, with headquarters at South Boston, 
Mass., vice Mr. C. J. Howe, resigned. 

Mr. William Miller has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the First division of the Denver & Rio Grande 
and assistant to the superintendent of motive power and 
car department, with headquarters at Burnham, Denver, 
Colo., vice Mr. W\ L. Calvert, resigned. 

Mr. Alfred Lovell, formerly assistant superintendent 
of motive power, has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, with 
headquarters at Chicago. 

Mr. A. C. Hinckley, master mechanic of the Denver 
& Rio Grande at Salida, Colo., has been appointed mas- 
ter mechanic of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton at 
Lima, O., to succeed Mr. J. E. Gould, resigned. 

Mr. W. L. Tracy, formerly assistant master mechanic 
of the Louisville & Nashville at Louisville, Ky., has been 
appointed master mechanic at that place. Mr. W. A. 
Stearn has been appointed to succeed Mr. Tracy as as- 
sistant master mechanic. 

Mr. D. P. Angell, assistant road foreman of engines 
of the Baltimore & Ohio, has been appointed assistant 
trainmaster at Connellsville, Pa. 

Mr. M. Prendergast has been appointed general fore- 
man of shops of the Baltimore & Ohio at Fairmont, W. 

Mr. W. E. McEldowney has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Denver, Enid & Gulf, with headquarters 
at Enid, Okla. 

Mr. E. G. Haskins has been appointed acting master 
mechanic of the Second and Third districts of the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande, with office at Salida, Colo., vice Mr. 
A. C. Hinckley, resigned. 

Mr. W. O. Johnson, formerly master mechanic of the 

March, 1905. 



Iowa Central, has been appointed foreman of machinery 
and equipment of the Manistee & Grand Rapids, with 
headquarters at Filer City, Mich. 

Mr. H. C. Bayless has been appointed mechanical en- 
gineer of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 
with headquarters at Minneapolis, Minn. 

♦ » » 

Universal Safety Tread 

The accompanying cuts show the steel base and the same 
after it has been filled, of the safety tread manufactured by 
the Universal Safety Tread Co., 45 Broadway, New ^ork. 
They make a specialty of treads for railroad purposes, sup- 
plying them to pattern. Their tread is being used by a large 
number of prominent railroads, who have adopted it for use 
on the steps of open and closed coaches, steps upon engines 
and tenders, and steps upon the pilots of engines. The tread 

Universal Safety Tread. 
is found to be not only a preventer against slipping, but 

unaffected by wet, snow, ice, oil or grease. 

•» » » 

No. 2 Stockbridge Index Center 

The Stockbridge Index Center is the product of a mani- 
fested demand for a center that will meet certain require- 
ments that no center has previously met. These suggestions, 
together with improvements which their experience has 
taught, have been embodied in the new design as illustrated 
and described. 

The dimensions of the No. 2 index center are as follows: 
Swing diameter, 10 inches; it takes between centers, 14% 
inches; the length over all is 27 inches; the hole in the 
spindle is 1 3-16 inches; the weight is about 110 pounds net. 
When packed for export it occupies about 2 cubic feet with 
a gross weight of about 125 pounds. 

Three index plates, with 24, 30 and 36 notches are Cur- 
nished, but any other divisions required can be had. 

The pitch of the worm and the diameter of the gear 
make it possible to get any fractional division of a thou- 
sand. If desired, the worm may be thrown out of mesh and 
the works revolved with the hand wheel. The index center, 
as shown in the illustration, is designed to be used with 
their regular shaper graduated chuck-base, in which center 
distances of bolt holes is 6 inches. If used without chuck- 
base, the regular bolt centers are 8% inches. Other centers 
can be furnished. In ordering it should be specified what 
center distance is required, also, if base is to be used. 

This center, as illustrated, is manufactured by the Stock- 
bridge Machine Co., of Worcester, Mass. ■ 

Fig. 2 — Showing Dog Holder Removed and Chuck in 
Its Place, -Stockbridge Index Center. ■ 

Fig. 3 — Showing Quill and Screw Removed, Stock- 
bridge Index Center. 

* • » 

Fig. 1 — Showing Raised Center of Stockbridge Index 


New Style of Auxiliary Grain Daor 

The accompanying illustrations snow a new form or grain 
door now being introduced by the Chicago Grain Door com- 
pany, Monadnock block, Chicago. Ike construction is clearly 
shown in the line drawings. The door is made in two parts, 
not hinged together, as has been the previous practice, but so 
arranged that either section may be handled without difficulty 
by one man, while both doors may be hung up against the 
roof so as to be out of the way when not in service. 

A prominent point in connection with the lower part of 
the door is the provision made to relieve pressure upon the 
inside of the door in discharging the load. This consists 
of two ports, which may be of any size desired, but which 
are shown as 5% inches square, this size being considered 
sufficient to give the necessary relief in a reasonable time, 
and not so great as to weaken the door. These ports are 
normally closed by a lifting gate, which is retained in ways 
formed by the attachment of strips of iron to the frame 
of the gate, while above the frame is fastened a heavy batten 



March, 1905. 

serving as a stop to the upward movement of the gate and 
as a reinforcement to the door to compensate for the weaken- 
ing by the removal of material to form the ports. The door 
is made very strong by thorough battening vertically and 
diagonally, a greater weight being allowable on account of 
the upper part of the door being separate from the lower. 
The lower door is hung upon guide rods by means of swivels. 
The upper section is hung upon and guided by the same 






DQOr C/OfY/7 to 
cei/e gram 

Fig. 1 — New Style of Auxiliary Grain Door. 


s^* ,<$■ 








! 1 






1 1 
1 1 

7 ; 

1 — r 
! 1 


, OaH 


\]f/F7) I 

I ~* T7 "" T*"^ 7"J* 

.1 ! / 

\ 1 _ I ) 


7 ^^ 


\ \.gSs>y L 

Outside V/ew 
Fig. 2 — New Style of Auxiliary Grain Door. 

rods, and rests upon the upper edge of the lower section. 
It is held in position against grain pressure from within by 
the arrangement of battens on both sections, one of the 
battens on the lower section overlapping the inside or the 
upper section, and the two battens of the upper section over- 
lapping the lower section on the outside. The two sections 
are held closely together by means of hooks on the upper 
section, which take into staples on the lower. 

When not in use both doors are hung up against the roof, 
the upper section folding closely against the carlines, where 
it is held by a special form of hook with a deep jaw, while 
the lower section is held below the former by a hook of 
the same form used with doors of other construction. It has 
been found impossible to jar down the door by any ordinary 

In unloading the lift gate is first opened, permitting a dis- 
charge of grain through the ports. The tendency is, of 
course, first to draw away the grain' which is pressing against 
the upper section, which can then be thrown up against the 
.section. While this operation is going on the lower section 
of the door is also being relieved of grain pressure, and 
by the time the upper section, or auxiliary door, is housed, 
the loAver section is sufficiently relieved though the ports 

/NSlCsL v;t l/V 

Fig. 3 — New Style of Auxiliary Grain Door. 
William B. Albright. 

to enable it to be similarly disposed of. The. car is then 
in condition for the use of power shovels or other unloading 

Lackawanna Railroad New Ferry Boats 

The Lackawanna Railroad Co. recently received four new 
ferry boats for use between Iloboken and New York City. 

These new boats are a distinct advance over anything that 
has been attempted in the ferry service of New York harbor. 
They are 250 ft. long with a 62 ft. beam and a draught of 
10 ft. 6 in. Each boat will have a horsepower of about 14,000 
and a speed of 16 m. p. h. They are considerably larger than 
the largest ferry boat now operating on the North River, and 
are designed with special reference to handling large crowds 
comfortably. The hull is sub-divided into water-tight bulk- 
heads, so that in case of collision the safety of the public 

March, 1905. 



will wot be endangered. The hulls and floors of these boats 
are of steel. 

The interior -is finished in Colonial style, the lower cabin 
having a system of cross seats on the inner side and an 
attractive arrangement of arches. The upper cabin has a 
large seating capacity, so that one thousand passengers can be 
accommodated without crowding. An indirect hot-air system 
is provided and an improved method of ventilation will assure 
fresh air at an even temperature at all times. 

American Railway Appliance Exhibition 

The general committee of arrangements of the American 
Railway Appliance Exhibition in connection with the inter- 
national Railway Congress, have sent out the following letter, 
which should appeal very strongly to the supply fraternity: 

"The Congress of the United States with the approval 
of the President, has signally honored the American manu- 
facturers of railway appliances by the passage of an act per- 
mitting an exhibition of the products of their, factories to 
be made on a part of the Monument Grounds in Wasnmgton' 
D. C, in connection with the meeting of the International 
Railway Congress to continue from May 3d to 14th, 1905, in- 
clusive. This gracious "and generous compliment by the 
federal authorities, which places at our disposal a central, 
convenient and conspicuous site for our exhibition, offers a 
supreme opportunity for the exploitation and exaltation of 
our craft. To improve it, is a duty; to neglect it, would be 
un-American. The occasion will be unique in the annals of 
our industry. For a period of twelve days several hundred 
railway officials of high and important rank, representing 
many foreign countries, together with more hundreds of 
American railway officials of similar rank, will be gathered in 
Washington for the sole purpose of discussing railway 

"In connection with this distinguished assemblage what 
could be more appropriate or important than an exhibition 
which shall show the fertility of resource, inventive genius, 
energy, enterprise and economic achievement of those who 
study with assiduity and with the zeal born of commercial 
ambition, the requirements of railway operations. The mem- 
bers of the American section of the International Railway 
Congress, are most anxious that the first meeting in America 
of the Congress shall be a crowning success. As an adjunct 
powerfully conducive to such a success, the proposed Ameri- 
iin Railway Appliance Exhibition has their cordial approval. 

"Your committee appeals to the patriotic impulses and com- 
mercial acumen of our fraternity to make the proposed ex- 
hibition such a demonstration as shall command the inter- 
ested attention of all railway officials, and cause to be known 
to the world what the American manufacturer has accom- 
plished for the railways in solving some of their vexatious 
aud pressing engineering and operating problems. Your spe- 
cial attention is called to the fact that the delegates to the 
International Railway Congress are being chosen from the 
executive, operating, mechanical and maintenance of way 
officials. All departments with which supply men have deal- 
ings will be represented. While the exhibition will offer ex- 
ceptional advantages to those who seek export trade, it can- 
not be too forcibly stated that those who manufacture exclu- 
sively for American trade will have an opportunity to gain 
the attention of a larger number of American railway offi- 
cials than has heretofore been enjoyed at any similar exhi- 
bition. The director of exhibits has been authorized by the 
committee to invite application for membership and for ex- 
hibit space under certain rules and regulations prescribed 
by the committee, which are fully set forth in the director's 
circular, and it is our earnest hope that the responses thereto 
will be prompt, and in such numbers as shall show enthu- 

siastic concert of action, and that a happy issue of our 
undertaking shall be quickly assured. Again you are re- 
minded that the funds ascribed by you will be disbursed with 
due heed to proper economy in keeping with such a greal 
and dignified enterprise, and that no member of the commit- 
tee or any officer thereof is to receive any monetary compen- 
sation for his services. It will be compensation enough for 
your servants* of the committee if their efforts shall rebound 
to the general welfare of the industry they seek to serve. The 
fees for membership and for exhibit spaces have been fixed 
by the committee at figures to insure financial solvency be- 
yond a peradventure. A deficit would be disgraceful and 
must not occur; a surplus can readily be returned pro rata 
to those contributing, and would be so distributed. 

"Finally, the appeal is made for exhibits, — fine ones, impres- 
sive ones. Anyhow, whether you exhibit or not, you are 
urged to enroll as members, as upon the fund raised from 
membership fees the proper and adequate administration of 
the exhibition and the entertainment of the visitors thereto, 
depends. Now, gentlemen, the preliminary arrangements and 
our appeal for co-operation having been made, the fate of 
the exhibition, — its success or failure— rests with you." 

Notes of the Month 

Mr. Geo. W. Austin, who was the western railway repre- 
sentative of Berry Bros., Limited, has resigned. 

♦ * » 

Mr. J. R. Cardwell of the American Cotton Oil Company, has 
been elected vice-president of Templeton, Kenly & Co., Limited, 
manufacturers of the simplex ear jacks, Chicago, 111. 

In order that there may be no confusion or conflict with 
previously organized companies using the name "Monarch," 
they have changed the name ' of this company to the Frost 
Railway Supply Co. 

The Miller Anchor Co., of Norwalk, 0., have issued a cata- 
logue describing their anchors, augers and excavating buckets. 
The catalogue fully illustrates the anchors, showing the 
amount of earth which would have to be lifted in order to 
pull the anchor. They are now putting on the market an- 
other anchor— a smaller one — to be used for light guying. 
This will be known as No. 1 and will prove fully as satis- 
factory as the larger sizes. 

The Columbus Machine Co., of Columbus, Ohio, have issued 
a circular describing their hoisting engines. These engines 
are run by gas, gasoline or distillate. The geared engine de- 
scribed is readily portable and positive in action. The ar- 
rangement is such as to admit of the use of the standard 
engine, mounting it on iron sub-base and gearing it with cast 
iron cut gears to drum shaft, which is carried in babbitted 
bearings on sub-base. The circular also contains a table of 
sizes and dimensions of their hoists. 

John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard Ave., New York City, manu- 
facturer of the Allen "Portable Pneumatic Riveting Machines, 
who recently established an agency with A. H. LeHand & Co.. 
Mexico City, Mexico, has received an order from this firm 
for six Allen riveters to be shipped the Cia Consolidada tie 
Construcciones Metalica, S. A., of Mexico City, Mexico. There 
is no doubt that there will be an extensive demand for the 
Allen riveters in Mexico, as its merits becomes more generally 



March, 1905. 

The total output of the Baldwin Locomotive Works for 1904 
was 1,453 locomotives, of which 1,352 were steam, 94 electric 
and 7 compressed air. This is nearly one-third less than 
the number built in 1903, which was 2,022. The falling off 
in business which began in the fall of 1903 affected the loco- 
motive industry." The works were run at their full capacity 
until last spring, but from June until the latter part of October 
very few orders were received. During the year 286 locomo- 
tives were exported. 

•» » »- 

The Boston & Maine Railroad has contracted with the La- 
conia Car Company for the construction of 300 3'6-foot box 
cars for delivery in the, near future. These cars are to be 
similar in construction to those which were built some time 
ago at the Concord, N. H., and Fitchburg shops of the com- 
pany, both as regards carrying capacity, which will be 60,000 
lbs., and as to trucks, which are steel, as formerly. Twenty 
passenger coaches will also be purchased from the Pullman 
company, same to be delivered in July, 1905. These coaehes 
will be uniform in construction with those which were de- 
livered by the Pullman company during the past summer, 
that is to say, 60 feet in length, lighted by Pintsch gas, and 
otherwise of the most modern type. 

* * » 

The Diamond Drill and Machine Co. of Birdsboro, Pa., have 
issued catalogues on the Jackson belt lacing machine, cold 
saw cutting-off machines and diamond pointed prospecting 
drills. A belt lacing machine is an indispensable adjunct to 
every shop in which belting is used, because the lacing costs 
less with machines and can be done in less time. The ma- 
chine fully described and illustrated in the catalogue, laces 
a 6-inch belt in three minutes. The catalogue on cold saw 
cutting-off machines illustrates ten different styles of ma- 
chines. Each type is built in seven sizes with beds to suit 
all requirements. The smallest machine will cut 2 x /4-inch 
and the largest 13-inch round forgings or steel castings. 
Most of the standard sizes are carried in stock. Especial at- 
tention is given to the clamping devices. 


Boiler compounds that are truly scale solvents and water 
softeners are being experimented with abroad and the results 
reported to be most satisfactory. One of these is a fluid com- 
position that is represented to soften any hard water and 
prevent scaling of boilers and disintegrate and remove scale 
already formed without priming. The composition is purely 
vegetable, no chemicals whatever being used in its manufac- 
ture, and there is said to be nothing in it to injure the boiler 
plates. In a test to determine its harmless character, a boiler 
was rilled with crude undiluted scale destroyer and run for 
three weeks in 60 lbs. pressure, after which it was examined by 
a boiler inspector who reported the boiler in perfect condition. 

There is a technical and art school at Leicester, Eugland, 
founded about seven years ago, to give a scientific training in 
the more important manufacturing processes and industries 
carried on in Leicester, and also for the encouragement of 
artistic pursuits. The curriculum includes a Avide range of 
subjects, such as boot, shoe and hosiery manufacture, wool 
dyeing, engineering, carpentry, plumbing, house painting and 
dressmaking, with the allied sciences of chemistry, physics, 
electric lighting, power distribution and mathematics. 

speed motor is primarily the machine shop, as no other line 
of work calls for so many individual machines. However, 
Northern variable speed motors are used in all kinds of in- 
dustries for operating pumps, for boiler feed, circulation, etc.— 
ventilating and blowing fans— elevators, hoists, conveyors, etc. 
An extensive field for Northern variable speed motors has been 
found in the cement industry where variable speed drive is 
especially advantageous. 

■» » » 

Ames College, Iowa, recently received an old and peculiarly 
constructed locomotive from Mrs. Joseph Mallory Thayer, as 
an addition to its museum. The locomotive originally belonged 
to Mrs. Thayer's father, who used it in contracting work. It 
had until recently been stored at the West Burlington Shops 
of the O, B & Q. Ry. It .is 3 ft. gage, Forney type, having 
outside valve motion and driving wheels. The cylinder is 
on a truck separate from the' boiler. It is equipped with the 
old-fashioned funnel stack, small drivers and tender and a 
headlight out of all proportion to its size. It was at one time 
the property of the Denver & Rio Grande Ry., and from cast- 
ings on different parts of the engine it is seen that it has also 
been the property of the Union Pacific, Denver & Gulf Ry., 
and the Denver & South Park Ry. The last time the engine 
was used was when Mr. Mallory bought it for the purpose 
of laying the double track on the C, B. & Q. Ry. at Red Oak, 

■» « » 

In welding locomotive frames the heat of the liquid Thermit 
steel melts the ends to be welded, and amalgamates with 
them so that upon cooling the ends and Thermit steel are 
found to be united into one piece. It is hence necessary 
to have the_ ends to be welded so arranged as to permit the 
liquid metal to properly reach all parts of the fracture. In 
the case of a locomotive frame, the fracture may be opened 
by pulling or springing the frame apart so as to leave % in. 
to y» in. clear space throughout the crack, permitting the 
parts to spring back into place about 25 to 30 seconds after 
the Thermit steel is poured and while the metal is yet plastic, 
and squeezing or jacking the parts together to their proper 
position; or the metal can be cut out, or a line of holes 
may be closely drilled through the line of the crack in a 
vertical position, bearing in mind always that the object is 
to let the liquid metal equally reach all parts of the fracture 
to insure fusing and amalgamation into one piece. Thermit 
and equipment is now supplied through the Commonwealth 
Steel Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

The Northern Electrical Mfg. Co., Madison, Wis., has found 
extensive sale for its single voltage, two wire, variable speed 
motors in all lines of industrial work. The field of the variable 

The government of the Grand Duchy of Baden has, within 
the past year, provided further for the comfort of the em- 
ployes of its railways. The government now owns 2,936 
apartment houses where officials and other employes reside. 
The train crews have been furnished with sleeping accom- 
modations, when their runs require them to be absent from 
home overnight, and small cooking stoves, of which there are 
now in use 230, have been provided where meals may be 
warmed. At Karlsruhe and Mannheim the government has 
lunch rooms established where the employes may obtain 
meals consisting of soup, meat and vegetables for 8 cents. 
The intention is to furnish the meals at cost. At these two 
restaurants the sale of liquors is forbidden. At Karlsruhe 
a library, consisting of 1,300 volumes, has been furnished 
the employes. The restaurants of the various depots 
throughout Baden are rented to private individuals, but gov- 
ernment employes are furnished meals at reduced rates. 
Some of the restaurants are sources of considerable revenue: 
for instance the depot restaurant at Heidelberg rents for 
$11,900, at Mannheim for $8,568. and at Offenburg for $4,760 
per annum. 

March, 1905. 


Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest ol 

CHARLES E.. COPP &&J& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (St, M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 


Among the Supply Men 


We introduce to our readers this month Mr. Frederick 
Fischer, of Pomeroy & Fischer, 28-30 Frankfort St., New 
York, whose portrait appears herewith. Mr, Joseph Pomeroy 
died Dec. 16, 1901, but the business has been conducted on 
the same lines by the surviving partner, Mr. Fischer. 

The popular varnish house of Pomeroy & Fischer is, as 
is well known, one of the oldest firms in that line of trade 
in America. It may not be so well known that this firm 
represents, and is the sole agent in the United States of, the 

Fredrick Fischer. 

venerable paint house of Nobles & Hoare, which dates its be- 
ginning from 1814 and has had a representative in America 
since 1848. It is as much to the personality of the surviving 
member of his firm, Mr. Fischer, as to his indefatigable energy 
that his business has reached its present magnitude. The 
trade of the house is, as always, exclusively Nobles & 
Hoare's English varnishes and Walker, Parker & Co.'s English 
white lead, besides bronze powders and fine colors. 

No one who has wielded a varnish brush, or lettering pen- 
cil, on a car or carriage needs to be introduced to Nobles & 
Hoare's Wearing Body varnish and Japan Gold Size. Scarcely 
any letterer has laid gold leaf on anything else of a size 
on car work than one composed of these two valuable mate- 
rials mixed in right proportions. 

Pomeroy & Fischer have been connected with the firm of 
Nobles & Hoare since 1872, Mr. Pomeroy as their traveling 

representative in many lands, and Mr. Fischer as confidential 
adviser in their export department. In 1886 they made their 
home in the United States, establishing the house as above 

This writer enjoyed an acquaintance with Mr. Pomeroy, 
who used to call on him many years ago; and has been 
entertained with his descriptions of travels in foreign lands, 
and held him in high regard and sincerely mourned his death. 


The Scale and Rust Problem 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop: 

In the February issue of "The Painters' Magazine" there 
appears this note: "The Erie Railroad has recently placed in 
service the first steel baggage car ever used on any railroad 
on this country. The feature of special importance to the 
readers of this department is the painting, especially the dur- 
able quality of the paint, or enamel, used upon the surface 
of this steel leviathan, a report of which may be expected 

This reminds me that I promised some time ago to write up 
the appearance of the tanks on the engines exhibited at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition when I was there about Nov. 
1st, just six months after the opening. There was hardly an 
engine on exhibition, not excepting the Anheuser-Busch 
switching engine (which I must confess was the finest painted 
engine I have seen in years), but what gave indications of 
scaling or rusting. .1 even noticed that one of the foreign en- 
gines was not exempt from it, which is evident to my mind 
that they also lose sight of this very important feature of 
removing the scale before painting. Now when we know 
that these were protected from the weather and, be- 
• ing exhibited ones, presumably were painted better than the 
ordinary, and with no dampness from water inside, nor out- 
side, what is the natural conclusion? Simply that the rust 
and scale had not been properly removed from these tanks; 
for if it had been there was nothing in the treatment or ex- 
posure of these engines to have created rust after painting. 
The condition of these engines only emphasizes what every 
one of us maintained at Atlantic City— that is, the scale and 
rust must necessarily be removed before painting. For our 
special committee, appointed after hearing the papers read 
on painting steel cars, reported seven points as being of vital 
importance in their preservation, the first of which was: 
"All flash, or mill scale, should be entirely removed before 
any paint is applied, and we believe this can be best accom- 
plished by the use of the sand blast." This report was 
adopted without a dissenting vote, I believe; and yet there 
are some who claim it is not necessary to remove flash or 
scale from new steel tanks before painting. 

At a meeting of the Pittsburg Railroad Club, some months 
ago. a prominent master mechanic claimed it was not neces- 
sary to remove flash and scale before painting, and that he 
was using a paint that entirely obviated the use of the sand- 
blast, emery, or any other means of cleaning. Now this may 
be time, but does this master mechanic know whether the re- 
sults he will get from this paint will be satisfactory? 

I recall very distinctly that James A. Cohen of the "Big 
Four," told us at Atlantic City that he had bronzed a tank 
with dry graphite from which tank the scale had not been 
removed, and while there was no rust on the tank, he said 
that the paint applied was not satisfactory, although it was 
his usual formula; and he was still experimenting. I do not 
have much faith in graphite in any form as a primer or un- 



March, 1905. 

der-coating for surface work. So before I am convinced that 
scale need not be removed I must certainly know that this 
scale or rust-resisting paint used by this master mechanic is 
satisfactory in other ways. It may turn out with him as it 
did with Gohen, who is of the opinion that the safest plan is to 
thoroughly remove the scale; for he so expressed himself to 
me at St. Louis when I met him at the exposition. 

Now, Mr. Editor, you had an article in the January issue 
of the "Master Mechanic" advocating water-proof paint for 
steel cars. You say it is plainly evident that if a paint upon 
steel allows water to go through it and attack the metal, 
rust must be the immediate result. I cannot agree with you 
altogether, because I have seen tanks painted that rusted 
badly, and after being cleaned off and repainted they did not 
rust again. And I would just like to hear from our friend 
Weis of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, in these columns, 
about the steel cars that Mr. McMasters sand-blasted on that 
road in the spring of 1902. There is an opportunity to prove 
or disprove your theory as to the water penetrating the oil 
paint. Then let us hear from John H. Kahler, who has sand- 
blasted a number of tanks, and be satisfied on this question. 

Mr. Editor, we have a number of cranks in our association. 
You might be termed the literary crank; "Sam" Brown, a 
shellac crank; "Jim" Gohen, the Emulsion-cleaner crank; 
"Billy" Quest, the paint-spray crank, and I guess I will have 
to admit being a scale-and-rust crank. 

D. A. Little. 

«» • » 

"Paint Burners vs. Paint Removers" 

St. Paul, Minn. (Como Shops), February 9, 1905. 
Editor Paint Department, Railway Master Mechanic. 

My Dear Sir:— Reading in recent publications has led me to 
write MSS. herewith, for which I beg space in one of the 
issues of the Railway Master Mechanic. 

In the shadows of the' gigantic oak, in the balmy zephyrs 
of the beautiful summer time, we may lie in repose and, 
listening to the twitter of the birds, enjoy nature's gifts. In 
the cold and bleak days of winter Ave may repose in comfort 
in the warmth of the pleasant home, listening perchance to 
the howling of the winds, feeling thankful for the means af- 
forded for our protection as well as also a thankfulness for 
other present blessings;— at these times may we read of or 
hear the advanced ( ?) ideas of our fellow craftsmen, but with 
possibly only benumbed senses, or perhaps a feeling of 
sympathy in our hearts and a desire in our minds that we 
might be able to think out a way whereby we might assist 
in the advancement of our calling and be the means of bring- 
ing to the front an idea, a method that might prove to be an 
improvement upon the present. But I fear I am too slow. In 
this frame of mind I read through the lines of recent publi- 
cations, and among them the Railway Master Mechanic, in a 
recent number of which I came upon an article the title of 
which has been the cause of this writing; an article entitled, 
"Paint Burners Vs. Varnish and Paint Removers," and I am 
loath to permit the points set forth to go unnoticed for the 
reason that the idea expressed may be taken up and an ef- 
fort put forth by the uninitiated to install a process of which 
the article in question appears as a recommendation. 

Why is it, after years of practice and after such a vast ad- 
vancement has been made in the mode of removing paint from 
car exteriors with the flame, it now appears that the mode 
should be abandoned for the very recent system of the so- 
called paint remover, a combustible, an inflammable substi- 
tute satisfactory in a small measure only, to say the most or 
best? Why this change I am at a loss to understand. Great 
stress appears to be placed upon the occurrence of a few 
fires which have destroyed shops and these during a short 
and recent period of time; and this being taken as sufficient 
data to warrant the abandonment of the old and only true, 

practical, economical and satisfactory method for removing 
paint from the exterior of passenger cars and in its stead 
adopting this latest method, the paint remover, so-called; 
the combustible, inflammable, the in many ways unsafe 

If man will only think, and he need not delve very deeply, 
he will discover that more fires and more destruction has oc- 
curred since the introduction and use of these varnish and 
paint removers than can possibly be traced as being directly 
caused by the burning process of removing paint. A few 
instances of destruction by this as a direct cause may be 
discovered; but, if so, these should rightly be attributed to 
carelessness upon the part of the workmen and not to the 
method of removing paint, or to the construction of the ap- 
paratus successfully in vogue for so many years. While I 
will not say that recent fires were, or might have been, caused 
by or through this, I am frank in claiming that the fires were, 
or originated, in places where knowledge, judgment and un- 
derstanding were not lacking, and I attribute the cause to 
thoughtlessness or lack of foresight upon the part of the 
workman; for no one would ever think of using an inflamma- 
ble, combustible, gaseous article upon the interior of a car 
and charge it to its fullness with gas and at the same time 
place upon the exterior the necessary, the proper torch for 
ignition. While it is said that the paint shop at all times con- 
tains gases of combustible nature and that there is a possi- 
bility of their being set off and property destroyed through 
the introduction of the paint burner, all of which I claim 
unnecessary and avoidable, how few are the instances of 
such cases of destruction. Again, I repeat, it is claimed that 
the paint shop contains these gases of combustible nature 
and that they are dangerous, and still we would recommend 
an article more gaseous, more combustible, so that the risk 
engendered to life and property shall be enlarged, so that 
we may live a life of preparedness, a consciousness within 
ourselves that at any time, any moment, someone may enter 
into this gas tank, this paint shop charged with the com- 
bustible, with a lighted torch, or perhaps he may light a 
parlor match, and instantly send us into eternity! Beautiful 
is the sentiment, so consoling, which brings such peace to 
the mind, a peace which lulls one to sleep, making him un- 
conscious of this possible "rapid transit!" 

To my mind it is essential that here is an opportunity for 
the insurance and health departments to investigate. Paint 
burning by heat, fire, or flame, in one form or another has 
been in practical use possibly before many of us were born, 
or perhaps while many of us were strutting about in kilts. 
My memory goes back to the time when it was thought that 
the heated slab of iron held to the surface of old paint was 
an advanced idea for removing paint. This perhaps was 
followed by the improved, the well-remembered charcoal fur- 
nace, with its screened open front; and then came the other 
improvement, the small hand, gasoline torch, explosive, fin- 
ger-lacerating, self-pressure-generating paint burner, to which, 
after a time, was attached the insignificant hand-pump ; but 
nevertheless an advancement in the right direction to the 
present successful, practical and generally adopted method, 
the compressed air and gasoline paint burner of today. 
Speedy, reliable and safe, carefully and properly constructed, 
producing a surface perfectly satisfactory to the most exact- 
ing in after-results and with a speed not possible to be ob- 
tained with any paste or liquid remover that has yet been 
devised. Barring all these advantages of the good, old-time 
paint burner over the combustible and dangerous varnish and 
paint removers as to fire, no one as yet has become poisoned 
in system or body through its use. Tins cannot be said of 
the removers, while it may be true and possibly is true that 
some do not contain the poisonous property. There are those 
that do. and who is it as a user that is so sure that he may 
not be deceived and be using some of it? Not one. The 

March, 1905. 



odor given off from burning paint is certainly more pleasant > 
,ui(l healthful tliau the sickening, nauseous odor given off by 
nearly all of the so-called paint and varnish removers. There 
is, however, possibly one advantage that the paint remover 
has over the flame and might be considered in the study of 
economy and, economically thinking, it would be the only 
advantage, allowing that we care nothing as to the condition 
of the shop floor after removing the paint from the car with 
the remover, and by the way saying nothing of the cost of 
labor required to clean the floor; just think how the scrapings 
and waste may be gathered up and used as fuel. It certainly 
will make a good fire and would raise some steam and in 
some localities raise something else, especially where the 
health department has such serious objections to the volume 
of smoke; and this certainly will make a good black one, 
to say nothing about the worse than stock-yards odor. 

As a user of varnish removers I close, claiming for it many 
advantages, economically and otherwise; but am not now 
ready to discard the most practical and economical "methods 
for something positively unsatisfactory. 

A. J. Bishop, Foreman Painter. 

A Sister Convention Visit 

The house painters know a thing or two as well as the 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters. It was this scribe's 
happy privilege to attend, as an invited guest, the annual 
convention of the Master House Painters and Decorators of 
Massachusetts, held at the American House. Boston, Jan. 11- 
12, 1905. So, together with his colleague and associate, Albert 
P. Dane, he strolled in there one day and ex-President Ed- 
wards took us up to the platform and "told on us," and told 
them all what he thought of us. And "a right smart" attend- 
ance they get out, too, as our southern associates would say 
—rather more than our entire active list of M. C. & L. P. A., 
we should think. And they religiously attend upon the ses- 
sions as well. They have their fun as well as the rest, but 
when the time for meeting comes they crowd into the big 
hall until there is hardly a vacant chair left. And there is 
a space reserved for the ladies, some of whom attend also. 
The lieutenant governor (Guild) made the opening address, 
but the writer lost the pleasure of hearing this, for he is a 
glib speaker. We reached the afternoon session of the first 
day when the subject of "Shellac" w r as up for discussion, and 
sincerely regretted that our old-time friend, "Sam," alias 
"Shellac" Brown, was too ill to be present. . Think of it, 
here was one of the greatest tirades you ever heard of against 
shellac as we are getting it today, right in the same hotel 
where "Sam" so nobly stood up for it at our convention in 
1890, when he showed us a car finished with it on the Old 
Colony R. R. on the trip to Plymouth, that enjoyable excur- 
sion day. We could but ask onrself, "How are the mighty 
fallen?" and reflect on the retrogression of the times and the 
adulteration that is practiced, as speaker after speaker told 
of his troubles with what he was getting and the expense 
he had been put to to make spoiled work good. Mr. Otto 
Walburg, of Boston, convulsed the convention with laughter 
with his witty presentation of his side of the case. Mr. 
Aiken, of New Bedford, read a paper first upon the subject, 
following it with some interesting tests for wood alcohol 
with permanganate of potash. Next came Mr. Langmuir, of 
a New York firm, Avith some tests for resin in shellac. This 
was most interesting. With a solution of chloride of iodine 
and acetic acid he would demonstrate at once if a cut shellac 
had any resin in it, after he had told us that almost all grades 
of the gum are adulterated with it before it leaves India, the 
resin being obtained from this country. Putting a few drops 
of the solution into a vial of pure shellac its color would not 
be changed, but just as soon as a pinch of dry resin was 
dropped into it it would turn red. Vials of resin shellac were 
tested and exhibited, as well as the pure. We obtained a 
vial of the solution with a promise of a bottle at a later 
date, and counted it a new and useful test. Debate was so 

free and the hour so late that Ave made our exit before the 
session ended, for our train home. 

Thursday morning the subject of paint and varnish renfov- 
ers was up, especially with reference to their 'licet upon the 
health of the users, and we were invited to speak upon it, 
and were introduced by the president. Prefacing our talk 
with some remarks on the subject of shellac of thy day be- 
fore, alluding to the change of sentiment in fourteen years 
since our convention was held there, and how shellac was 
then talked about and saying that we cut our own shellac 
in all our car shops, and had no trouble, we went on to lei! 
something about the dangers lurking in varnish removers, 
citing our report read at Chicago a year or so ago, and tell- 
ing how we had tested a remover recently that was one of 
their exhibits in the room below, that contained something 
like 40 per cent of carbon bisulphide. Our own. opinion of 
the discussion entered into by their own members was that 
they did not know much about up-to-date varnish removers 
when they advocated alkali and potash removers and oxalic 
acid and vinegar to remedy the troubles caused by them. 
One man said he wanted a remover that would' remove the 
filling as well as the varnish from the wood. We replied that 
we wanted the filler to remain as so much additional work 
and material saved, and the shellac also, if we could get 
along without its removal. Altogether it was an interesting 
two days' convention. 

They had a large banquet hall divided off into floor spaces 
for exhibitors, from which a revenue is obtained to support 
the association. There was "a smoke-talk" for one evemng's 
entertainment, and a banquet for the closing night. 

Notes and Comments 

By April 1st next it is expected that the B. & M. will have 
equipped the remainder of its freight equipment with air 
brakes, a few of which will have "straight air" applied, as 
the most is already equipped with the air brake complete. 

Frank H. Crocker, formerly foreman painter at the Kansas 
City shops of the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R., no longer 
connected with that road, we are advised is spending the 
winter in California. 

In our last issue a wrong impression was given in connec- 
tion with the recent promotion of Mr. J. W. Warden, when it 
was stated that all car repairs, etc., within a radius of 15 
miles of Boston were under his jurisdiction. As a matter of 
fact, his authority as assistant master car builder extends 
over the whole B. & M. system. 

W. B. Burpee has resigned as foreman painter of the Ports- 
mouth, Ya., shops of the Seaboard Air Line, to accept a similar 
position with the Atlantic & Birmingham at that company's 
shops at Way-cross, Ga. Mr. Burpee is succeeded at the Ports- 
mouth shops by his assistant foreman, B. H. Covert, formerly 
master painter of the Long Island R. R. 

Frank L. Robbins has been appointed foreman painter of 
the St. Albans, Yt.. shops of the Central Vermont R. R.. suc- 
ceeding W. J. Orr, resigned. Mr. Robbins has been wtih Mr. 
Orr for a number of years at Norwalk and Cleveland, 0.. on 
the Lake Shore, prior to his service with the Central Ver- 
mont, and is referred to as well qualified for the position to 
which he has just been appointed. 

By the way, there is to be another World's Fair at Portland. 
Oregon, the coming summer. Is this to hold over the month 
of September? If so, what was that contingent thinking of. 
of the M. C. & L. P. A., that always wants our convention near 
one of these expositions so as to take it in, that they did not 
urge to have it out there somewhere? Still, Cleveland is on 
the way. 



March, 1905. 

in addition to the new equipment mentioned in the last 
issue, the Boston & Maine is building three new milk cars at 
its -Concord shops. These, with over 50 others in use, are 
paiuted and varnished in the same way as is the rest of the 
passenger equipment as, with few exceptions, they run on 
passenger trains. Also another 60-ft. mail car is to be built 
at the Lawrence shops like the one described in last issue. 
These mail cars are built in accordance with government re- 
quirements and receive three inspections while building by 
railway mail officials. They are not dynamite and bullet-proof, 
but they do seem to be telescope-proof from collision. 

^and the new refractory material, "Siloxicon," but we trust 
our interested readers will write these people, as above, and 
obtain the booklet for themselves. 

Mr. Little writes, Feb. 14. that "J. B. Sipe and wife 
stopped over in Altoona Saturday night and left here Sunday 
noon for Florida to stay there the balance of the winter. His 
health is not good and he looks it." 

We also learn today, Feb. 16, that our associate, Mr. C. E. 
Nance, of the O. & W., goes to St. Augustine, Florida, to stay 
until spring to see if he cannot regain his health which, none 
of the best at last accounts, the ravages of the severe weather 
of this latitude was threatening. Our best wishes and kind- 
est regards go with him, with the hope that he will round up 
at the Cleveland convention all right 

Meeting Mr. H. M. Butts, master painter of the N. Y. Central, 
in Boston recently, in connection with a visit of his to the 
B. & A. shops of that road at Allston, he says that Mrs. Butts' 
mother died Feb. 1st, the interment occurring Friday, the 3d. 
She was 77 years old and had been ill five_ months with ail- 
ments incidental to old age. Also states that Mr. Louis Fox, 
assistant to Mr. A. L. Allen, at West Albany, is in quite poor 
health and is on a leave of absence to regain it, if possible. 
The N. Y. Central shops at Albany were not quite so busy at 
this time on account of not being able to get the cars released 
from service for shopping. Their average for the past two 
months— December and January— was 4% cars per day. while 
last year at this time they were turning out seven a day. 
Similar conditions were existing at the Allston shop=. 

Another good test which we recommend in connection with 
oils for preservative paints for steel, as indicated in our arti- 
cle in the January issue, entitled. "The Preservation of Steel 
from Decay," especially with reference to the steel structure 
of train sheds, overhead viaducts, etc., is as follows: Take 
strips of glass coated with the various oils to be tested and 
place them in a jar through which pass a current of Sulphur 
Dioxide (SO.) and note results Raw linseed will be imme- 
diatelv attacked and destroyed, while some other oils will be 
slightly affected. This is the gas in train sheds to a large 
extent, though not, of course, in its pure state. After taking 
strips out of jar and allowing them to be exposed to the air 
again note results. This would be a eood test to show at the 
convention, as the raw oil shows its effect immediately, 
while other oils may not be affected for several days. 

There has recently been sent us a copy, of "Protection, Re- 
sistance, Durability," a handsome and interesting booklet, de- 
scribing the methods of manufacture in the electric furnace 
and use of Acheson graphite for paint pigment. Any one in- 
terested in protecting metal surfaces from corrosion and de- 
cay may obtain this booklet by writine to the International 
Acheson Graphite Company. Niagara Falls. N. Y. Tt is gotten 
up in good shape, well illustrated, and tells "the story of 
Acheson Graphite Paint." its process of manufacture by elec- 
tricily. its durability, etc. We would be glad to make an ex- 
tract describing Ihe interesting way this material is devel- 
oped, also that wonderful related material, "Carborundum," 

It will be seen that Mr. Pitard's article in a former issue, 
in which he advocated a paint remover in place of the paint 
burner for removing paint from the exterior of cars, is stir- 
ring up opposition. This was expected. Mr. Bishop in his 
article in another column quite agrees with the position taken 
by the editor of these columns in the last issue in ah article 
under the same caption. 

In sending his article for publication, which appears else- 
where in this issue, Mr. Bishop says in a personal note that 
he is very busy at the shopes and has been since his return 
from the Atlantic City Convention, with plenty of work in 
sight and preparations being made for the great fair at Port- 
land, Oregon, next summer. Mr. Bishop has the advantage 
over many shops in the East by having lots of work in the 
summer in painting and varnishing the storm sash that they 
screw on the outsides of the windows of the cars in winter 
time. The Northern Pacific has cords of these— thousands of 

The output of the Boston & Maine's six passenger car paint- 
shops for the month of January, 1905, was 217 cars. From 
the beginning of the fiscal year, July 1, 1904, to January 31, 
1905, 686 cars were painted and varnished as against 553 the 
previous year, showing a gain of 133 over last year; thus all 
losses for two years are made up. with 34 cars ahead. The 
total equipment as it now stands is 1,629 cars, -from which 51 
express freight cars of Fitchburg division may be deducted 
that, though treated with varnish color in Pullman shade, run 
partly on freight trains. Another deduction of 63 electric cars 
at Portsmouth and Concord leaves a total of 1.515 cars run- 
ning wholly in passenger service that have to be varnished. 
Thus it will be seen that there are remaining 829 cars to be 
done in order to complete the equipment by June 30, the end 
of the fiscal year. On account of summer travel, if the season 
is favorable, which starts in early to the mountains and sea- 
shore, cars are reluctantly taken from service after June 1st, 
if not during the latter part of May, so that there can only be 
February, March, April and May to count on to do this work. 
But as this will mean but about 207 cars per month it seems 
feasible at this writing. 

We commend Mr. Little's interesting article in another col- 
umn to the thoughtful attention of all who, having anything 
to do with painting locomotive tanks. He makes the mistake, 
however, in his criticism of our article in the January issue, 
of ascribing to that article the claim that a water-proof paint 
is the thing for engine tanks; that would be useless in that 
case, as they are protected with an after-coating of varnish, 
or varnish color, or both, that is more water- proof than any 
paint can be. We stated, in substance, that, no matter whose 
paint is used, a tank filled with water warmer than the 
atmosphere without and sweating takes place from beneath 
the paint, rust pits will form and work their way out, "but 
with the steel car a different problem is met." Read again. 
Bro. Little. We also stated "that paints have to be constructed 
differently for various purposes and according to their several 
needs." We agree with Mr. Little, however, in his sand-blast 
argument as the proper means for preparing rolled steel for 
painting: and plead guilty to his "crank" indictment, and 
think the rest of the culprits in the "cage" with us will stand 
up in their turn and say "Guilty, your honor." If a man 
amounts to much of anything in this world in any calling that 
little gets to him by common consent: but "the cranks of 
today are the heroes of tomorrow." 


April, 1905. 



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Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

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Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

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Vol. XXIX. 


No. 4. 


Editorial • : . .*. . . 111 

Mr. J. M. Gruber, General Manager C, *B. & Q. . .....;:, . . .'. .112* 

New Angus Shops, Canadian Pacific Ey .113* 

4-6-2 Type of Locomotive of the C, M. & St. P. Ry 116* 

Systems of Electrical Distribution .119* 

A Rapid Production Vertical Turret Lathe. ...'.. .... . . . . .124* 

New Steel Cars for the Metropolitan West Side Elevated 

Railroad ...... 126* 

Drifting Valve ,".~. .7. ... . . . "...7 . . .128*. 

Railway Storekeepers' Association 127 

Personals 7". . < .'.... 128 

American Railway Appliance Exhibition .-....' 130* 

Master Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' Conventions . 133* 

Extra Heavy Outside Moulder 133* 

Jackson Belt Lacing Machine 135* 

Burgess Rail Anchor 135* 

Notes of the Month . . 135 

Paint Department 139 

Railway Mechanical Index, Advertising Pages. .. .20-22-24-26 
Index to Trade Catalogues, Advertising Page . . . 26 

The Editorial and Business Offices of the Railway Master 
Mechanic will be located after May 1st in the Security 
Building, corner Madison Street and Fifth Avenue, Chicaeo. 

THE International Railway Congress, which is to 
hold its seventh session at Washington May 4-13, 
will be the most important gathering of railway officials 

ever held in this country. For the "first time its sessions 
will be held in America, and not only delegates from 
foreign countries will be present, but delegates from all 
of the leading home roads. Washington next May will 
undoubtedly see the largest gathering of railway and the 
railway supply men that has ever been witnessed any- 
where. Not only will the subjects discussed in the ses- 
sions of the congress be of interest and importance, but 
the exhibition of American railway supplies will be an 
^education in itself. - Every man interested in any way 
in railways should be in Washington next May. ; 

-♦ « » 

HE number of engine failures due to cold weather 
should be a strong argument for introducing elec- 
tric power on steam railroads. With the electric car the 
only cause for failures in cold weather are snow banks, 
while with the locomotive leaky flues and fireboxes- add 
to the strain in keeping trains moving in weather as ex- 
perienced during February. 

The reason for the electric car having this advantage is 
because its power house is in a building and the boilers 
are not exposed to the changes. Furthermore, a different 
class of power is installed in the power house, which is 
more accessible and failures are not so liable to occurs 

ON February 21 the Western Railway Club held a 
reception to its past presidents, it being the occa- 
sion of having reached its majority. The club was or- 
ganized in 1884 with about a dozen members and has 
grown until now it has a membership of over 1,000. The 
majority of its members are connected with the mechani- 
cal departments of railroads, arid the papers presented 
have nearly always been on the performance and main- 
tenance of locomotives and cars and shop practice. The 
papers presented and discussed, have always been inter- 
esting and instructive. One feature in which the club 
differed from most similar organizations is that several 
subjects were chosen for an evening. In this way top- 
ics were selected which would not take up a whole even- 
ing, but more information directly in line with practice 
could be taken up. Quite frequently the discussions be- 
came so interesting that only one of the selected sub- 
jects could be taken up on the evening, which proved the 
active interest the members, .took in the discussion. 

In a social way the members of the club formed many 
intimate friendships, and if it had done nothing more 
than this, it would have been worth, while for the -attend- 

When the club was first started shop methods were 
crude, locomotives and cars were small, the use of steel — 
forged, structural and cast — were in their early- experi- 
mental stage. During the existence of the club all these 
developed and the members were all influential in their 
development. The club has always taken part in' the M. 
C. B. rules of interchange, and to some of its members is 
due much of the work which resulted in the-present rules 
of interchange It was the recommendation of the West- 



April, 1905. 

ern Railway Club which resulted in making the car owner 
responsible for repairs in interchange. Three past presi- 
dents of the club should be mentioned in this connection 
— Peck, Rhodes and Barr. 

Some of the principal papers discussed in the club are 
"Car Lighting," by George Gibbs ; "Steam Distribution 
in High-Speed Locomotives," by C. H. Quereau ; "The 
Utility of Electric Motors on Railroads," by D. L. 
Barnes. Other subjects that were taken up were on the ex- 
perimental work on tonnage 
rating of locomotives. Water 
purification has been a fre- 
quent subject for discussion. 
Some of the later subjects 
have been on piece work and 
shop management. 

The principal element 
which has contributed to the 
success of this club has been 
the willingness of the rail- 
roads to make public the re- 
sults of their experimental 
work and investigations. 


« ■ » 

POOLING locomotives 
is partly in favor 
with foreign railroads. Ac- 
cording to the Bulletin of the 
International Railway Con- 
gress, only three roads apply 
this system as a regular 
thing, of which one uses it 
by force of circumstances, 
because there is a want of 
locomotives, and in every 
way prefers the single crew 
system, which it considers 
best. One road seems to be 
entirely satisfied with it. The 
Transbaikal line states that 
it is the small importance of 
the traffic on the line which 
has led to the adoption of the 
pooling system. Perhaps it 
may be partly, also, owing to 
the fact that the Transbaikal 
line, which is more than 745 miles in length, is at present 
only a sing le-track railway connecting Lake Baikal and 
Manchuria. This configuration of the line lends itself quite 
well to the application of the complete pooling system 
to the locomotives of the few trains running long dis- 
tances, although it sometimes gives rise to difficulties in 

The London & Northwestern Railway of England 
applies the complete pooling system to optional trains 
and shunting locomotives ; the Danish State Railway to 
the latter only. The Belgian Northern, the Great North- 
ern and Great Central in England, the Great Indian 
Peninsula and the Cape Government Railways occasion- 

Mr. J. M. Gruber 


Mr. Gruber has been in railway service since 1885, beginning with the St. Paul 
Minneapolis & Manitoba. He was later connected with the Santa Fe system for a 
number of years as stenographer, clerk, assistant trainmaster at Gainesville, Tex., 
superintendent of transportation of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, and chief 
clerk to general manager of the same road. He was then assistant superintendent 
of the Eastern of Minnesota for five months, and superintendent of tne same road 
from June, 1895, to July 25. 1896 He was then transferred to the Montana Central 
as general superintendent, and on March 25, '897. was appointed assistant general 
superintendent of the Great Northern. In April, 1903, he resigned to accept the 
position of general superintendent of the Western district of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific at Toptika. He left the latter road on January 28, 1904, and on Feb- 
ruary 5 of the same year was appointed general superintendent of the Union 
Pacific. Mr. Gruber left the latter position t • become general manager of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy on February 1, 1905. 

ally apply the pooling system in order to meet a sudden 
rush of traffic; but they are not satisfied with the system 
and do not recommend it. The Madras Railway, which 
had adopted it for sudden rush of business, abandoned 
it owing to its disadvantages. 

According to these observations the pooling system is 
not a complete success. 

This has been discovered on some of the American 
One of the principal trunk lines west of Chicago 

abandoned the pooling sys- 
tem on their passenger serv- 
ice. They claim that with 
the pooling system an engi- 
neer and fireman experience 
the same difficulties that a 
cook would if he was to pre- 
pare a meal in a strange 
kitchen. It is not that he 
would not know how to pre- 
pare the meal, but the sur- 
roundings are different and 
all the utensils in different 
places. The crews experience 
the same difficulties in get- 
ting a strange engine. They 
do not know its weaknesses, 
and so considerable time is 
lost in getting acquainted. If 
the engineer and fireman 
have the same engine all the 
time. they know at what cut- 
off she will do the best work, 
and the fireman will know 
exactly what her weaknesses 
are in the firebox. Fur- 
thermore, they will take a 
greater interest in their 
work. A good example of 
this was shown the other day 
in riding an engine that was 
not in the pooling system. 
There were new brasses put 
in the trailing boxes. The 
engineer knew that these 
were new and liable to get 
hot, so he kept his eye 
on these all the time, with the result that they ran 
cool. If this engine had been in the pooling system, the 
chances are that the engineer would not have known 
that he had new brasses and the train would have lost time 
on account of hot trailer boxes. Another point is the 
pride the crews take in having their engine "ship shape." 
They will ask visitors to look at the engine and point out 
with pride how well she is kept up and how clean she is. 
They also know exactly what repairs are to be made and 
see that they are made before the engine goes out again, 
often spending a lot of time out of hours repairing and 
painting parts themselves that they know the roundhouse 
force will not have a chance to do. 

April, 1905. 


New Angus Shops, Canadian Pacific Railway 


HE Canadian Pacific Railway recently put into 

T operation one of the largest and most com- 
plete locomotive and car shops. This road has 
a mileage of 8,183 miles and owns 840 loco- 
motives and 28,655 cars. The road is divided 
into the eastern and western divisions, each 
of which has its own separate management. 

The locomotive shop was designed to handle 
the heavy repairs of half of 450 locomotives 
on the eastern division. The heavy repairs of the western 
division will be handled at the new shop, nearly com- 
pleted at Winnipeg. At present they are turning out one 
new locomotive per week and about 35 repairs per month. 
The plant has a local telephone system connecting all 
the foremen's offices. This system has a capacity of one 
hundred 'phones. 

The shop buildings are arranged on either side of a cen- 
ter passage or midway -over which is located a 10-ton 
crane running on structural steel supports. The tracks 
from the different buildings extend into or across the 
midway, and all materials in transit between the shops 
or storehouse is handled by this crane. 

The general office building which contains the offices 
of the motive power and car departments, including the 
test department, and general storekeeper, is located in the 
center nearly opposite the end of the midway to the 
southeast of the shop buildings. Starting from this end of 
midway, the locomotive shop building, which includes 
the erecting, machine, boiler and tank shop, is the first 
building to the left. Almost directly opposite this is the 
general storehouse, whose platform extends far enough 
into the midway to allow the crane to take material from 
it. The next building on the right side is the blacksmith- 
shop. Opposite the blacksmith and next to the locomo- 
tive shop is an iron foundry, and following on the left 
is the pattern shop, behind which is a fire proof building 
for pattern storage. Next comes the car machine shop, 
then the truck shop, and the last building on the left side 
is the freight car- shop. Opposite the freight car shop is 
the planing mill. Between the planing mill and the 
blacksmith shop, located back from the midway, is the 

power house. All these buildings with the exception of the 
power house receive and exchange material from the mid- 
way crane. Directly back of the truck shop is the wheel 
foundry and core sand shed. A frog shop is located 
back of the pattern store house and an oil house room' 
back of the grey iron foundry. Another crane travels 
at right angles to the midway crane along side of the 
grey iron foundry. This crane handles the supplies of 
the foundry as well as elevating the material to the charg- 
ing platform. The two passenger car shops with a 75 ft. 
transfer table between are back of the blacksmith shop. 
The cabinet shop, including the hardwood store room and 
upholstery, is back of the power house, alongside of the 
passenger car shop. The dry kiln is located back of the 
planing mill and the cabinet shop. 

The location of buildings and arrangement of tracks is 
clearly shown in the general layout. From this it is seen 
that loaded cars can be run into or alongside of all the 
buildings or under the midway crane. 

The walls, which are constructed of brick laid in cement 
mortar, rest on a foundation of concrete three feet high. 
This extends a short distance below the ground. Below 
the concrete is rubble masonry, and this rests on dry rock 
wall carried down to rock foundation. 

The heating is by means of the Sturtevant system of hot 
air blast. The hot air pipes are carried overhead, with 
downward outlets in all cases, except on the erecting side 
of the locomotive' shops, where ducts are under the floor, 
with uptakes every four bays. 

In the power house is located a city fire alarm box. To 
this are connected boxes located in or near all the build- 
ings. By these means an alarm turned in from any build- 
ing will go to the city fire department. Besides this, 
there is a local department, composed of employes. 

There is a tunnel leading from the power house across 
the midway and from there parallel to the midway con- 
necting all the buildings. This is used for steam, air and 
water pipes. 

Besides the midway crane and foundry crane, there is 

Fig. 1 — View 


Shops. cific Shops. 



April, 1905. 

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April, 1905. 



Fig. 5 — Cross-section of locomotive shop; Canadian Pacific Shops. 

a 30 ft. radius rubber-neck crane, built by the Browning- 
Engine Co., of Cleveland,0. , for handling material in 
the yards. There is also an industrial railway in and 
about the buildings. This has a 2 ft. gage track inside 
of the regular track. In some places this is double track 
and very narrow cars are used so as to be able to pass one 

locomotive and machine shop. 

This is the largest building. It measures 162 ft. 8 ins. 
x 1,167 ft- 4 i ns - outside. It is arranged in three bays, 
running longitudinally. Half of the building, forming one 
bay, is given up to the erecting, tank and part of the 
boiler shop. The next bay, comprising about two-thirds 
of the other half of the building, is for heavy machine 
tools and boiler shop machinery, and the third bay, over 
which there is a gallery, is for small machine tools. The 
gallery is also used for small machines and tool work. 

Over the erecting shop, which has three parallel erect- 
ing pits and two standard gage supply tracks, are two 
60 ton cranes, each with a 10 ton auxiliary hoist, and on 
the same runway is a 20-ton crane, which is intended prin- 
cipally for boiler" shop work. On the machine side there 
is one 20 ton and one 10 ton crane over the heavier 
machine tools, and numerous jib cranes extending from 

the building columns. These in most cases carry an air 
hoist or in a few cases electric driven chain hoists. Over 
the boiler shop is a hydraulic crane, which serves the large 

The main foof trusses, which are steel, are carried by 
a steel frame work. The roof is of 3-inch planks laid on 
heavy wooden rafters and covered with gravel roofing 
and galvanizzed iron flashing at the connection with the 
monitors. These transverse monitors are 12 ft. wide and 
72 ft. long and have ventilating doors on the sides and 
two' rotary ventilators on top. The roofs of the monitors 
are of glass. The walls are provided with two rows of 
large windows. 

All the machines are electrically driven, in most cases 
in group form from a counter-shaft, but there are also 
quite a large number of individually driven machines, to 
some of which the motors are directly connected, and in 
others the motor rests either on the floor or column and 
is belted to a short shaft. Alternating current, three- 
phase induction motors are used principally. But in cases 
where variable-speed is required, direct-current motors 
have been installed. These are usually direct-connected to 

the machine. 

(To be continued) 

Slo fp F^O! 

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Fig. 6 — Elevation of locomotive shop, Canadian Pa- 
cific Shops. 

Fig. 7 — View in machine shop, Canadian Pacific 




4-6-2 Type of Locomotive of the C. M. & St. P. Ry. Co. 

N page 154 of our May, 1904, issue we pub- 

O! lished a new design of locomotive boiler, 
which was to be used on a number of passen- 
ger engines as an experiment. At the time of 
the publication we did not mention the name 
of the road designing the boiler, but there 
were a number of communications published 
in the June and August issues. One com- 
munication is in part as follows : 
"The first point that attracts attention as being very 
much smaller in proportion than usual is the grate area. 

might be widened out, as the length had either reached 
the firing limit or was restricted by other features of the 
design. With the wider type firebox, which must at least 
clear a trailing wheel, it is impossible to get the depth 
as great as when the firebox rested on top of the frames 
or between the frames. The question becomes, whether 
it is better to have sufficient grate area to properly and 
economically burn the necessary fuel, or is it better to 
have a smaller grate area and a greater area of firebox 
heating surface ? Evidently the boiler in question is going 
to determine this point. We may, however, from an 

Fig. 1 — 4-6-2. Type of locO'Motive of the C, M. & St. P. Railroad. 

With 36 square feet of grate area it will be absolutely 
necessary to maintain a very high rate of combustion per 
square foot of grate surface per hour, and, in fact, it is 
questionable whether with the grate area in question 
enough coal can be burned to produce the necessary 
amount of heat. There is no question whatever of the 
value of firebox heating surface, the firebox evaporat- 
ing at least 35 to 50 per cent of the total evaporation, and 
that the greater the heating surface of the firebox the 
better steamer the boiler will be. While apparently the 
later designs of engines have shallow fireboxes with less 
proportion of firebox heating surface than the older types 
of engines, it is very probable that in all these designs 
there was no desire to decrease the firebox heating sur- 
face, but rather to obtain the necessary grate surface. The 
depth of firebox had to be sacrificed in order that it 

analysis of the best designs, form some opinion as to 
what the new boiler will or will not do, and from such 
analysis it would seem that it is going to be deficient in 
grate area." 

This locomotive was designed and built by Mr. J. F. 
De Voy, M. E., of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway, under the direction of Mr. A. E. Manchester, 
S. M. P. The conditions under which the design was 
worked out are as follows : The weight per wheel was" 
not to exceed 23,500 lbs. ; it should have piston valve and 
stroke must be 26 ins. ; the flues could not exceed that 
of their present Atlantic type engines, which have a 2-iri. 
outside diameter, flue 16 ft. 6 in. long; and in view of 
the very satisfactory service both in the life of firebox and 
fuel consumption, Mr. Manchester insisted on a narrow 
firebox. Also that the distance a man had to fire should 

Fig. 2— Cross section of boiler, C, M. & St. P. loco motive. 

April, 1905. 



jg - From Fail 

•— dofc- 



April, 1905. 

not be over 10 ft., and while the length is 10 ft. 6 in., 
the back head and fire door have been placed in a posi- 
tion that the actual distance coal has to be thrown is 
less than 10 ft. He also insisted that the depth of firebox 
must be greater than in any other boiler on the road, 
and it will be noted that a depth at throat of 28>4 in. is 
obtained, which enables them to gain in depth of fire what 
they lost in width. 

The short flues necessitated setting the back flue sheet 
as far ahead as possible. This distance is 16 ins. ahead 
of the mud ring, giving a large combustion chamber in 
which the gases circulate, becoming thoroughly heated 
before reaching the flues, and assists in better combustion. 
The short flues also necessitated moving the front flue 
sheet as far back as possible, giving a front end 87 ins. 
long. With this construction a larger area of netting is 
used, making the area through the netting more nearly 
equal to the flue area, a point which is quite frequently 
lost sight of in trying to make a self-cleaning front end. 
It also makes the boiler more accessible to repairs, as 
there is no water space over the. cylinders. 

The deep firebox forced the, design of a new construc- 
tion of equalizers and radial trucks and, in fact, all that 
back of the rear drivers. The trailer consists of six 
pieces outside of bolts and rollers. By referring to the 
illustration it will be seen that A is a roller cap on which 
the springs rest. This is free to move up and down in 
the two guides C. B is the pedestal, of which there are 
two. These are bolted to both frames. the trailer 
box. It is constructed in one piece for both bearings. 
The side motion of the wheels is .limited by the lugs E 
and F. This allows a total movement of 4^ ins. for the 
trailer box D. This truck was designed by Mr. J. F. 
De Voy. 

The size of cylinders is comparatively large when com- 
pared with the weights on drivers. This great tractive 
power for weight on drivers was adopted to make the 
engine compete with the compound engine when admit- 
ting high-pressure steam to the ! low-pressure - cylinder 
when working on grades. 

The performance of this engine has been so satisfac- 
tory, both from its steaming qualities, speed and ability 

to haul trains, that the design is fully justified and has 
more than met expectations. 
The general dimensions are: 

Road .....:... ... . ... .C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

Builder .•"•>..., /.,j .......... .0., M. & St. P. Ry. 

Class . . . . \ \ .' . v; ... . F2 

Gage '..,.. .4 ft. 8% in. 

Fuel • • • • ■ • • Bituminous coal 

Weight on drivers . .\ . . . ...'.. 142,000 lbs. 

Weight, total i .918,000 lbs. 

Weight, engine and tender loaded 343^600 lbs. 

Wheel base, total, of engine. . . . ' 32 ft. 5 ins. 

Wheel base, driving 13 ft. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender. ...... .59 ft. 11 7-16 ins. 

Length over all, engine and tender. . . 70 ft. 6 ins. 

Height, center of boiler above mils .9 ft. 5 ins. 

Height of -stack 15 ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 3,136 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, fire-box 245.6 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,381.6 sq. ft. 

Grate'area : . .35.84 sq. ft. 

Drivers, diameter 72 ins. 

Truck wheels, diameter 33 ins. 

Trailer wheels, diameter 42 ins. 

Journals, driving axle, size '. j' 9 x 12 

Main crank pin, size. . . ■ 6% x 7 ins. and jy 2 x 4% ins. 

Cylinders, diameter . 23 ins. 

Piston stroke :'~ : . . . . : . . . 26 ins. 

Main rod, length center to center . . .9 ft. 7 ins. 

Steam ports 1% ins. 

Exhaust ports 2% ins. 

Bridge width 1% ins. 

Valves, kind of :■- •-...... »'. . .Piston 

Valves, diameter 12 ins. 

Valves, greatest travel 6 ins. 

Valves, steam lap ■..'.' 1 in. 

Valves, exhaust lap (negative) % in. 

Boiler, type of Radial Stay 

Boiler, working steam pressure 200 lbs. 

Boiler, material in barrel . . . Steel 

Boiler, thiqkness of material in barrel • .% ins. 

Fig. 8 — Sections of throat sheet, C, M. & St. P. 


Pro. 9 — Cross-section of front end, C, M. & St. P. 


April, 1905. 



Fig. 10 — Trailing truck, 

Boiler, diameter of barrel 72 ins. 

Thickness of tube sheets, . . . .' % in.; back, % ins. 

Thickness of crown sheet % ins. 

Crown sheet, stayed with I in. Radial Stays. 

Dome, diameter 31% ins. 

Fire-box, length 10 ft. 5% ins. 

Fire-box, width < 3 ft. 5Va ins. 

Fire-box, depth, front 7 ft. 

Fire-box, depth, back 5 ft. 10% ins. 

Fire-box, thickness of side sheets 5-16 in. 

Fire-box, thickness of back sheets % in. 

Fire-box, water space front, 4 ins.; sides, 3% ins. 

Tubes, number 363 

Tubes, outside diameter 2 ins. 

Tubes, length over sheets. . 16 ft. 6 ins. 

Smoke box, diameter 72 ins. 

Smoke box, length 87 ins. 

Tender, capacity for water 7,000 gals. 

Tender, capacity for coal 10 tons. 

Tractive effort 32,500 lbs. 

Ratio weight on drivers to tractive effort 4.36 

Eatio tractive effort to total heating surface 9.61 

Ratio total heating surface to fire-box heating surface. .. .13.8 

Ratio total heating heating surface to grate area 94.3 

Ratio fire-box heating surface to grate area 6.85 

Ratio of total heating surface to volume of both cylinders. .270 

Ratio of grate area to volume of both cylinders. . . .' 2.86 

Ratio of total heating surface to weight of one cylinder 

full of steam at boiler pressure 1,150 

C, M. & St. P. locomotive. 

Systems of Electrical Distribution in Railway 


By J. Henry Klinck. 

THE general problem of motor driving has been dis- 
cussed at considerable length in the technical pa- 
pers of late and many system have been advocated by the 
various writers. 

In many cases systems have been advocated regard- 
less of their applicability to any particular class of serv- 
ice. The systems now on the market providing speed 
variations electrically have been worked out with a great 
deal of ingenuity, and all of them have some points in 
their favor for certain classes of service. 

The problem before the railroad repair shop, however. 
is peculiar, and has certain features which are not com- 
mon to any other line of manufacture. The success or 
failure of any system in a railroad repair shop will de- 
pend largely upon the simplicity and reliability of the 
system for obtaining a given result. Railroad repair 
work, in general, is not susceptible to such great refine- 
ment as are certain lines of manufacture which duplicate 
standard parts indefinitely, and for this reason a system 
of distribution adapted to the needs of the repair shop 
must be flexible. 



April, 1905. 

It is also important that, as far as possible, the system 
be capable of sub-division, in so far as the generating 
units are concerned, due to the fact that considerable 
overtime work is necessary, and at such times it is desir- 
able to shut down parts of the generating equipment, 
operating only such machines as .necessary. 

There was a time, a number of years ago, when the 
railroad shop was extremely conservative in the matter 
of taking up new ideas, and was probably working to 
less advantage than any manufacturing establishment, for 
the reason that railroad repair work is practically devoid 
of competition. As the number and capacity, and con- 
sequently the size, of locomotives in service have in- 
creased, not only has the necessity for increasing either 
the size or output of existing repair shops arisen, but, 
in many instances, entirely new shop plants have been 
constructed. Some of the railroads have been extremely 
progressive in adopting new methods of production as 
applied to repair work, and they have virtually set a pace 
which must eventually be followed by the others. This 
will be more true as reliable reports of the better results 
obtained by the use of modern machinery and methods 
become public. 

The two factors which have had more to do with the 
recent impetus given to the study of rapid production 
than any others have been the high speed steels, and the 
variable speed electric motor. These agents have not 
only brought about conditions entirely new to the manu- 
facturing fraternity at large, but their influence has ex- 
tended farther, having induced a complete study of man- 
ufacturing conditions, involving not only the rapid pro- 
duction of work, but also improved methods of handling 
work between operations. 

The importance of increasing the output of a loco- 
motive repair shop canot be overestimated. The increase 
in output generally reduces the cost of a given class of 
repairs, a matter of considerable value, but of far more 

importance is the fact that an increase in output of a 
given shop reduces the time a locomotive must be out 
of service. The ideal locomotive repair shop may be de- 
fined as the shop which makes its repairs thoroughly and 
economically, keeping an engine out of service for the 
shortest time. 

Second only in importance to the rapid production of 
work is the eeonomy and reliability of the installation. 
Economy in operation means a reduction in the capacity 
of the engines and boilers operated in the power plant, 
and should also logically include the cost of maintenance 
and repairs to the apparatus installed. 

Third in importance is the question of cost. Before 
any particular system is installed, complete costs should 
be obtained, including not only the cost of the machinery 
proper, but also the cost of wiring and special fixtures 
which in many cases constitutes a very appreciable per- 
centage of the total cost of the installation. 

Next in importance is the matter of simplicity. The 
average mechanic to-day is not a skilled electrician, and 
the installation of apparatus which is so simple that it 
may be maintained by the operator will save much time 
on the part of the regular repair man, who is usually busy 
with more important duties than the maintenance of in- 
dividual motors throughout the plant. 

In many cases individual drive will be found desirable, 
particularly for the larger machines, such as wheel lathes, 
frame planers and slotters, boring mills, axle and crank 
pin lathes, and in general machines doing comparatively 
heavy work. For the lighter machines, the group drive 
seems to be preferable, chiefly on account of its smaller 
cost. It is not the intention to discuss the relative merits 
of the individual and group drive to any considerable 
length in this paper. It is deemed desirable, however, to 
' call attention to the fact that the individually driven tool 
is capable of being used independently of the rest of the 
equipment, and that, when so operated, it calls upon the 

Fig. 1 — Westinghouse alternating current induc- 

Fig. 2 — 38 ins. by 38 ins. by 14 ft. Niles planer, 
driven by 10 H. P. Westinghouse direct cur- 
rent Type S Motor, in Union Pa- 
cific Shops, Omaha, Neb 

April, 1905. 



Fig. 3 — Niles No. 5 bending rolls, operated by West- 


power plant for only the power necessary to supply the 
driving motor. In making an installation it is usually 
possible to arrange for such a combination of group and 
individual drive that, when it becomes necessary to work 
part of the shop equipment overtime, there will be ope- 
rated, as a rule, only the tools required for the work in 

We shall assume that in a given installation there will 
be certain machines individually driven by means of either 
constant speed or variable speed motors, and that the 
question then to be decided is the system of power distri- 
bution best adapted to the operation of the installation 
as a whole. 

Broadly speaking, the various systems of electric driv- 
ing which admit of speed variation applicable to machine 
shop work are as follows : 

(1) Multi- voltage systems; 

(2) Double commutator systems ; 

(3) Systems in which the speed regulation is obtained 
by means of field control on one or two voltages ; that is, 
a 2-wire single-voltage system or a balanced-voltage 3- 
wire system. 


Considering first the multi-voltage system, it may be 
stated that this method, in general, consists of a number 
of wires between which various voltages may be obtained, 
the differences in voltages being produced by means of a 
series of boosters, or motor-generator sets, in combination 
with the main generator. This system originally involved 
the use of the following voltages: 40, 80, 120, i6d, 200 
and 240, and required for its distribution four wires. For 
the reason that the horsepower output in a given motor is 
practically proportional to the horsepower input, it is 
evident that at the lower voltages, in order to transmit a 
definite horsepower, the current must be quite large as 
compared with that required at the higher voltages. This 
being the case, considerably larger conductors will be re- 
quired for a given horsepower transmitted at the lower 
voltage than would be the case were the voltage main- 
tained at a higher value. For this reason, as stated else- 
where, it is essential that the cost of the wiring be care- 
fully considered before the multi-voltage system is 

One of the principal characteristics of the multi-volt- 
age system is due to the fact that the horsepower which 

Fig. 4 — 90-iN. lathe in P. R. R. Shops, Fort Wayne, 

Ind v operated by 10 H. P. Westinghouse 

Type S direct current motor. 

may be developed by a motor increases directly with the 
voltage impressed on the armature terminals, the field 
strength remaining constant. This can be stated in an- 
other way, which may tend to bring out some interesting 
information relative to motors operating on the multi- 
voltage systems, under the present scheme of normal rat- 
ings adopted by the manufacturers of multi-voltage ap- 
paratus, the horsepower delivered by the motor decreases 
directly with the decrease in voltage from about 120 volts 
to whatever voltage may be called the starting voltage of 
the system. Since, in machine tool work, approximately 
constant output is demanded of the motor, it can be read- 
ily seen that, as the capacity of the motor decreases, the 
amount of the metal which can be removed decreases, and 
with it the value of the extreme range of speed variation ; 
for speed variation in itself is of no value ; it must be ac- 
companied by the ability to operate the driven tool at its 
maximum capacity at all points within the limits of speed 
range claimed for the system. This condition will qualify 
the claims of 1 to 10, and 1 to 8 in speed variation which 
are made by the multi-voltage advocates, making approxi- 
mately 1 to 3 the effective working range, unless the 
motor is abnormally large, and but a fraction of its pos- 
sible output is utilized at the higher speeds. 'It is essen- 
tial that the purchaser of a variable speed motor obtain a 
continuous horsepower output over the entire speed range 
claimed for the motor, in order that he may be fully in- 
formed as to its suitability for the work in hand. 

One of the advocates of the muti-voltage system has 
made the statement that 1 to 3 variation in speed is suffi- 
cient for machines requiring a constant horsepower out- 
put, such as lathes, boring mills, milling machinery, etc. 
It should be noted that this is the maximum speed range 
possible with the multi- voltage system, using as a min- 
imum voltage about 120 volts, which is the lowest com- 
mercial voltage at which power may be generated, distrib- 
uted, and utilized without making the size of feeders ab- 
normally large. For machines involving a reciprocating 
motion, sue 1, as planers, slotters, etc., the same manu- 
facturer has made the statement that the horsepower in- 
creases directly with the speed. This statement is in- 
correct, for the reason that if the machine tool be worked 



April, 1905. 

anywhere near its capacity, the horsepower at the tool 
actually increases with a decrease in speed, within the 
working limit. Adding to this the increase due to the 
greater friction of the machine itself, it will be found that 
on machines involving reciprocating motion the horse- 
power required at the varying speeds will not fluctuate 
greatly. For this reason it is evident that the multi- 
voltage system as applied to machine tools should only be 
used throughout such a range of speeds as will permit 
of constant horsepower being obtained at every speed. 
In fact, this point is now realized by the manufacturers 
of multi-voltage apparatus to such an extent that one of 
them has made the statement that the lower voltages are 
to be used "for starting and light cuts only." It is a re- 
markable fact that the advocates of the multi-voltage sys- 
tems are gradually abandoning the lower voltages, and 
tending toward a single, or at most, two voltages in com- 
bination with field control, with a corresponding decrease 
in the total variable speed range, and a corresponding 
increase in the range of speed permitting constant horse- 
power to be taken from the motor. Thus one manu- 
facturer has abandoned 40 and 80 volts, while the second 
has abandoned 60 and 80 volts and is now using 90 volts 
as a minimum. In both of these systems the intermediate 
speeds are obtained by means of field control — thus tacit- 
ly approving of this method of obtaining speed variation. 
The controller used in connection with the multi-volt- 
age system must handle a number of voltages, in addi- 
tion to the field current, and is of necessity more compli- 
cated than would be the case were the machine operated 
on a single or two voltages. 


The use of double commutator motors has been limited, 
more or less, to the operation of printing presses, in 

which service the horespower varies approximately as the 
speed; in other words, the minimum speed requires the 
minimum horsepower. 

The construction of the double commutator motor in- 
volves the use of one commutator on each end of the 
armature. The armature windings connected to these 
commutators may comprise either the same number of 
turns or a different number of turns, the principle of 
operation remaining the same. As the speed of a motor 
on constant voltage depends upon the number of turns 
in series in the armature, it is evident that by connecting 
both of these commutators in series, the number of arm- 
ature turns may be increased, thereby producing a slow 
speed. As it is desired to increase the speed of the motor, 
one of the sets of windings in series is cut out, and, on 
one system, the speed is further increased by connecting 
the two commutators so that the two sets of armature 
windings having a different number of turns oppose one 
another. The characteristics of the double commutator 
motor may be fairly represented by the performance of 
an ordinary motor on the multi-voltage system, in which 
the horsepower increases approximately with the increase 
in speed, but as a rule the controller used in connection 
with the double commutator machine is extremely cum- 
bersome on account of the numerous functions which it 
has to perform, that is, connecting the commutators in 
series, connecting them to the circuit individually, and 
finally connecting them in parallel, and, in addition to 
this, the field current must also be varied for the purpose 
of obtaining the intermediate steps in speed. 

One of the principal objections to the double commu- 
tator motor for machine tool driving is that, where the 
double commutator motor is used, the overhang from the 
center of the motor frame to the point of attachment of 
the pinion, if the machine be gear driven, is considerably 
greater than would be involved were the commutator, 
and consequently the extension of the bracket on the pin- 
ion end, absent. The importance of a rigid frame, with 
the point of application of the pinion for gear driving 
as close to the point of support at the base of the motor 
as possible (this distance being measured perpendicularly 
to the shaft), cannot be overestimated. Gears have im- 
posed upon the shafts, bearings and end brackets of 
motors much more severe conditions than they ever en- 
countered when belt drive was used, and this' is a feature - 
which is well worthy of careful consideration in installing 
motors for individual drive. 

Fig. 5 — Westinghouse 5 H. P. induction motor direct 


Fig. 6 — Barrat cylinder boring machine, driven by 
Westinghouse D. C. motor. 

April, 1905. 



A) second objection to the double commutator motor is 
the duplication of perishable parts, such as the commuta- 
tor and brushes. While the renewal of brushes in a prop- 
erly designed and well constructed direct current motor 
should not of necessity be very frequent ; at the same time 
the double commutator motor doubles the opportunity 
for wear. The rear brushes, that is, the brushes on the 
pinion end, will very frequently be found more or less 
inaccessible, for the reason that the pinion end of the 
motor is frequently crowded closely into the machine 
tool, and it is the opinion of one of the largest machine 
tool builders in the country that this constitutes one of 
the principal objections to the use of a motor of this 
character. 1 

This system has without question some advantages 
over the straight multi-voltage system, but the fact that 
double commutator machines have been built for a num- 
ber of years, and that these machines have not come into 
general use, indicates possibly better than any other ar- 
gument the feeling of machine tool builders and manu- 
facturers as regards this "system. 


The alternating current system of power distribution 
has been exploited so frequently that it seems scarcely 
necessary to touch upon it here. A few words, however, 
may not be amiss. 

Because of the ease with which alternating current 
may be transformed either in voltage or phase it presents 
many advantages over any other system of distribution. 
Long distance transmission may be effectively accom- 
plished by means of the alternating current. 

The alternating current motor is peculiarly adapted to 
severe service, and for driving line shafting, or individual 
machines, the speed of which may be changed by me- 
chanical devices, gives all the advantages obtained by 
the use of electrical distribution in general, together with 
a motor which is the acme of simplicity so far as mechan- 
ical construction is concerned. The absence of commu- 
tator and brushes contribute to produce a motor on which 
the maintenance is extremely small, and many large in- 
stallations are now operating by means of alternating 
current motors exclusively. 

, The. alternating current motors may be used in connec- 
tion with direct current motors, both alternating current 
and direct current being obtained from a single generator, 
or from rotary converters, and it would not be surprising 
if the mixed systems became quite common for industrial 
and railroad plants, one large railroad shop now being in 
successful operation and a still larger one, probably the 
largest railroad shop power, plant equipment put in up to 
this time, will be placed in operation shortly. In each 
of these installations the main generators are of the poly- 
phase alternating current type, direct current being ob- 
tained by means of rotary converters of the 3- wire even 
voltage type. These rotaries possess all of the advan- 
tages of the 3-wire generators, giving a 3-wire even volt- 
age circuit from a single machine, using highly efficient 
stationary balancing coils in place of the wasteful motor- 
generator balancing units. 



Referring now to the third general division, that is, 
systems in which the speed variations is obtained by field 
control : There are on the market to-day a number of 
manufacturers advocating this means of speed variation. 
The system involves the insertion of resistance in the 
shunt field of the motor, and while the general scheme 
used by different manufacturers is the same, the details 
have been worked out differently, by the various com- 
panies building machines of this class. One manufactur- 
er uses a so-called reaction winding, the purpose of which 
is to neutralize the armature reaction. This method has 
in its favor the possibility of considerable range in speed 
on a single voltage, while on the other hand, it involves 
considerable complication in construction, as compared 
with the ordinary motor. 

A further objection to this construction is that this re- 
action winding interposes in the armature circuit consid- 
erable resistance, and the introduction of resistance in the 
armature circuit has always been accompanied by unde- 
sirable results, so far as machine tool driving is con- 
cerned. The greater the resistance in the armature cir- 
cuit, the greater will be the drop in speed between no 
load and full load, and it is evident that on many classes 
of work, such, for example, work involving intermittent 
cuts, a tool would very quickly be ruined. 

It is possible on a machine of this type, by giving the 
brushes back lead, to produce a certain demagnetizing 
armature reaction which will counteract the resistance 
drop in the reaction winding at normal speeds. This, 
however, is a dangerous procedure for the reason that 
when the higher speeds are reached, the field is extreme- 
ly weak and there is a possibility of the field being re- 
versed, in which case the motor will draw an abnormally 
heavy current, and in all probability be burned out, pro- 
vided the fuses or other protective devices do not open 
the circuit promptly. 

It is claimed by the manufacturers of this motor that 
a range of speed as high as 1 to 6 on single voltage is 
entirely possible, the horsepower remaining constant 
throughout the whole speed range. It is not the intention 
of the present article to go into the matter of the practical 
speed range on an electric motor for machine tool driving. 
It is sufficient to say, however, that the size and weight 
of a variable speed motor of given output, operating on 
any system, whether it be multi-voltage or field control, 
will increase as the minimum speed of the motor de- 
creases. Where a range of speed of 1 to 6 is obtained the 
minimum speed must be kept fairly low for mechanical 
reasons, and there is some question as to whether speed 
range of 1 to 6 on a single voltage represents the best 

A properly designed shunt or compound wound motor 
may for machine tool service be operated throughout a 
speed range of 1 to 2 on a single voltage by field control 
without the use of reaction windings, or in fact any de- 
vice especially intended to minimize the sparking at the 
commutator. This system presents, the simplest variable 



April, 1905. 

speed mechanism yet developed for moderate speed* 
ranges. The motor is a standard motor; the number of 
wires is reduced to a minimum and the speed range is 
sufficient to eliminate a considerable amount of interme- 
diate gearing, the coarser increments being obtained by 
gears, frequently in combination with clutches, or belts 
and cone pulleys. With this range of speed, at a given 
output, a motor of normal size may be employed with a 
corresponding decrease in the cost as compared with the 
wider speed ranges, and the generating outfit presents 
the simplest possible solution for a power and lighting 
distribution plant. 

Some of the machine tool builders of to-day have 
adopted a speed range of 1 to 2 as the standard, claiming 
thereby that they can produce motor driven machines 
cheaper, using a 1 to 2 motor with the decreased amount 
of gearing, than would be possible were a constant speed 
motor used, and that the machine tool may be produced 
cheaper than would be the case were a greater range ob- . 
tained electrically with a decreased amount of gearing. 

This system has been consistently advocated by the 
engineers of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company ever since that company entered into the motor 
driven field, and there are to-day many installations in 
which motors having a speed range of 1 to 2 on a single 
voltage are operating with entire satisfaction. The horse- 
power output is constant throughout the whole speed, 
range and the commutation is all that could be desired. 
The controller has but one armature voltage to handle, 
while the field current is comparatively small and may 
be handled without difficulty. 

A natural extension of this system leads to the 3-wire, 
2-voltage system, using equal voltages on either side of 
the neutral wire. The method of obtaining these voltages 
is shown in illustration, and it should be noticed that no 
rotating balancers are necessary. The rotating balancing 
set 4 while a comparatively small machine, can not be par- 
ticularly efficient, and operating as it does all day, its losses 
in the course of a year represent an appreciable amount. 
Its elimination, aside from the compilation which it intro- 
duces into a system, is, therefore, desirable on the ground 
of economy. On the 3-wire system, 120 and 240 volts 
are available at the motors, and, because of the fact that 
the speed of the motor varies approximately as the volt- 
age applied to its terminals, it is evident that on the 120 
volts a speed range of 1 ta 2 by field control may be ob- 
tained, that after the motor has reached the highest speed 
on 120 volts, its armature may be thrown on 240 volts, 
and a further speed range of 1 to 2 may be obtained, giv- 
ing a total range of 1 to 4. The system of distribution 
used is the Edison Three-Wire system, which involves a 
minimum amount of copper for the transmission of a 
given horsepower, and the controller handles but two 
voltages in addition to the field current. By decreasing 
the minimum speed, with the consequent increase in the 
size of the motor, a greater speed range than 1 to 4 may 
be obtained ; it is questionable, however, whether a greater 
speed range is economical for any class of machine tool 
work. Under the ratings given by the Westinghouse 

Electric & Manufacturing Company the horsepower 
which may be obtained from a motor operated on the 3- 
wire 2-voltage system is constant throughout the whole 
speed range. The application of motors operated on the 
3-wire system to the driving of all classes of machine 
tools requiring variable speed gives increments in speed 
between the successive steps of the controller of about 
12 per cent, which is considered fine enough for even the 
most modern practice involving the use of high speed 
steels and machine tools adapted to their use. 

For group driving, so-called, constant speed motors 
may be operated from the 240 volt circuit obtainable when 
a 3-wire generator is used, but it should be noted in this 
this connection that these motors are capable of a certain 
amount of speed variation by means of rheostats placed 
in their fields; for example, on certain sizes as much as 
50 per cent variation in speed may be obtained, that is, 
the line shaft may be speeded up 50 per cent merely by 
the insertion of a rheostat in the field of the driving 
motor. With the rapid change in manufacturing condi- 
tions, such as the introduction of high speed steels, it is 
frequently a matter of prime importance that the speed 
of the line shaft may be increased by small increments 
from time to time, thereby speeding up the driven ma- 
chinery. This method has been used to advantage, and 
the production has been known to increase in spite of 
the opposition of the various machine tool operators. 

This system adapts itself well to illuminating purposes ; 
the lights, standard no-120-volt lamps, being operated 
between the neutral and either outside wire of the 3-wire 
circuit. By the use of the 3-wire circuit, it is possible to 
so balance the motors on either side of the neutral when 
running on the lower voltage, that the quantity of current 
flowing through the neutral wire will be a minimum ; if 
the motors were so distributed as to draw exactlv the same 
amount of current from either side of the 3-wire system, 
the neutral wire would carry no current whatever. This 
condition is, of course, ideal but' can be approximated 
very much more closely with the 3-wire balanced system 
than is possible with any of the so-called multi-voltage 

The broad question of motor driving and systems of 
motor driving is one of the most important which con- 
fronts railroad mechanical men to-day, and it is hoped 
that this contribution may serve somewhat in assisting" i 


ks solution. 

A Rapid Production Vertical Turret Lathe 

THE Bullard Machine Tool Co. of Bridgeport, 
Conn., have recently developed a new vertical 
lathe or boring machine for the purpose of handling 
heavy face-plate work of all descriptions. The superi- 
ority of the vertical mill over the horizontal for this 
class of work has been, beyond a doubt, fully demon- 
strated by expereince. 

Not only is a more rigid frame, or bed, permissible 
in the vertical construction, and larger spindle sizes 
and greater power made possible, but the added weigh 

April, 1905. 



of the work resting directly on the spindle thrust 
bearing tends to preserve, rather than to^ destroy, the 
alignment. • There is also an obvious freedom from 
chatter and vibration-elements, rendering impossible 
rapid work of good quality, in the vertical type, as 
compared with the horizontal, which can be readily 
appreciated when the heavy overhanging parts of the 
latter are considered. This very point of overhang- 
ing is one of the strongest arguments in favor of the 
mill, as the time, which, in the lathe is consumed in 
setting a heavy overhanging piece, is, in the mill 
added to the actual time in which the machine can be 
cutting. The result is a large increase in production. 
In the horizontal turret machine are usually com- 
bined a turret slide, having a longitudinal movement 
only, and an ordinary lathe carriage. The latter in 
many instances interferes with the proper operation of 
the turret and renders necessary the use of long, un- 
supported boring bars and extended tool holders. 
The turret, having no cross movement, is of value in 
a limited field only, and requires an equipment of 
expensive special tools which in many cases results 

in no saving in time. 

Taper boring, except with special equipment, is 
practically impossible in the horizontal turret lathe, 
and thus the range of the machine is considerably 

The design of the Bullard patent vertical turret lathe 
includes features heretofore found only in the hori- 
zontal type, improved upon and incorporated with the 
most advantageous points of the vertical construction 
dictated by an experience of more than twenty years 
in the manufacture of vertical boring and turning 
mills. The result is a universal manufacturing ma- 
chine in which the following features stand preemi- 

1. The vertical construction with its large spindle 
and great power, insures ease and rapidity of chuck- 
ing heavy work. 

2. The turret slide which is rigid and powerful, hav- 
ing both cross and vertical feeds, and which may be 
swiveled to 45 degrees either side of the center for 
taper boring and turning. The turret is of such con- 
struction that either single point tools or simple form 
tools may be used to the best advantage. 

3. A side head, carrying a four-faced turret tool 
holder, which not only has all the advantages which 
are conceded to the carriage of the horizontal ma- 
chine, including vertical and cross feeds ; but may be 
swiveled for angular facing up to 40 degrees either 
side of the horizontal. Its construction is such that 
it in no way interferes with the turret slide, nor are 
long boring bars and extended tool holders required 
on its account. 

4. A driving mechanism, which includes an excep- 
tionally efficient mechanical speed change, operable 

Fig. 1 — Front view Bullard Machine Tool Co.'s 


Fig. 2 — Rear view Bullard Machine Tool Co/s ver- 



April, 1905. 

F IG . 3 — Top view of the Bullard Machine Tool Co/s 


by lever at front of tool, from which are derived fifteen 
geometrically progressive table speeds. The single 
driving pulley is of large proportions and need not be 
brought to rest to stop the table, as there is an inter- 
mediate point between each speed when the direct 
acting brake may be applied. 

5. Feed works independent for either head, having 
eight feeds, any one of which may be instantly ob- 
tained by turning star wheel to proper point on direct 
reading index plates. Pull gears on feed rods have 
been entirely eliminated, worm gears, keyed to the 
rods, having superseded them. Changes from cross 
to vertical feed, or vice versa, are made by engaging 

a centrally located drop worm. This feature alone is 
of great value, saving much time. 

6. Safety points have been so arranged in the feeds 
that carelessly permitting the heads to run together 
results in no damage or delay. This device in no way 
weakens the feeds and is not in use when threading 
attachment is engaged. 

Both heads may be operated jointly on work of 
small diameter without interference, this feature pre- 
senting the greatest advantage in the machine, and 
resulting in an incalculable increase in output. Being 
independently counterbalanced the effort required for 
rapid handling is reduced to a minimum. 

The rails and saddles are square locked throughout, 
all adjustments for wear and re-alignment being made 
by taper wedges. 

The lubricating system is most complete, all high 
speed shafts being bronze bushed and self oiling. The 
entire strain of gears in the drive and feed works is 
constantly immersed in oil, as is the table spindle ; 
sight cups being so placed that the oil level may be 
constantly maintained. 

Though having great weight and power, conven- 
ience of operation has been considered of prime im- 
portance. All operations and movements are con- 
trolled from the front of the machine and the effort 
required of the operator is reduced to a minimum. 

The problem of using the new tool steels to their 
fullest capacity has, in this machine, been solved for 
some time to come, and we believe that the radical 
departure from old ideas will merit the approbation 
of the mechanical man who is looking for the latest 
and best in machine tool design. 

+ > » 

New Steel Cars for the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rail- 
road, Chicago 

HE American Car & Foundry Company re- 
^¥^ recently built some steel cars, for the Met- 

ropolitan West Side Elevated Railway of 
Chicago. The floor plan shows the usual ar- 
rangement of seats for this class of traffic, 
that is, there are longitudinal seats along 
the sides with the exception where there are 
four cross seats on each side. • There are no* 
end platforms, but the passenger passes di- 
rectly through sliding doors into the interior of the car. 
There is a small space on each platform for the guard to 

stand when operating the doors. This space is also used 
for passing from one car to another. 

The cars are 47 ft. t>H hi. long over all. The width 
is 8 ft. 6 in. ; the height from top of rail to top of roof, 
13 ft. 2 9-16 ins., and the height from top of floor to 
top of side plate 6 ft. 9 in. The underframe is made up 
of 6-inch channels forming the side sills, which are con- 
nected across by 6-inch "I" beams. 

The principal longitudinal beam is formed by the deep 
steel girder which forms the outside finish of the car 
below the windows. This plate girder is 37 in. deep and 

Fig. 2 — Floor plan steel cars, Metropolitan Rail road, Chicago. 

April, 1905. 



14 in. thick. The lower portion is riveted to the 6-in. 
channels, forming the side sills. The upper part of the 
plate is riveted to a 3/2 x 2/2 x / 8 in. angle which forms 
the bottom of the window sill. The plates are stiffened 
by two deep gusset plates % in. thick, on each side. 
These braces are covered by the cross seats in the car. 
The posts between the windows also act as stiffeners for 
the side plate as they are carried down to the floor and 
riveted to the plate. The posts are composed of 2 x 2^ x 
*4 in. angles. The side plate is an angle 3 x 4 x ^ in., 
to which is riveted a steel facia plate 11 ^4 x 34 in. The 
roof and upper deck framing are formed by longitudinal 
angles and angle carlines. 

The floor is composed of steel plate laid on the 6-in. 
"I" beams. On top of this plate are 2 x 2 x ^ in. angles, 
and on these is laid the regular wooden floor. The space 
between the wood and the steel plates is filled with min- 
eral wool. 

7ff' iJ " ' EZZZZZZZZ 







Fig. 4 — Interior view steel cars for the Metropoli- 
tan West Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago. 

The inside finish of the roof is made of 1-16 in. steel, 
which forms the head lining. The roof on the outside is 
covered with wood and canvas. The seat frames are of 
pressed steel, similar to those used in the New York sub- 
way cars. 

The total weight of the car is 60,000 pounds. The 
trucks are built entirely of metal and have steel tired 
wheels. The cars are equipped with an improved form 
of the Westinghouse brake, which was designed spe- 
cially for electric cars used in trains and fitted with the 
multiple control equipment. 

This design of car was worked out under the direction 
of W. S. Menden, chief engineer of the Metropolitan 
West Side Elevated Railroad. 

♦ « » 

Fig. 3 — Cross-section of steel cars, Metropolitan 
West Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago. 

Railway Storekeepers' Association 

The second annual meeting of the Railway Storekeep- 
ers' Association will be held at the Auditorium Hotel, 
Chicago, 111., on Monday, May 22, 1905, convening at 
10 a. m. 

The regular subjects are: 

General Store-house. Does It Pay? By W. F. Jones. 

Scrap: Handling at Shops and on Road; Crediting Same. 
By W. G. Tubby. 

Shop Time-Keeping. By A. E. Johnson. 

General Diffusion of Store Department Information, Casting 
Lists, Circulars, etc. By C. F. Balch. 

Reclaiming of Wheels and Wheel Records. By R. E. Dick- 

The following topical subjects have been selected from 
those suggested by the various members, and will be taken 
up locally a^ter treating the foregoing subjects. 

Requisitions and invoices: Checking of same. 

Should usable material recovered from scrap dock be 
charged back to stock? 

Best practice of delivering material to piece workers. Should 
this be under the supervision of the piece-work inspector? 

Method of keeping check on material distributed along the 
line— wheels and axles, brasses, air hose, etc. 

Duties and jurisdiction of a railroad storekeeper. 



April, 1905. 

Fig. 1 — New steel cars for the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago. 

To what department should the general storekeeper be re- 
sponsible, and why? 

How far should his jurisdiction extend over those handling 
supplies at the more remote points? 

System of inspection within their territory by storekeepers. 

Form of blank for purchase requisition and purchase in- 

Should storekeepers receive the original aud triplicate cop- 
ies of purchase invoices? 

Accounting for labor and material in manufacture of bolts 
at shops and the charging of this material. 

Practice at storehouses governing the delivery of supplies 
during the night and on Sundays, or other than during regu- 
lar working hours at shops. 

♦— » 

Drifting Valve 

HE Wabash Railroad Company have dis- 
"* ■"* carded the use of relief valves on their slide 

valve engines, have done away entirely 
with by-pass valves on both compound and 
piston type of locomotive and have sub- 
stituted the drifting valve described and 
illustrated herewith. The arrangement is 
not an experiment, for the reason that they 
have had it in operation for the last twelve 
months and have at the present time over 150 engines 
running in all kinds of service equipped with this device. 
Their large modern type of fast passenger engines are 
giving remarkably good satisfaction because of the sav- 

ing in lubrication, fuel and repairs. This is noticed espe- 
cially in the reduced number of brasses requiring to be 
filed and fitted up at terminal points. 

In descending a grade, where the throttle is closed, 
there is a slight decrease in the momentum of the engine, 
the result of which is a retarding motion in the ma- 
chinery and other parts of the locomotive. The effect 
of the drifting valve at such times is to slightly acceler- 
ate the speed, which overcomes the above tendency. 

This device is also used on other roads besides, the 
Wabash, and has the approval of some of the ablest me- 
chanical men as to its saving in lubrication and other 
manifold advantages. 

Fig. 2 — (Derating handle, drifting valve, Wabash Railroad. 

3 — Oil cup attachment, drifting 
valve, Wabash Railroad. 

April, 1905. 



G ron slop/a/g boiler head 

Fig. 1 — General view of drifting valve, Wabash Railroad. 

The oil cup attachment is for- the purpose of lubri- 
cating the steam chest and cylinders at any time if it 
should become necessary through the failure of the regu- 
lar lubricator. This cup may also be used for the intro- 
duction of graphite in new cylinders, or for the use of 
coal oil for cleaning compound or other cylinders. 
The description of the valve is as follows : 
A is a steam pipe leading from steam dome of loco- 
motive boiler to turret B, to which is attached a globe 
valve C, connecting with what is termed a drifting valve 
E by pipe D. Drifting valve E is operated by handle 
working in quadrant F, which opens or shuts valve E. 
To valve E is attached pipe H running through stuffing 
box G (which can be made for either straight or sloping 
boiler head). Pipe H is connected with throttle box at 
I. The object of this arrangement is to take dry steam 
from the dome as indicated by the arrows on the draw- 
ings and introduce it into the cylinders through the con- 
nections mentioned and dry pipe J. Globe valve C regu- 
lates the supply of steam from turret B and the engineer 
controls the steam by handle F through drifting valve E. 
When the engine is running or drifting with the throttle 
valve closed, the position of the reverse lever need not 
be disturbed. While the engine is in motion the drifting 
valve is open and when the engine is standing at stations 
the valve is shut. They claim that by the introduction of 
steam to the cylinders in small quantities when engine 
is drifting, assists jn the lubrication of cylinders and 
valves, saving at least 25 per cent in oil; also> the thermal 
condition of the cylinders is increased and condensation 
reduced, thereby making a saving in the fuel expense. 
The operation of this valve relieves compression by de- 
stroying vacuum, keeps the engine running smoothly 
without reaction, making a great reduction in repairs. 

The suction of smoke and cinders into steam chests and 
cylinders and the consequent cutting of valve seats and 
cylinders, is corrected. It is also a great saving in pre- 
venting the metallic packing from being knocked down 
and broken. , 

While this drifting valve is doing splendid work on 
simple engines, it is especially adapted to the compound 
and piston valve type. With the use of this drifting valve 
all by-pass, over-pass and relief valves are taken off en- 
tirely, and practical demonstration proves an increased 
efficiency in locomotives so arranged and equipped. 

oil cup attachment to drifting valves. 

K is an oil cup used for oiling main valves of locomo- 
tives while drifting in case of failure of lubricator. To 
operate cup, close valve C and open cup K and oil will 
be drawn into steam chest and cylinders by suction. 

While engine is standing, close valve C, open cup K 
and fill pipe H full of oil, then close cup K and open 
valve C and oil will be immediately carried into steam 
chests and valves by steam pressure from boiler. 

L is a nipple providing a convenient place for the at- 
tachment of oil cup K, the same being so designed that 
the oil cup may be always tapped in vertically. 

We are indebted to Mr. J. B. Barnes, superintendent 
of motive power and machinery of the Wabash Railroad, 
for the above description and drawings. 

* » » 


Mr. R. F. Hoffman has resigned as assistant to the 
general superintendent of motive power of the St. Louis 
& San Francisco, and the office has been abolished. 

Mr. A. W. Wheatley, formerly general master me- 
chanic of the Northern Pacific at St. Paul, Minn,, has 



April, 1905. 

been appointed superintendent of shops of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific at Moline, 111. 

Mr. James Coleman has resigned as master car builder 
of the Central Vermont, and Mr. A. Buchanan, Jr., su- 
perintendent of motive power, has also been appointed 
superintendent of the car department. 

Mr. George Austin, formerly division foreman of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Arkansas City, Kan., 
has been appointed' general boiler inspector of the entire 
system, with headquarters at Topeka, Kan. 

Mr. H. .M. Muchmore, formerly division foreman of 
the St. Louis & San Francisco at Ft. Smith, Ark., has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Paris & Great 
Northern, with headquarters at Paris, Tex. 

The jurisdiction of Mr. J. F. Deems, general superin- 
tendent of motive power, rolling stock and machinery, of 
the New York Central & Hudson River, has been ex- 
tended over the Michigan Central and Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. 

Mr. R. L. Langtim, formerly mechanical engineer of 
the Denver & Rio Grande, has been appointed mechanical 
engineer of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, with 
headquarters at Lima, O. 

Mr. W. P. Sproul, formerly superintendent of shops 
of the Central of New Jersey at Elizabethport, N. J., has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Second division 
of the Atlantic Coast Line, at Savannah, Ga., to succeed 
Mr. F. S. Anthony, resigned. ■ 

Mr. L. L. Collier, master mechanic of the Newton & 
Northwestern, has resigned and has been appointed gen- 
eral foreman of the shops of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific, at Dalhart, Tex. 

Mr. R. H. Rogers has been appointed master mechanic 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, with head- 
quarters at South Boston, Mass. 

Mr. F. Burke has been appointed traveling engineer 
and air brake instructor of the Duluth, Missabe & North- 
ern, with headquarters at Proctor, Minn. 

Mr. Samuel Millican has been appointed superinten- 
dent of motive power and machinery of the Houston & 
Texas Central, Houston East & West Texas, and Hous- 
ton & Shreveport. vice Mr. S. R. Tuggle, resigned. 

Mr. H. M. Curry, formerly division master mechanic 
of the Northern Pacific at Staples, Minn., has been ap- 
pointed general master mechanic, with headquarters at 
St. Paul, to succeed Mr. A. W. Wheatley, resigned. Mr. 
Wm. Lincoln has been appointed to succeed. Mr. Curry 
as division master mechanic. 

Mr. Jacob Schilling, formerly general foreman of 
roundhouse and machine shop of the Wabash at Decatur, 
111., has been appointed master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Peoria & St. Louis, with headquarters at Peoria, 111. 

Mr. William Cockfield, formerly locomotive and car 
superintendent of the Interoceanic Railway of Mexico, 
has been appointed locomotive superintendent of the 
Mexican Railway, with headquarters at Orizaba, Mex., 
to succeed Mr. J. N. Muir, resigned. 

Mr. George W. Smith, superintendent of motive power 

of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, has been appointed 
superintendent of locomotive and car department of the 
Missouri Pacific, with headquarters at St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Thos. Nichols has been appointed foreman of ma- 
chine shops of the Baltimore & Ohio at Lorain, O., vice 
Mr. W. F. Ryan, resigned. 

Mr. A. J. Poole, formerly division master mechanic of 
the Seaboard Air Line at Savannah, Ga., has been trans- 
ferred to Atlanta, Ga., as division master mechanic. 

Mr. W. C. Bewley, formerly general foreman of shops 
of the Wabash at Fo'rest, 111., has been transferred to 
Delray, Mich., in a similar capacity, succeeding Mr. Eu- 
gene McCann, resigned on account of ill health. 

Mr. J. F. Robinson, general foreman of shops of the 
Seaboard Air Line at Savannah, Ga., has been appointed 
acting master mechanic at that point. 

Mr. J. M. Ashley has been appointed road foreman of 
engines of the Seaboard Air Line at Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. S. T. Park, master mechanic of the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois, has been appointed acting suprintendent 
of motive power, with headquarters at Danville, 111., suc- 
ceeding Mr. G. W. Smith, resigned. 

Mr. J. J. Connor, roundhouse foreman of the Houston 
& Texas Central at Hearne, Tex., has been appointed 
general foreman at Houston, Texas. Mr. John Schil- 
lings has been appointed roundhouse foreman at Hearne. 

Mr. Charles W. Allen has been appointed assistant to 
the superintendent of motive power of the Philadelphia 
& Reading, in charge of the shops on the Reading and 
Lebanon divisions. 

Mr. C. H. Weaver, air brake instructor of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern, has been appointed super- 
visor of air brakes on that road, the Lake Erie & West- 
ern, Indiana, Illinois & Iowa, and the Lake Erie, Alliance 
& Wheeling. Mr. T. F. Lyons has been appointed air 
brake instructor on the same roads, and Mr. L. L. Dixon 
has been appointed assistant air brake instructor. 

Mr. C. I. Lewis has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Arizona & Colorado, Cananea Yaqui River & Pa- 
cific, Maricopa, Phoenix & Salt River Valley and the 
Gila Valley, Globe & Northern railroads, with headquar- 
ters at Globe, Ariz. 

Mr. C. E. Gossett, formerly road foreman of equipment 
of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at Dalhart Tex., 
has been appointed master mechanic of the St. Louis di- 
vision, with headquarters at Eldon, Mo. 

Mr. Frederick Baker, chief joint car inspector of Kan- 
sas City, died on Fbruary 13, aged 44 years. Mr. Baker 
was an active member of the Chief Joint Car Inspectors 
and General Car Foremens Association of America, being 
a member of the executive committee at the time of his 

The American Railway Appliance Exhibition 

In the accompanying illustrations are shown the plan of the 
exhibit grounds, the elevation and the floor plan of the main 
exhibit building of the railway appliance exhibition which is to 
be held at Washington in connection with the International 
Railway Congress. The site of the exhibition is on the Wash- 
ington monument grounds, in accordance with the special act 

April, 1905. 



Fig. 1 — Elevation American Railway Appliance Exposition Building, Washington, D. C. 

of Congress. The main entrance to the grounds will be at Fif- 
teenth street, where an imposing gateway is already erected, 
and the entrances at Fourteenth and Sixteenth streets. The 
main exhibit building, which is being erected to accommodate 
the smaller exhibits, is located at the Sixteenth street end. 
This building will be 160 by 200 feet and divided as shown in 
accompanying floor plan. The doorways are 12 feet high and 
may be closed in stormy weather by canvas curtains. 

In the entire exhibit grounds there is something over 200,000 
square feet, and it is evident from the applications already in 
that the space will be more than taken, one exhibitor alone 
having applied for 100,000 square feet, and another for be- 
tween 4,000 and 5,000 square feet. The list of names of the 
exhibitors given below indicates the wide interest which is 
being taken in the exhibition of American railway supplies. 

Mr. George A. Past, 160 Broadway, New York City, chairman 
of the general committee of arrangements, will gladly furnish 
any interested with full information regarding exhibit 
space, etc. 


Acme White Lead & Color Works, Detroit, Mich. 
Adams & Westlake Company, Chicago, 111. 
American Brake Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., New York. 
American Car & Foundry Co., New York. 
American Hoist & Derrick Co., St. Paul, Minn. 
American Lock Nut Co., Boston, Mass. 
American Locomotive Co., New York. 
American Railway Supply Co., New York. 
American Steel Foundries Co., New York. 
Anglo-American Varnish Co., Newark, N. J. 
Armstrong- Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Ashton "Valve Co., Boston, Mass. 
Automatic Air & Steam Coupler Co., St. Louis. 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Barbour-Stockwell Co., Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Barnett Equipment Co., Newark, N. J. 

Barney & Smith Car Co., Dayton, O. 

Beaver Dam Mall. Iron Co., Beaver Dam, Wis. 

Beckwith-Chandler Co., New York. 

Benjamin Atha & Co., Newark, N. J. 

Berry Bros., Ltd., Detroit, Mich. 

Besley & Co., C. H., Chicago, 111. 

Bettendorf Axle Co., Davenport, la. 

Bordo Co., L. J., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bowser & Co., S. F., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Brown, Harold P., New York City. 

Brown & Co., Inc., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Brown Hoisting & Conveying Co., Cleveland, O. 

Buckeye Steel Castings Co., Columbus, O. 

Bucyrus Co., South Milwaukee, Wis. 

Buda Foundry & Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 

Buffalo Forge Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cambria Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Camel Co., Chicago, 111. 

Philip Carey Mfg. Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Chenoweth & McNamee, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Chicago Car Heating Co., Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Railway Equipment Co., Chicago, 111. 

Cling-Surface Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Coe Mfg. Co., W. H., Providence, R. I. 

Consolidated Car Heating Co., New York. 

Consolidated Ry. Elec. Lighting & Equip. Co., New York. 

Continuous Rail Joint Co., Newark, N. J. 

Curtain Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 

Damascus Brake Beam Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Davis Co., John, Chicago, 111. 

Dickinson, Paul, Chicago, 111. 

Dilworth, Porter & Co., Ltd., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Dressel Railway Lamp Works, New York. 

Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Edwards Co., O. M., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Electro-Dynamic Co., Bayonne, N. J. 

Elliott Frog & Switch Co., East St. Louis, 111. 

Empire Safety Tread Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

Farlow Draft Gear Co., Baltimore, Md. 

Flannery Bolt Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Foster Engineering Co., Newark, N. J. 

Frost Railway Supply Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Galena Signal Oil Co., Franklin, Pa. 

General Electric Co., New York. 



■Spec ■ai : '" b '<"'* i'& > -?*0 feri long 



Fig. 2 — Ground plan American Railway Appliance Exposition, Washington, D. C. 





April, 1905. 

General Railway Signal Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 
Goldie, Wm., Jr. & Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Goldschmidt Thermit Co., New York. 
Goodwin Car Co., New York. 
Gould Coupler Co., New York. 
Hale & Kilburn Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Hartford Rubber Works, Hartford, Conn. 
Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Co., Wakefield, Mass. 
Independent Railroad Supply Co., Chicago,, 111. 
Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co., New York. 

International Correspondence Schools (Railway Depart* 
ment), Chicago, 111. 
'International Nickel Co., New York. 
Jenkins Bros., New York. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W., New York. 
Jones & Laughlin, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Justice & Co., Philip S., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Keith Mfg. Co., Sagamore, Mass. 
Kendrick, Thos., Glenwood Springs, Colo. 
Lackawanna Steel Co., New York. 
Lawrence Switch Co., Duluth, Minn. 
Lehigh Portland Cement Co., Allentown, Pa. 
Lindenthal, Gustav, New York. 
Lodge & Shipley Mach. Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 
Lowe Bros. Co., Dayton, O. 
Lucas & Co., John, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lunkenheimer Co., Cincinnati, O. 
McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
McCord & Co., Chicago, 111. 
Macleod & Co., Walter, Cincinnati, O. 
Mahoney R. R. Ditching Machine Co., Vincennes, Ind. 
Major, A., New York. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, New York. 
Masury & Son, John W., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mechanical Rubber Works, Cleveland, O. 
Mechanical Rubber Co., Chicago, 111. 
Merritt & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Moran Flexible Joint Co., Louisville, Ky. 
Morden Frog & Crossing Works, Chicago, 111. 
Municipal Engineering & Contracting Co., Chicago,' 111. 
Murphy Varnish Co., Newark, N. J. 
Nathan Manufacturing Co., New York. 
National Lock Washer Co., Newark, N. J. 
National Malleable Castings Co., Cleveland, O. 
New York Air Brake Co., New York. 
New York Belting & Packing Co., New York. 
Norfolk Creosoting Co., Norfolk, Va. 
Oliver Machinery Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Pantasote Co., New York. 
Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York. 
Pennsylvania Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Perry Side Bearing Co., Joliet, 111. 
Pettibone, Mulliken & Co., Chicago, 111. 
Pittsburg Spring & Steel Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Porter Co., H. K., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Pratt & Letchworth Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Pressed Steel Car Co., New York. 
Pyle-Nat. Electric Headlight Co , Chicago, 111. 
Railroad Gazette, New York. 
Railroad Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 
Railway Age, Chicago, 111. 
Railway Appliances Co., Chicago, 111. 
Ry. Equipment & Publication Co., New York. 
Railway Master Mechanic, Chicago. 
Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 
Rand Drill Co., New York. 
Rodger Ballast Car Co., Chicago, 111. 
Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 
St. Louis Car Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Louis Expanded Metal Fire Proofing Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
St. Louis Malleable Castings Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
Schoen Steel Wheel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland, O. 
Simplex Railway Appliance Co., Chicago, 111. 
Southern Exchange Co., New York. 
Standard Coupler Co., New York. 
Standard Steel Car Co., New York. 
Standard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Star Brass Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 
Storrs Mica Co., Owego, N. Y. 
Symington Co., T. H, Baltimore, Md. 
Trojan Car Coupler Co., New York. 
Underwood Typewriter Co., New York. 
Union Spring & Mfg- Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Union S'.eel Casting Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Union Switch & Signal Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co., New York. 
Van Dorn Co., W. T., Chicago, 111. 
Verona Tool Works, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Victor Stoker Co., Cincinnati, O. 
Weber Railway Joint Mfg. Co., New York. 
West Disinfectant Co., New York. 
Western Tube Co., Kewanee, III. 
Western Wheeled Scraper Co., Aurora, 111. 
Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Westinghouse Machine Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Westinghouse Traction Brake Co., St. Louis. 

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Fig. 3 — Floor plan Main Exhibit Building, Ameri- 
can Railway Appliance Exposition, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Section B, Stall No. 14, indi- 

of the Railway Master Mechanic. 

Wharton, Wm. Jr., & Co., Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Wood & Co., R. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wyman & Gordon, Worcester, Mass. 

Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., New York. 

American Engineer & Railroad Journal, New York. 

Ashcroft Manufacturing Company, New York. 

Booth Water Softener Company, New York. 

Bradley & Sons, Osgood, Worcester, Mass. 

Cleveland City Forge & Iron Company, Cleveland, O. 

Cleveland Frog & Crossing Works, Cleveland, O. 

Coe, W. H., Manufacturing Company, Providence, R. I. 

Commonwealth Steel Company, St. Louis. 

Consolidated Safety Valve Company, New York. 

F. W. Devoe & C. T. Reynolds Company, New York. 

Ewald Iron Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Franklin Railway Supply Company, Franklin, Pa. 

Fuller Bros. & Co., New York. 

Hall Signal Company, New York. 

Hayden, N. L., Manfacturing Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Homestead Valve Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Jones & Co., B. M., Boston, Mass. 

Keefer Railway Tie Company, Cincinnati, O. 

Magnus Metal Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mason Regulator Company, Boston, Mass. 

Middletown Car Works, Middletown, Pa. 

Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co., New Bedford, Mass. 

National Railway Publication Company, New York. 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co., New York. 

Railway & Locomotive Engineering, New York. 

Raymond Concrete Pile Company, Chicago, 111. 

Scranton Bolt & Nut Co., Scranton, Pa. 

Underwood & Co., H. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

United and Globe Rubber Manufacturing Companies, Tren- 
ton, N. J. 

United Injector Co., New York. 

Westinghouse Automatic Air & Steam Coupler Co., Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Wood, G. S., Chicago, 111. 

Ajax Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Co. 

American Steam Gauge & Valve Co.. Boston, Mass. 

Converse & Co., W. W., Palmer. Mass. 

Franklin Mfg. Co., Franklin, Pa. 

Hill, Clarke & Co., Boston, Mass. 

International Creosoting & Construction Co., Galveston, 

Kennicott Water Softener Co., Chicago, 111. 

Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Midvale Steel Co.. Philadelphia Pa. 

Norton Grinding Co., Worcester, Mass. 

Prosser & Son. Thomas, New York. 

April, 1905. 



Railway & Engineering Review, Chicago, 111. 
Robins Conveying Belt Co., New York. 
Rostand Manufacturing Co., New Haven, Conn. 
Sellers & Co., William, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tyler Tube & Pipe Co., "Washington, Pa. 
Universal Railway Supply Co-, Baltimore, Md. 
Williams, Brown & Earle, Philadelphia, Pa. 
James G. Wilson Manufacturing Co., New York. 

♦ » » 

Master Mechanics' and Master Carbuilders' Convention 

of 7905 

Wing or 


The permanent organiza- 
tion of the Railway Supply 
Men's Association, which 
was effected several years 
ago at Saratoga, has re- 
sulted in a much more ef- 
ficient service for the sup- 
ply men who exhibit at 
these annual conventions. 
• All possible information 
this year has been sent out 
from the secretary's office, 
and the businesslike man- 
ner in which all matters 
relating to exhibits at the 
coming convention reflects 
great credit on those who 
have this in charge. 

The latest announce- 
ment sent out by Secre- 
tary Brown gives a dia- 
gram showing the layout 
proposed for the Master 
Mechanics' and Master 
Car Builders' Conventions 
to be held at Manha tan 
Beach, June 14th to 21st, 
1905. We reproduce the 
diagram herewith. A map 
of New York City and 
vicinity, showing the lo- 
cation of Manhattan Beach 
and the transportation 
facilities for reaching the 
headquarters of the con- 
vention has also been is- 

The American Railway 
Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation annual convention, 
1905, will be held at Man- 
hattan Beach, Long Island, 
June 14th to 16th, inclus- 
ive, and Master Car 
Builders' Association an- 
nual convention, 1905, 

June 19th to 21st, inclusive, the headquarters will be Oriental 
Hotel, Manhattan Beach, Long Island. Reservations for the 
Oriental Hotel and the Manhattan Beach Hotel (both hotels 
being under the same management) should be addressed to 
the Manhattan Beach Hotel and Land Co., 192 Broadway, New 
York City. Reservations for rooms at the Brighton Beach Ho- 
tel (which has agreed to the same rates as the Oriental and 
Manhattan Beach Hotels) should be addressed to George L. 
Parker, care Grand Hotel, Broadway and 31st street, New 
York City. Applications for rooms should be made direct to 
the above mentioned hotels in every instance. 

All information relating to exhibits, space, the size, location, 
etc., will be furnished on application to J. Alexander Brown, 
Secretary, 24 Park Place, Room 17, New York City. 




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space diagram 
Main Exhibition Builoing 


for the display of exhibits in connection with 





Manhattan Beach, NY. 

June 14 th to 21", 1905. 
StoJe of Feel 

Extra Heavy Ten-Inch Outside Moulder 

The half-tone engravings represent . a late improved extra 
heavy ten-inch moulding machine, manufactured by the H. B. 
Smith Machine Co., Smithvill, N. J., which will plane or work 
mouldings on all four sides as thick as four inches, and dress 
flooring and sheathing up to full width of machine. And it 
will plane two sides of timbers 10x12 inches. It is particu- 
larly well adapted for car shops, large moulding mills, and 
for working hard woods. This moulder was exhibited at the 
World's Fair, St. Louis, where it helped to bring about the 
gold medal. 

The frame is cast entirely whole, not bolted together, hence 
is perfectly rigid. It is heavy, wide and long, which gives am- 
ple room for long and wide belts, and is of such design as to 



April, 1905. 

Mm it 

Fig. 1 — Rear view of extra heavy io-in. moulder. 

give substantial support to all of the working parts, and to 
allow of convenient access to the inside vertical head. 

The table is wide and very heavy, having long gibbed bear- 
ings or ways, and is adjustable up and down by a screw 
which rests on ball bearings and operated by a crank in front. 
It drops 12 inches for the deeper class of work, and clamps 
firmly to the frame in three places so as to make the machine 
practically as rigid as an inside moulder. 

The feed is most powerful, consisting of four five-inch feed 
rolls, all driven and expansively geared. The weighting of 
the rolls is done in a superior manner, a spring intervening 
between the weight-lever, and rolls so as to minimize any 
shocks in starting heavy cuts. Raising the weight-lever lifts 
the feed rolls for withdrawing stock and they may be re- 
tained in a lifted position by the prop if desired. The upper 
rolls have parallel lift and adjust to change the angle with the 
face of the machine. There are four rates' of feed, viz.: 18, 
26, 35 and 47 feet a minute, which are controlled by a binder, 
conveniently operated by a hand lever. 

The cutter-head spindles are all of high carbon steel. The 
top or main arbor is 2 inches in the bearings, 1% inches for the 
head and 1% inches for the outside support; under-head jour- 
nals are 1% inches. Side spindles are 1% inches in the bear- 
ings and 1% inches where heads go. Both vertical head- 
stocks are attached to the table and have independent lateral, 
angular and vertical adjustments, which are made and rigidly 
locked in position from the front. The outside cutter-head is • 
fitted with a weighted chip breaker. The horizontal spindles 
have longitudinal adjustment, and the upper mandrel is pro- 
vided with a belt tightener for regulating the tension of the 

The spindle bearings are an improved modification of 
White's patent clamp boxes, shown plainly on both front and 
rear views of the half-tones. The caps can be, adjusted by a 
sensitive touch of the fingers and clamped firmly in position 

desired. These bearings are equally important for the vertical 
spindles, in which case the pull of the belts is against the 
head-stocks. The outside support to main spindle has vertical 

The chip-breaker and pressure-bars are all adjustable, and 
the pressure feet may be set at angles to suit the work. The 
pressure- bars over the under cutter head have an outside bear- 
ing or support which by a clamp-bolt is held firmly to the table 
and frame. All bars and chip breakers are readily remov- 
able for sharpening cutters. The table beyond the under head 
drops down for this purpose. 

The under cutter-head has adjustment to regulate the depth 
of cut, and the end of bed after the under head has adjust- 
ment to fit the cut as well as being raised and lowered with 
the head, when it is once set to the cutters. Therefore, it is 
right for light or heavy cut when set for the cutters in use, 
without further attention. 

The pulleys are of generous size to give good width of belt 
and not excessive belt speed. They are turned carefully and 
balanced in the plane of rotation and will therefore run true at 
any speed. 

All screws for adjusting or clasping hold-downs, pressures 
or springs, etc., are provided with hand wheels, stationary 
wrenches or handles. The spring posts are held solidly by 
an improved cast steel clamp, which is much superior to the 
old method of a set screw against the post, and easier to' re- 
pair in case it becomes necessary to renew one of the screws. 

The cutter heads furnished with the machine are all four 
slotted, lipped and made of high carbon steel. There are four 
heads, one to each arbor and all of the same cutting circle 
(6-inch), thus allowing an interchange of cutters on the dif- 
ferent heads. 

The belting required is top head, 15 ft. 9 ins. long x 6 ins. 
wide; bottom head, 20 ft. 9 ins. long x 4 ins. wide; outside 
head, 16 ft. 4 ins. long x 4% ins. wide; inside head, 18 ft. 3 ins. 

Fig. 2 — Front view of extra heavy io-in. outside moulder. 

April, 1905. 



long x 4 ins. wide; one feed belt, 12 ft. long x 2% ins. wide; 
one feed belt 7 ft. 10 ins. long x 3 ins. wide. 

Size Width 

Weight in 


of Cut. 



Av. H.P. 


12 in. 

4 sides 


7 to 12 


10 in. 

4 sides 
* * » — 


7 to 10 

The Jackson Belt-Lacing Machine 

The saving to the manufacturer of time and money, when 
slight advantages are so often attended by most important 
results, occupies the best thought of business men the world 
over. Because belting is such an important item in every 
shop, inventors have labored to devise a cheap and quick 
method of effective and durable lacing. 

The Jackson belt-lacing machine, manufactured by the Dia- 
mond Drill & Machine Co., Birdsboro, Pa., under the Jackson 
patents, has solved, through the wire coil clasp lacing, a vexing 
problem. Recent improvements have brought this machine 
to the maximum of usefulness. It will not only save money 
in the cost of lacing, but will reduce to a minimum loss caused 
by the stoppage of machinery. It is obvious that the oftener 
the machinery is stopped, and the greater the time it takes 
to lace belts, just so much heavier will be the time charges 
of the men for which no adequate return can be secured. This 

Jackson Belt Lacing Machine. 

saving is evident when a six-inch belt can be laced complete 
in three minutes. 

The cost of the wire lacing is 75 per cent less than that of 
older methods. The cost of lacing a 5-inch belt is one cent, 
and of a 10-inch, two cents. These machines will lace belt 
up to 24 inches wide and % inch thick. 

The lacing forms a flexible joint. Tests of 2%-inch belts 
have shown that the wire coil will stand a tensile strain of 
1,900 lbs. without breaking or pulling apart. Another advan- 
tage is that the belt can be connected or disconnected in a 
moment. This is a great convenience when belts of varying 
length are required, or when it is desirable to have a reserve 
belt in readiness. The Jackson machine is simple in construc- 
tion. The rolls and gears are of hard tool steel. All the parts 
are interchangeable and can easily be replaced without the 
return of the machine to the factory. The net weight of the 
6-inch machine is 150 lbs., and 296 lbs. for the 24 in. 

Burgess Rail Anchor 

The illustration shows a Burgess rail anchor, as manufac- 
tured by B. Burgess, Danville, 111. This anchor has been 
adopted by many railroads in the United States and Canada 

and has given good results. It received the highest award 
given by the international jury at the St. Louis Exposition. 

The anchor comprises two arms, one cross brace with two 
pivotal rivets and four links. The two arms each have a 
shoulder or gib on the inside that engages the ends of the 
rail splices under the ball of the rail. The two arms ar w 
pivotally connected by the cross braces, making the anchor 
self-adjusting to the fish plates or rail splices. The free ends 
of the arms each have two links to receive a clevis, to which 
blocks and tackle are attached. It is to be noticed that only 
one rail is used and the anchor can be applied only at the 

To apply the anchor the arms are opened to allow the 
shoulders or gibs to pass over the ball of the rail immediately 
in front of the splices, then the arms are closed and the gibs 
come in contact with the ends- of the splices. After blocks 
and tackle are attached all is ready for a pull. Splices having 
from four to six bolts are sufficient to pull a derailed locomo- 
tive or loaded car back on the rails. 

The anchor weighs 107 pounds and will resist a strain of 
200,000 pounds. It can be applied or removed in a minute, 
and will be good for several generations. This device should 
prove a great time saver in case of a wreck or derailment, or 

Burgess Rail-Anchor. 

in any case where an achor is required. It does away with 
the necessity of planting a dead man and wrapping chains 
around the rails, whicn bunches the ties and bends the rail. 
This device does not injure the track and will fit any size rail 
from fifty-six to one hundred pounds per yard. 

Notes of the Month 

The Locomotive Appliance Co. has changed their office from 
the Chemical building, St. Louis, to the Old Colony building. 
Chicago, 111. 

The Farlow Draft Gear Company, of Baltimore, Md., have 
moved their offices in the Continental Trust Building from the 
temporary office which they had to secure after the Baltimore 
fire last February. 

Messrs. Mordey and Dawbarn, consulting engineers, 82 Vic- 
toria street, London, England, will receive proposals for fur- 
nishing steel rails and other railroad supplies for use of tram- 
ways in Johannesburg, Transvaal colony. 

It is stated that Mr. Church and Charles Cleveland, of Ches- 
ter, Nova Scotia, have discovered the long lost and much 



April, 1905. 

sought for process of hardening copper. A sample of their 
hardened copper has been tested and seems to be as hard as 
steel, a penknife failing to make any impression on it. 

The Stockbridge Machine Company, of Worcester, Mass., 
have made arrangements with the Niles-Bement Pond Com- 
pany for the sole agency of their shapers in New York, Bos- 
ton, Chicago and London. 

The Swiss government has granted permission for the build- 
ing of electric tramways on the following lines: Castagnola 
to Lugano, Menziken to Emmenbrucke, Munster to Rothenburg, 
Au to Berneck, Altorf to Fluelen, and a cable railroad from 
Interlaken to Heimwehfluh. 

The April issue of Graphite has a large number of illustra- 
tions of notable bridges and buildings in different parts of the 
world. It also has seasonable talks on good paint and good 
painting. A copy of this publication may be obtained free 
of charge by writing to the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey 
City, N. J. 

The firm of John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard avenue, New York 
City, who build the Allen portable pneumatic riveting ma- 
chines have just shipped two of their riveters to each of the 
branches of the American Car & Foundry Company, at St. 
Louis, Mo., and Madison, 111., making four machines in all. 
The shipment is of interest as this makes exactly fifty riveters 
of the Allen make which the American Car & Foundry Com- 
pany now have in use in their various plants. 

Mr. E. B. Boye has been appointed manager of the Cleve- 
land office of Manning, Maxwell & Moore. Mr. Boye, who will 
be located in the Williamson building, has been connected 
with the Chicago branch of the same firm for the past five 
years. He is well versed and thoroughly posted on the vari- 
ous makes of machine tools and their uses, and his long ex- 
perience in this line of business will be of great benefit to 
those purchasing tools. 

The Southern Pacific Company has been making a series of 
experiments with a motor car which is driven by electric mo- 
tors at the axles, the current being furnished by dynamos, 
direct connected to large Diesel oil engines, located in the 

The British East Indies in the fiscal year 1903-4 imported 
metals (exclusive of gold and silver), and articles manufac- 
tured of same, including rolling stock for railroads, to the 
value of $53,064,396, exceeding the imports of the year 1902 
by $6,400,000. Great Britain, Germany and Belgium are the 
principal countries supplying the East Indies with iron and 
steel ware and metallic goods in general. The United States, 
as the greatest producer of metals and metallic wares, should 
come next to England in supplying the East Indies in this 
line of goods. 

The United States Council-General at Bogota, Columbia, 
has recently received a great many requests for catalogues 
of various kinds of American goods, such as watches, knives, 
shoes, rifles, shotguns, revolvers, and all kinds of sporting 
arms and ammunition, engineering goods, and drawing in- 
struments. He has established a public reading room here, 
which is open to the public from 2 to 4 o'clock each after- 
noon except Saturday and Sunday. If American manufac- 
turers and merchants will send him their different catalogues 
they will be placed on file in this room, and it will be seen 
that the greatest good possible results therefrom. 

ties), and 51 private establishments, besides 3 institutes es- 
tablished by the government for the training of technical 
teachers. The Japanese, however, have long recognized that 
schools, colleges, and universities are not the only — indeed, are 
not the chief — means of educating men who will be useful in 
advancing the welfare of their country, and they have been in 
the habit of sending their best men— students, professors, 
manufacturers and merchants— to the various countries of the 
world for the purpose of enlarging their experience. 

Since the purchase of the New York & Ottawa Railroad by 
the New York Central Railroad Company the latter has de- 
termined to rebuild the road between Cornwall and Tupper 
Lake, which will be operated under the Vanderbilt system. 
The change is necessary to make the New York & Ottawa 
tracks suitable to the heavy rolling stock of the New York 
Central. The roadbed of the New York & Ottawa is in good 
condition for the small engines in use, but the change con- 
templated will make the bed suitable for the largest class of 
engines. This road and the Rutland will insure to the Central 
an immense trade from Ontario Province. It will also place 
Cornwall in advance as an export town. 

German papers report that the well-known chemist, Maneu- 
vrier, at Paris, has made the discovery that adulteration of 
wine with water, other liquids, and with solids can be de- 
tected through the aid of the telephone. Two glasses, ' one 
filled with the wine ,to be tested and the other with a, like 
quantity of wine known to be pure, are placed upon an ap- 
paratus resembling a scale and a telephone connected with 
both liquids. If both wines are pure no, sound is heard in the 
receiver, but if one contains water a noise is produced until 
a pointer is moved to a given place on the dial plate, whose 
movement renders the conductivity of the liquids uniform. 
The' gradation on the dial where the pointer stops shows the 
quantity of extraneous matter in the wine. 

The McConway & Torley Co. of Pittsburg, Pa., have just 
issued a supplement to the Car Interchange Manual, contain- 
ing abstracts of the decisions of the M. C. B. Arbitration 
Committee, cases 668 of May, 1904, to 682 of .December, 1904, 
inclusive. This pamphlet is prepared with a gummed in- 
sertion so that it may be pasted in, the back side of the 
Manual, issued in 1904, to make a complete abstract of all 
the decisions of the Arbitration Committee up to December 
31, 1904. They will be very glad to mail a copy of the 
pamphlet to anyone desiring it to complete their 1904 Man- 
ual. They also have copies of the complete Manual for 1904, 
containing all the decisions, which they will supply, free 
of charge, to any clerks or car men who may find it useful 
in their work. 

By an arrangement betwen the British postoffice department 
and the Marconi Company every telegraph office in the United 
Kingdom now receives messages for transmission by the 
Marconi wireless system from the Marconi coast stations to 
ships at sea fitted with the Marconi apparatus. Under the 
wireless telegraphy act no one can use a wireless telegraph 
system in Great Britain without authority from the post- 
master-general. The postmasters at various offices are kept 
informed of the movements of ships carrying the wireless ap- 
paratus and the locality of the shore station through which 
messages may be sent, and anyone desiring to send a message 
to a ship at sea by wireless telegraphy may do so by handing 
the message into a telegraph office and paying 13 cents per 
word. There must be paid, however, a mimimum of $1.57 for 
each telegram. 

In Japan there were, in 1902 and 1903, 9 government schools, 
795 public schools (that is to say, supported by local author! - 

The steady development of the British colonies in South 
Africa and the increase of population there cause a growing 
demands for building materials and of machinery for making 

April, 1905. 



brick, sewer pipes, tiles, etc. There are good prospects for 
the sale of implements and material required for mining, as 
also for electrical and plumbing purposes. Municipalities are 
introducing electric-lighting plants and waterworks. There 
is a lively demand for automobiles, pumps, tubing, barbed 
wire, and construction iron for buildings. During 1903 Eng- 
land exported to South Africa machinery to the value of 
$11,667,360. The exports of German machinery to South 
Africa during- the same year amounted to $1,107,396. Owing 
to the destruction of the workshops of the South African 
Railway Company at Bloemfontein, a large number of ma- 
chines will be required. 

The ihterurban railway system of Los Angeles-Pacific Rail- 
road Company is one of the most extensive in the country, 
embracing nearly 200 milefe of up-to-date lines. The company 
owes its growth largely to the energetic and untiring work 
of the president and manager, Mr. E. P. Clark, who was one 
of the pioneer railway men of Southern California. The sys- 
tem covers thoroughly the territory lying south of the Santa 
Monica mountains and between Los Angeles and the ocean. 
Most of the lines have been double- tracked and are construct- 
ed in conformity with the best steam railroad practice. About 
a year ago a new central steam plant Avas installed at Vine- 
yard about five miles west of Los Angeles and from this sta- 
tion transmission lines at 15,000 volts carry the power to sev- 
eral sub-stations located at intervals over the system. It is 
to increase the capacity of this central station and to supply 
additional power for the operation of the lines in Los Angeles 
that made necessary additional machinery, which was pur- 
chased from the Crocker-Wheeler Company, of Ampere, N. J. 

The Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia, before Ache- 
son, Dallas and Gray, circuit judges, in which the Cleveland 
Pneumatic Tool Co. were appellants against the Chicago Pneu- 
matic Tool Co. on a case brought by the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool Co. against the Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co. in the 
United States Circuit Court of Pittsburg for infringement on 
handle suit, said complaint Avas sustained by Judge Buffing- 
ton and the case appealed by the Cleveland Pneumatic Tool 
Co. Judge Dallas handel down an exhaustive opinion on 
March 6th, entirely exonerating the Cleveland Pneumatic Tool 
Co. from any infringement, his decision being that the court 
below erred in its dceision in granting an, injunction against 
the Cleveland Pneumatic Tool Co. This decision does away 
entirely with the claims of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
that they controlled everything in handles for pneumatic tools. 


John P. Allen, builder of the widely known Allen riveting 
machines, 370-372 Gerard avenue, New York City, is in re- 
ceipt of a letter from their Glasgow agents, John Turnbull, 
Jr., & Sons, which tells of an interesting demonstration of the 
Allen machines in Glasgow, as follows: "With, regard to 
the 84 -in. boiler riveter, we have been demonstrating it in a 
shipyard outside of Glasgow and the work done, which was 
on two boiler plates were perfectly satisfactory; and the plates 
were closed in good style. Our clients have secured a govern- 
ment contract in Malta and they are anxious to use the riv- 
eters on the caissons which they will build there. With this 
in view we advertised extensively that a demonstration was 
to be made and we invited, by letter, most of our shipbuilders 
and boilermakers in and around this city. We also managed 
to secure the presence of a government inspector. The ma- 
chine was put to Avork on a line of riA'ets, after which the 
plate was sawed in two and the government inspector was 
perfectly satisfied with the manner in which the machine had 
driven the rivets and the way the plate were closed." 

them, and in speed gears, speed indicators, and other acces- 
sories. This fact is given added importance by a new order 
of the local government board increasing the maximum limit 
alloAved for an unladen motor car to 5 tons and to 6% tons, 
including trailer, whereas formerly the weight allowed the 
car was 3 tons and with trailer 4 tons. The total weight of 
car and load is limited to 12 tons. These new regulations, 
which will come into force March 1, practically relate to 
freight motor cars only, and not to passenger and pleasure 
automobiles. Liverpool is the headquarters of the movement 
for the use of freight motor cars to compete with railroads. 
Heretofore the limit allowed for the weight of the cars and 
the load has handicapped the movement, but the new regula- 
tions are expected to give a great impetus to the development 
of the freight motor-car industry- And here would appear to 
be an opening for American inventors and manufacturers in 
this line. 

According to recent German returns the tin production of 
the world amounted to 93,093 tons in 1903, an increase over 
the preceding year of 2,916 tons. According to these returns, 
75 per cent of all tin comes from southeastern Asia, the fol- 
loAving being the estimated output of the several colonies and 
countries: Malacca, 54,797 tons, Banca and Billiton, 20,060 
tons; Bolivia, 9,500 tons; Australia, 4,191 tons; Cornwall, 4,150 
tons; all other places, 395 tons. Although the production of 
tin has increased regularly from year to year, the output is 
not sufficient to supply the demand, as the stock on hand 
in the most important tin markets has constantly decreased. 
The United States consumes 43 per cent of the total tin pro- 
duction; Great Britain, 28 per cent; the other European coun- 
tries, 22 per cent, and India and China together, 7 per cent. 
It is surprising that the United States, which during recent 
decades has made such enormous progress in exploiting its 
mineral resources, is not yet a factor in the production of tin, 
although considerable deposits are said to exist in South 
Dakota, Wyoming, and in North and South Carolina. A year 
ago one tin mine was opened in South Carolina. 

There has been considerable discussion on the subject of air 
openings under locomotive grates in regard to the damper 
openings on recently built locomotives being gradually re- 
duced. There is a direct loss of heat when the air supply 
is not adequate, and a large saving in fuel can be accomplished 
by increasing the damper openings in locomotives. For per- 
fect combustion it requires eight pounds of oxygen for every 
pound of hydrogen and 2 2-3 pounds of oxygen for every 
pound of carbon. With the dampers of a modern locomotive 
contracted, how is perfect combustion, to be attained? By 
staying the fire-box with hollow stays with an inside diam- 
eter of y 8 inch and not over 3-16 inch. Sufficient air does not 
pass through the grates and one dare not have an excess over 
the fire-bed, but the amount that will pass through 1,000 or 
more hollOAV staybolts will furnish oxygen for the perfect 
combustion. As the air passes through the hollow staybolts 
the risk of burning is decreased, expansion of the bolt is les- 
senned and the cracking of the sheets is reduced. The ex- 
haust of the locomotive drawing a current of air through the 
hollow bolts keeps the hole open and thereby presents a double 
opportunity for the detection of breaking staybolts. 

The present trend of invention in England is undoubtedly 
in the development of motor cars, oil engines for driving 

The Duff Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, Pa., have re- 
ceived another contract for a large quantity of Barrett track 
jacks for the Government Railways of Russia. This is the 
third contract for this source within the year, received by 
the Duff Company, and the Barrett jacks have been adopted 
exclusively, by the Russian government for their railroad 
work. It will be recalled that the first contract for Barrett 
track jacks was to cover the requirements of the Siberian 
Railways and were rushed forward to facilitate the govern- 

i 3 8 


April, 1905. 

ment in preparing that road for the transportation of troops 
to the seat of war. At the time this contract was announced, 
it was regarded as an important award, in that it showed, 
contrary to reports, that Russia would buy American material. 
It will be remembered that, at the outbreak of the Japanese- 
Russian war, there was a report circulating through the press 
that Russia would not purchase American-made machinery 
and tools on account of the American people siding, apparent- 
ly, with the Japanese. The Duff company have also supplied 
the Barrett track jacks to the Japanese railways and it was 
a marked coincidence at the time, that on the same day the 
first Russian contract Avas received, a large consignment of 
Barrett jacks was ordered forward by Japan. 

For purposes of ascertaining the efficiency of machinery, 
tires, consumption of gasoline, and other points of practical 
interest concerning the working in actual use of motor cars, 
the Automobile Club of Birmingham, England, a national or- 
ganization, offered some months ago to supervise trials of 
individual motor cars for from 4,000 to 5,000 miles. The trials 
were to be carried out under the care of officials selected by 
the club, who would note the cause and duration of all in- 
voluntary stops, and report the general behavior of cars un- 
der severe use upon the road. A number of motor cars have 
undergone the test, and one light car and one motor omnibus 
are now making 5,000-mile runs. So far, none of the manu- 
facturers who submitted their products have had cause to re- 
gret the risk they took in the reputation, etc., of their cars. 
Owing to the severity of test, doubtless some of the manu- 
facurers will make improvements in minor details. The ac- 
complishments of cars in touring use can be regarded as of 
more importance than upon a racing track. The distances 
covered are about 200 miles- per day and the 20 miles legal 
limit of speed must not be exceeded at any time. The motor 
cars must be returned at night to a garage selected by the 
club, where, after being cleaned and such minor adjustments 
made as • seem reasonable, they are to be intrusted for the 
night to the keeping of selected officials. 

♦ • » 

Owing to the greatly increased traffic of the interurban rail- 
way system of the Los Angeles-Pacific Railroad Company, the 
officers of that company have decided to increase the capacity 
of their central power house at Vineyard and to install an 
additional sub-station in Los Angeles. The new electrical 
equipment has been contracted for with the Crocker-Wheeler 
Company, Ampere, N. J., through its Pacific coast managers, 
the Abner Doble Company, of San Francisco. The contract 
comprises one 1,200 KW, three-phase, 50-cycle, 2300-volt, en- 
gine type generator with a speed of 125 R. P. M.; one 300 KW 
motor-generator set; one 400 KW motor generator set; three 
400 KW transformers; three 160 KW transformers; three 120 
KW transformers, and a 60 KW engine type exciter. The 
1200 KW alternator will be of the Crocker- Wheeler Company's 
new revolving field type, similar in construction to the three 
4,000 KW alternators recently ordered by the California Gas 
& Electric Corporation. The Los Angeles generator will be 
driven by a 2,000 HP compound-condensing Mcintosh & Sey- 
mour engine. The motor-generator sets will consist of 2300- 
volt synchronous motors driving 600-volt direct-current rail- 
way generators. The transformers will be built for 15,000 
volts of the primary and 2300 volts in the secondary and will 
be of the new water-cooled and oil-insulated type recently 
brought out by the Crocker- Wheeler Company. 

of Solingen. With the energetic aid of some of the large 
manufacturers and the granting of the necessary means by 
the city common council such a school was opened about 
three months ago with a force of experienced instructors 
under a director, who is a practical and highly educated man. 
He takes hold of the work with animation, and with the aid 
of several able assistants is intent on making the school a 
model one as well as of value to local industry. The num- 
ber of entrance applicants was so large that a great part 
could not be considered, and it is already necessary to look 
for larger quarters. An inspection shows that the school 
contains apartments for drawing, modeling, a working room 
for engravers and chiselers, a special room for the models, 
and an apartment for the director. In the room for draw- 
ing, the walls are decorated with plaster-cast models, draw- 
ing plates of castings, and exhibition work of pupils, con- 
sisting of models of various scissors, spoons, sword scabbards, 
designs for doors, locks, etc., some of them made to order 
for manufacturers who are interested, and all executed in 
an attractive manner. Special . interest was attracted by a 
new model for shears and an artistic advertising placard. 
Busy hands were active in the modeling room copying from 
plaster-cast models and from nature. In the engraving line 
very good work is being done. It may be well to say that 
it is hoped that the different manufacturers of weapons will 
loan the school m6dels, with the object of inspiring the stu- 
dents with new ideas, and also that the instructors and schol- 
ars shall be allowed to visit the factories, some of which 
have already lent a helping hand in this respect and placed 
models, neatly arranged, in cabinets, at the disposal of the 

About two years ago the practicability was discussed of 
opening a special trade school for metal working at Solingen, 
Germany, in which talented young people might have an 
opportunity to work out for themselves new designs and 
models and suggest new ideas for the many-sided products 

Technical Publications 

Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, Vol. XXV, 1904. 

Contents: "The Money Value of Technical Training," 
"Slide Rules for the Machine Shop as Part of the Taylor Sys- 
tem of Management," "Is Anything the Matter With Piece- 
Work?" "Suggestions for Shop Construction," "What Are the 
New Machine Tools to Be?" "Air Motors and Air Hammers- 
Apparatus for Testing," "A Method for Determining Rates and 
Prices for Electric Power," "Improvement in Valve-Motion of 
Duplex Air-Compressors," Tests of a Direct Connected Eight- 
Foot Fan and Engine," "A Series Distilling Apparatus of High 
Efficiency," "The Pressure Temperance Curve of Sulphurous 
Anhydride (S0 2 )," "The Pitot Tube," "Construction and Effi- 
ciency of a Fleming Four Valve Engine, Directly Connected 
to a 400-kw. Generator," "A Compact Gas Engine, Beam Type," 
"Tests of a Compound Engine Using Superheated Steam," 
"Standard Unit of Refrigeration," "Report of Committee on 
Specifications for Boiler Plate, Rivet Steel, Steel Castings ana 
Steel Forgings," "Use of Superheated Steam and Reheaters 
in Compound Engines of Large Size,*" "Commercial Gas En- 
gine Testing and Proposed Standard of Comparison," "Road 
Tests of Consolidation Freight Locomotives," "Testing Loco- 
motives in England," "Report of Alloys' Research Committee, 
Effects of Strain and of Annealing," "Experiments With a 
Lathe Tool Dynamometer," "Power Plant of the Tall Office 
Building," "Some Theoretical and Practical Considerations in 
Steam Turbine Works," "Different Applications of Steam Tur- 
bines," "Locomotive Testing Plants," "A Rational Basis for 
Wages," "Cast Iron Strength, Composition, Specifications," 
"Potential Energy of Prime Movers," "Middlesborough Dock 
Electric and Hydraulic Power Plant," "Refuse Destruction by 
Burning, and the Utilization of Heat Generated." "Power Plant 
of Tall Office Buildings," "Steam Turbine in Modern Engineer- 
ing,' 1 "De Laval Steam Turbine," "Burning of Town Refuse," 
"Robert Henry Thurston a Memorial." 


Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest 0/ 

CHARLES E. COPP J&&& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (Sb M . Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

Meeting of the Advisory Committee 

The Advisory Committee of the Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters' Association met, as per notice in our January issue, 
at the Imperial Hotel, New York City, Feb. 25, 1905, at 10 
a. m. There was a full attendance of the committee, as fol- 
lows: A. P. Dane, Boston, Mass., chairman; C. E. Copp, Law- 
rence, Mass., B. E. Miller, Scranton, Pa., C. A. Cook, Wilming- 
ton, Del., and J. W. Houser, Chambersburg, Pa. Mr. Dane 
promptly called the meeting to order and appointed the 
writer secretary and anounced that all visiting members were 
invited to participate in the proceedings, of whom we noted 
the following present: President, J. F. Lanferseik; first vice 
president, H. M. Butts; second vice president, J. H. Kahler; 
D, A. Little, J D. Wright, F. A. Weiss, R. J. Kelley, John Gear- 
hart, H. W. Forbes and G. H. Gehman. 

The following subjects were suggested by various mem- 
bers and, after some discussion, adopted and the following- 
program prepared for the next convention, to be held at 
Cleveland, Sept 12-15, 1905. It was thought best to withhold 
the names of committee assignments until such time as the 
secretary shall have received their acceptances. 

1. The Renovation of Coach Window Shades, particularly 
those most generally used, such as "Pantasote," etc., with a 
view to increasing their life. 

2. Piece Work: Its Advantages and Disadvantages from the 
Standpoints of both Employer and Employe. 

3. The Best Material and Method of Construction of Paint 
Shop Floors that Give Best Results from the Painter's Point 
of View. 

4. Are You Burning off Your Passenger Equipment Be- 
fore it is Necessary? 

5. The Preservation of Steel Cars from Decay. What new 
Developments has the Past Year Brought Out? 

6. Essay: The Car and Locomotive Painter of Today. 

7. Economy and Durability Considered, to what extent may 
Enamels, or Varnish Colors, be Employed as to Finish for 
Car and Locomotive Equipment, Exterior and Interior? 

8. Are Locomotives Properly Cleaned While in Service? 
If so, by What Materials and Methods? 


1. How do you remove old paint from front ends of re- 
paired locomotives? 

2. What oil do you use for rubbing down car interiors 
when newly varnished? 

3. Is not there some other way that can be devised to 
clean car glass in shops than by hand? 

4. Is paint removing from car exteriors by chemicals prac- 
ticable and economical? 

5. Does your road use metal train numbers in front of 
headlights? If so, what color are then painted and why? 

6. What is your opinion of painting the exterior of car- 
sash body-color? 

Chairman Dane received a letter from Jas. A. Gohen con- 
taining the following suggestions for changes in the by-laws: 
"Sec. 4 of Art. 10 to read. Application for membership must 
be made at the regular annual meeting. Such application to 
be endorsed by two active members. If no objection is made, 
such applicant shall be enrolled as a member. Art. 12, Sec. 1, 
to read: Members in arrears for dues shall not be entitled 
to sit in convention, or take any part whatever in the pro- 
ceedings. Sec. 2. Any member who is in arrears for two 
years shall be declared delinquent by the secretary before 

the close of the meeting, such declaration to be a part of the 
record. Members so declared delinquent shall be dropped 
from the list and shall not be reinstated until all arrearages 
are paid and then only should no objection be offered by the 

Mr. Gohen's letter was' not read to the meeting because the 
chairman thought he had left it at home, but afterward found 
it in his pocket. However, the substance of it was stated, 
and though no legal action could be taken there, it was voted 
to recommend that suitable steps be taken at the next con- 
vention to carry out Mr. Gohen's sentiments regarding rigor- 
ous dealing with delinquent members. 

There were some ten or more supply men present who ar- 
ranged a lunch for all in the hotel upon adjournment at 12:30, 
and provided tickets for the entire party to the matinee of 
"The Shepherd King" at the New York theatre. It was an 
enjoyable and profitable meeting, and seemed like an annual 
convention in miniature (minus souvenirs). 

C. E. Copp, . Secretary. 

Subjects for Next Convention 

The subjects for discussion at the next convention prepared 
by the Advisory Committee, whose report appears elsewhere 
in this issue, will, we think, commend themselves to the at- 
tention and interest of all our members and hope that the 
secretary will have no trouble in receiving the acceptances of 
those assigned to prepare papers upon them so that we can 
publish the entire list of the committees in an early issue. 

Convention subjects can hardly be expected to be new each 
year. The association has been running thirty-five years and 
holds its thirty-sixth annual convention at Cleveland next 
September. As its discussions are confined to some phase of 
cleaning and painting car and locomotive equipment, with 
seme eight or ten subjects each year, besides usually a list of 
queries, we think our mechanical superiors will grant that we 
have been rather fertile in thought and in resouces not to 
thresh over more old straw than we do, or else they must ad- 
mit what is rather a well-known fact, that the car and locomo- 
tive painting trade is a field prolific with difficulties and new 
ideas constantly arising. The deviltries of paint and varnish 
are as numerous as the sins of the moral code; and when the 
preachers all get through hammering at us and close their 
Bibles for good it will be time for us to quit telling one an- 
other "what we know about" — painting. Even they, so it is 
said, put their old sermons in at the top of the barrel as they 
preach them and take new (?) ones out at the bottom, and so 
they appear to be new and fresh to their hearers-. That is 
about the best we can do. We may dress an old subject up 
in new clothes, but it is largely the same thing. But we do not 
need to worry about this; the times are continually changing 
and the style and the requirements of the work are continu- 
ally evolving new difficulties and responsibilities. Moreover, 
we ourselves are, sad to relate, passing away and our places 
are being filled with new and younger men, who will want to 
be taught in the things that are new to them, no matter how 
old they may seem to us. Children's children have to learn 
of their dadies and grandaddies all about politics and 
piety, and it would not seem strange to include paint in the 
list; of course, adding to this fund of information handed 
down to them what they themselves find out as they go 
along, perhaps discarding some of the old and appropriating 
the new, and thus the whole is kept ever new and profitable. 



April, 1905. 

So some of our readers need not be restive if we do occa- 
sionally repeat ourselves in our discussions. There are but 
few subjects that have been treated as exhaustively that they 
are worn out. If a fellow can't see anything in them, perhaps 
he needs to step up a few more rungs in the ladder nearer 
the top. Our companies who pay the bills perhaps may 
think there may be some ways that some dollars might be 
saved still farther, even in car and locomotive painting, if we 
do not. "Well, then let them give us passes to go to the con- 
vention to talk it. over, instead of having to pay our fare." 
We expected you would say that, and we do not much blame' 
you; but that does not help the situation any. A clam does 
not shut himself up in his shell at every cold draft. You 
cannot afford to stultify yourself if the railroads do. Maybe 
their souls are bigger than their opportunities. Let us hope 

A new subject comes up this year, anyway, and it is num- 
ber one: "The Renovation of Coach Window Shades." While 
"down east" we have nothing to do with them, they being 
in the upholsterer's department, still others in the middle 
states do have this trouble and responsibility, and it is no 
more than right that they should hear and be heard upon it. 

Steel car painting comes up again; like Banquo's ghost, it 
will not down. As long as some roads do not paint them at 
all, but let them rust on and rust oat, we believe that this 
is a live subject; that there is something wrong somewhere 
that needs to be righted and the continual hammering on 
this subject will cause flakes of truth to drop down to those 
that want them as numerous as do the flakes of rust when 
the cars are hammered. Hammer away, "beloved brudderin." 

"The Car and Locomotive Painter of Today" is altogether 
a different breed of cats from his ilk of other days, as we 
shall doubtless find out when the author of the essay reads 
his paper on that subject in Cleveland next September, if we 
have not discovered it before. We may then wonder whether 
or not we have kept step with the procession, or fallen out 
and are "taking the dust" of those young fellows who are 
going ahead. 

In conclusion, let us do our best to make the 1905 conven- 
tion the best ever. We are inclined to think that fewer sub- 
jects and a more thorough sifting and garnering of the wheat 
in them is the better way than to try to thresh over so 

much and rush through it in order to cover the list. It would 
have been better if this had been the practice long ago, but 
it is not now too late to remedy the evil. 

William B. Albright. 


It was our intention to start this department in the January 
issue with the photo and sketch of that genial and popular 
railway salesman of the Sherwin-Williams Company, Mr. W. 
B. Albright, which we take pleasure in inserting herewith, 
but we failed to connect. Owing to sickness and death in 
his family, he wrote that he had neglected some of the things 
that should have been attended to in the regular routine of 
business, and expressed his regrets that the photo should not 
have reached us before. 

Mr. Albright was born in July, 1855, and entered the em- 
ploy of the Sherwin-Williams Company in 1881, and has been 
connected with that company ever since, being a director 
at the present time. He has been in the Railway Department, 
of which he is the Eastern Division Manager, for the past 
sixteen years, with offices at 66 Broadway, New York City, 
where he is always glad to meet his many friends. 


Knifing Versus Block-Pumice Surfacing 

The writer acknowledges a change of heart recently upon 
the above-named subject, having obtained suitable materials 
for the purpose of producing a good knifed surface and lately 
"caught on" to their proper use. That is to say, he believes 
in knifing for the bulk of passenger equipment, especially 
new sheathed cars; there are exceptions, of course, where a 
better surface is required, than can be produced in this way. 
Knifing can be done, with the proper substance, directly upon 
the primer on the wood- work of a car, after the primer and 
putty have been suitably cut down with sandpaper. And 
when the knifing has been properly done and all surplus 
surfaced removed by knifing off, as well as knifing on, in 
■ such a way as to show as few laps, or knife-marks as pos- 
sible, and allowed to dry one day, then a sandpaper coating 
is applied with soft rubber-bound brushes (bristle brushes 
would make brush marks to be sandpapered out) which 

April, 1905. 



when dry, will sandpaper down to a fine surface and hide 
any previous defects in the knifed surface. 

Here, then, is a surfacer up to and ready for the color 
produced hy only three coatings, including the primer, in 

. contrast to six, if a guide-coat is used, by the old rough 
stuff and rubbing-down method, with much better results 
in durability, Ave opine, if the work is properly done with 
right materials. Here is a saving, then, of the materials and 
operations of three coatings upon the car, as well as much 
less work and slop in knifing and sandpapering the surface 
in place of rubbing it with pumice and water. And that bad 
feature is also eliminated of soaking surfacer and wood- 
work with water that has to be dried out before paint can be 
safely applied. Again, a less absorbent surface for the fin- 
ishing coats of color and varnish is presented by a knifed 
surface than with a rubbed surface, with its consequent 
aptitude to look pebbly, an/1 therefore greater brilliancy for 
the varnish. As the woodworkers now put it, so much time 
and labor in traversing and smoothing up the sheathing of 
the cars it presents a very level surface for the painter, and 
it seems fallacious for him to repeat the carpenter's efforts 
in labor in rubbing and scouring to get a surface that is 
already produced for him. The painter's work is to close the 
pores of the wood with an adhesive primer and level up 
this feature only, producing a suitable surface for the color. 
This, to the writer, seems to be the only up-to-date method. 
The extreme piano surface of two or three decades ago is 
no longer required upon the general run of passenger equip- 
ment today. 

Having obtained his surface in this way and applied a prep- 
aration of color, containing some keg white lead and suffi- 
cient oil, he may now for baggage, mail, express and milk 
cars apply a coat of suitable enamel, or in other words, 
"varnish-color," and letter with varnish-color letters, and 
this class of cars are done without any varnish at all in a 

, durable, presentable and serviceable manner by a five-coat 
method from the wood, including the priming. What say to 
this, master painters? 

■» > » 

Advanced Method of Removing Germs and Rust 
from Railway Cars 

The management of the Central Railroad of New Jersey nas 
made another step of advancement through the recent in- 
stallation of a system of car cleaning which has the univer- 
sal approval of the health authorities along its line, ana as it 
is practically the first transportation company to aaopt it, 
the method may be of interest to our readers. 

The old mehod of car cleaning with a whisk here ana a 
dash there with a broom or duster, was not only unsanitary, 
but unsatisfactory, for the reason that it had the effect 
largely of removing dust and dirt from one section, and de- 
positing it elsewhere; but under the new method, which is 
termed the "Vacuum Sweeping System," the dirt and dust is 
drawn from the car by suction through a pipe, and is gone 
forever. The New Jersey Central has erected an immense' 
vacuum plant in its Jersey City yards, and for a distance of 
3,600 feet has laid pipe varying from two to five inches in dia- 
meter, covering in all about three miles. At short intervals 
this pipe is tapped and from these cocks is run the flexible 
hose, which may be taken in the car either by door or win- 
dow. At the foot of the hose is a metal pipe with a flat 
triangular end, along the base of which is an opening, and 
through which the dust and dirt is drawn by the vacuum or 
"drawing-in machine" located a distance away. The oper- 
ator runs the slot opening over the cushions, carpets, cur- 
tains, woodwork, etc., and without any commotion of dust 
raising, every loose particle or germ is whisked away, every- 
thing being left clean and wholesome. The dust thus re- 
moved, before reaching the great "drawing-in machine" must 

pass through two dust separators, the first of which clears 
the air of 90 per cent, of the grit, dust and germs; the 
second separator or cylinder draws the air through water in 
which corrosive sublimate is used, and completes perfectly 
the purification. The New Jersey Central management has 
for a long time felt the necessity for a more sanitary metnod 
of car cleaning, and the Vacuum System, while reducing dis- 
ease liabilities to a minimum, at the same time reduces the 
cost of cleaning and time consumed. Two cars can be thor- 
oughly cleaned under the new system at the same expense 
of time and money as was formerly consumed in cleaning 
one, and this in connection with the increased sanitary value, 
is sure to cause its general introduction within a short time, 
not only by other transportation companies, but by theatres, 
hotels, places of public resort and even the home. 

Notes and Comments 

Errata.— In our last issue in third paragraph of "Notes and 
Comments," "Mr. J. W. Warden" should have read Mr. J. W. 
Marden. Also, eighth note under same head should have been 
Mr. C. E. Mance' and not "Nance." Also, next to last line 
in last paragraph, page 110, should have had the word title 
and not "little." 

It does not look as though the Laconia Car Co. would be 
out of a job this summer. They have 75 cars to build for 
the Brooklyn Hts. "L" road, 20 odd for the Manchester, N. 
H, electric road, 300 box cars for the Maine Central, a like 
number for another New England line, as well as 200 Pratt's 
patent coal and 100 gondolas for the latter road. 

Mr. S. H. Walker, assistant foreman with D. A. Little at 
the Juniata Shops of the Pennsylvania R. R., has been elected 
mayor of Altoona, Pa., a city of at present about 60,000 
population, and takes his seat April 1. This is a great honor 
for one of the brethren of the brush. If we ever have our 
convention there he ought to allow us to paint the town red 
and show us how to do it. 

The Boston & Maine has just turned out of its Lawrence 
shops what is probably the heaviest piece of car equipment 
on its line, with the possible exception of Pullman sleepers. 
It is a 60-ft. mule-end mail car and weighs 96,700 lbs. So 
much iron and steel entering its construction as a govern- 
ment requirement against accident is what accounts largely 
for the increased weight; also six-wheel trucks. This is 
one of two such cars being made at these shops. 

Mr. H. N. Turner, known at least to all of our convention 
attendants and readers, has severed his connection with the 
Acme White Lead & Color Works as their railway represent- 
ative, having accepted a position as sales-manager of the 
Electro Stain Co., a close neighbor of the above concern in 
the same city. Mr. R. C. Mcintosh, son of the Supt. Motive 
Power, C. R. R. of N. J., has taken Mr. Turner's place in 
the East. 

It seemed impracticable to try to get the Advisory Com- 
mittee's report into the March issue. It was held three days 
later than formerly, and we were informed that the paper 
was being made up Feb. 21, while the meeting did not 
come off until the 25th. Still space would have been held 
had we not notified the office that it would go over to the 
April issue on account of some further matters to be com- 
pleted at a conference of Mr. Dane and the writer when 
thev reached home. 

Mr. J. Harris Lighty has, we are informed, made arrange- 
ments with the M. C. & L. P. A., through Secy. McKeon. for 



April, 1905. 

reporting the proceedings of the next annual convention to 
be held in Cleveland next September. This ought to give us 
even a better report than the last, which was a good one 
and promptly delivered, as he got the "hang of the school- 
house" at the Atlantic City convention. He is a Philadelphia 
stenographer, doing court and convention work, with address 
50 North Thirteenth St. 

Flies are not the only things found in amber. In a big 
mass of clear amber dredged up out of the Baltic sea re- 
cently there was distinctly visible in its interior a small 
squirrel — fur, teeth and claws intact.— Boston Globe. 

We regret the prospect of losing a valuable article for these 
columns from Mr. Wilbur F. Leach, Master Painter of the 
Minneapolis & St. Louis R. R., Minneapolis, Minn., on the 
subject: "Are You Burning Off Your Passenger Equipment 
Before it is Necessary?" Mr. Leach kindly offered to write 
such a paper for these columns, but being a member of the 
Advisory Committee Ave brought it up at the late meeting 
in New York ■ and it was adopted as a subject and he ap- 
pointed to prepare a paper on it to be presented at the next 
convention. Therefore it was thought advisable not to pre- 
sent the paper in these columns, as it would be a repetition 
and rob it of the freshness of its presentation there. Mr. 
Leach takes the affirmative of the above question, having 
come to that conclusion from experiments extending over a 
period of ten years. 

Receiving a personal letter about other matters from Asso- 
ciate Butts, under date of March 11, we think the item therein 
relating to progress of the Committee on Uniform Stenciling 
should be given out and we take the liberty, quoting him 
as follows: "I have just got in from Buffalo, where I met 
our friends J. A. Gohen and B. E. Miller. We had a meeting 
of the Committee on Uniform Stenciling of Freight Cars. 
We met Mr. H. M. Carson, Supt. Motive Power of the Penn- 
sylvania R. R. He is chairman of the Committee on Stenciling 
of the M. M. and M. C. B. Associations; is very much in 
sympathy with us in this matter. Our committee presented 
him with a copy of our recommendations on Uniform Sten- 
ciling which he will present to his association at their next 
meeting which will be held at Manhattan Beach next June. 
He thinks it will be adopted. We feel now as if the matter 
was in proper shape for definite action." 

The N. E. R. R. Club gave its third annual Ladies' Night 
entertainment March 9. It was an entire departure from 
the other two held, in that it came off at the New American 
House instead of at Pierce Hall where the club meetings are 
held, and consisted of a nine-course banquet instead of an 
informal lunch, at which 300 covers were laid, and was in- 
terspersed with a high-class entertainment, in addition to 
the orchestra, of a professional cast, consisting of songs, im- 
personations, solos vocal and instrumental, humorous read- 
ings, etc., the whole winding up with a ball from 9:30 to 12 
in the big banquet hall on the next floor above where the 
dinner and entertainment took place. It was a most enjoy- 
able occasion and creditable to the committee, consisting of 
C. N. Woodward, F. A. Barbey and T. B. Purves, Jr. 

While politicians, Congress and Parliament are talking "rec- 
iprocity" and fighting shy of it until noses enough are counted 
to insure their re-election, the manufacturing concerns are 
doing something to fight shy of the duties by establishing 
branch factories over the line to turn out their products 
there. The latest is the American Pressed Steel Car Com- 

pany which, we are told, has established a branch in Canada 
called the Canadian Car Co., and has already orders for 25,000 
cars; and Mr. James Coleman, late M. C. B. of the Central 
Vermont R. R., has resigned the latter position to become 
Gen. Supt. of Construction of this new concern. The Stand- 
ard Varnish Company of New York and Staten Island is 
about to open a branch factory at Toronto. The Sherwin- 
Williams Company established one at Montreal some time 
ago and recently enlarged the. same and reopened it with 
something of a celebration. Not long since we learned that 
the celebrated Fairbanks Scale Works at St. Johnsbury, Vt., 
were to plant a branch factory "just over the line." Their 
main plant is within fifty miles of the line. 

Remarkable results are reported of some tests of a fireproof 
paint invented by a Mexican. The tests took place in the 
Mexican capital. Paper covered on both sides with the paint 
and thrown into a hot fire did not blaze up, but gradually 
charred. A stick of wood painted for half its length was 
put in the fire. The unpainted part was at once consumed, 
the other half remaining intact. Finally, a small wooden 
structure, protected throughout by the paint, was filled with 
highly combustible materials and set on fire. The fire blazed 
fiercely; when it had burned itself out the building stood in 
good shape, little injured by the intense heat. There should 
be a great field for such a paint, particularly if it can be 
made cheaply enough not to add too greatly to the cost of 
building. Not only would ordinary wooden buildings he 
made much safer; such horrible calamities as have occurred 
in recent years might be averted by thus protecting the 
highly inflammable woodwork of theaters and steamboats. 
Should really good fireproof paint be available for the pur- 
pose, it would be criminal not to use it in such instances. 
— Boston Herald. 


Screws working loose in the arms, or "strikers," of the re- 
volving backs to iron car seats have long been a source of 
trouble to railroads by claims for damages for tearing ladies' 
dresses on the aisle-ends and by marring the woodwork on 
the wall-ends every time the back is reversed. A practical 
device to obviate this trouble by "doing away with visible 
screws has long been sought and something tried, but none 
has seemed to be successful until now. Mr. William Praddex, 
assistant foreman painter at the Lawrence shop of the Boston 
& Maine, has lately perfected a device that not only covers 
the eight -screws which fasten the arms to the back, four 
at each end; but has also abolished the two pivotal screws 
at either end of the seat-frame upon which the back revolves. 
It is no fanciful, complex, impracticable thing, but a simple, 
straightforward, workable — almost automatic device. Aside 
from the pivotal attachments, which have been later devel- 
oped, a seat has been rigged and worked in a short line train 
successfully for some time that reverses its seats about once 
an hour every day. Not to take into account the saving of 
damages to the cars and to passengers' clothes from loosened 
screws it would seem that in the shop alone there is economy 
in the use of this device, for the seat-backs can readily be 
removed from the car and replaced without turning a single 
screw; and another trouble is avoided— that of plugging over- 
worked screw holes in seat backs. It is also applicable to 
wooden seats where the seat-arms are screwed to the backs. 
Unless upholstery work is to be done to the detached backs 
that portion of the device which is screwed to the back does 
not require removal at all. It appears to the writer that 
it would be well for those in charge of car departments who 
are interested in anything of this sort to look into the matter 
by personal inspection or by correspondence for it seems to 
be meritorious. 

May, 1905. 



Established 1878 


Published by the 

Office of Publication, Rooms 409 and 410 Security Building, corner 
Madison Street and Fifth Ave., Chicago 


Harrison 33S7 

Eastern Office: Room 714, 132 Nassau Street, New York City. 

JSntered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
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given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make, all checks payable to the Bruce V. Cran- 
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Papers should reach subscribers by the tenth of the month 
at the latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or 
failure to receive any issue and another copy will be very 
gladly sent 

Vol. XXIX. 

CHICAGO, MAY, 1905. 

No. 5. 


Editorial 143 

Mr. James L. Frazier, G. M. Cal. N. W. By. Co. 144 

Sand Houses and Appliances 145 

Stealing Locomotive Bepair Parts 152 

Gasoline Electric Motor Car 153 

New Shops, Canadian Pacific By. — II 156 

Bidgeway Boring and Turning Mill 159 

Grindstone in Pere Marquette Shops 161 

Pneumatic Device for Controlling the Quantity of Water 

in a Hydraulic Accumulator 162 

Air Pump Back 163 

Anti-Friction Metal 164 

Merritt & Company Lockers ' 164 

The Acme White Lead & Color Company 164 

No. 7 Grinding Machine 166 

Three-Foot Arm Combination Badial Drill 166 

Power Circular Saw Bench 167 

Twenty-Four-Inch Shaper 167 

Notes of the Month 168 

Paint Department I? 1 

The Editorial and Business Offices of the Railway Master 
Mechanic will be located after May 1st in the Security 
Building, corner Madison Street and Fifth Avenue, Chicago. 

BEGINNING with this issue we will illustrate a 
number of sand houses and appliances as used on 
a number of different railroads. Some time ago a mas- 
ter mechanic was showing his new sand house arrange- 
ment, which had just been installed, and made the remark 
that he had recommended the installation of it eighteen 
years ago, making the same recommendation every year 
for the eighteen years until he finally got the desired out- 
fit. Suitable sanding apparatus, although very inexpensive, 
usually receives very little consideration. The sand box 
on a locomotive holds from one to two barrels of sand, 
and it is surprising to note that so large a number of 
roundhouses and terminals are so poorly equipped. A 
large number have only a sand stove of crude construc- 
tion and the sand is carried in coal scuttles from the sand 
house to the engine, where it is handed to the engineer 
on the running board, who in turn elevates it to the top 
of the sand box. With the expenditure of a very small 
amount a drum could be constructed, which could be 
connected up with the train line of the engine, and the 
sand elevated directly into the sand box without any man- 
ual labor. This would not only save a lot of time but 
also the engine crew, who have practically all they can 
take care of in getting the engine over the road. If extra 
laborers are employed for this work their labors can be 
dispensed with, which is still a stronger argument in favor 
of some mechanical or pneumatic means of elevating the 

■♦ ♦ » 

/k T the March meeting of the Western Railway 
* • Club a very interesting paper on a plan for 
maintaining railroad repair shop machinery was pre- 
sented and discussed. The paper brought out incid- 
dents where the output of shops were increased 50 per 
cent by substituting up-to-date tools in place of the 
obsolete ones. This was done with less than 10 per 
cent increase in the shop pay rolls. With the increased 
output of the shop the power was put in so much bet- 
ter condition that engine failures were reduced by 
two-thirds. Particular stress was put on improved 
tool holders and tool steel in the discussion of the 
paper. One shop was cited where tool holders re- 
duced the value of alloy steel tools on a single lathe 
from $117 to $23; and in small tools and steels, with 
a better and larger supply of tools and steels, saved 
nearly $3,000 a month. 

The value of high speed steels brought out records 
made in turning locomotive tires in which a set of 56- 
inch consolidation tires were turned in less than eight 
hours. This record was doubted, but if the doubtful 
ones would visit the Canadian Pacific shops at Mon- 
treal they could see one man turn 6 pair of 57-inch 
tires in ten hours and fifteen minutes on one wheel 
lathe. One stated that turning tires in 4.55 hours 
would be cheaper to them than putting in a $10,000 
machine to do the work. The author of this statement 
evidently did not concur in the general trend of his 
own talk, as he strongly recommended replacing old 
tools with modern equipment. 



May, 1905. 

Replacing old tools may be carried to extremes. In 
a great many cases the old equipment can be supplied 
with devices which will double the output of the ma- 
chine. An incident of this kind was demonstrated in 
a small car shop when the car wheel lathe could not 
supply the wants of the shop. The foreman first 
speeded up the machines to the full capacity of high- 
speed steels and yet could not keep up with the work. 
He then noticed that too much time was consumed in 
putting in and taking out tools. A hydraulic tool hold- 
er was designed for the lathe 
which together with the high 
speed tool steel increased the 
output of the machine 50 per 
cent and made a net saving 
of 20 cents on a pair. This 
machine has turned out 10 
pair of 36-inch steel tired 
wheels in nine hours. 

•» » » 

ON another page there 
appears a communi- 
cation criticising an editorial 
presented in the January is- 
sue, concerning the surrepti- 
tious removal of parts from 
one locomotive to be applied 
to another for the purpose of 
supplying some one who has 
failed to order necessary 
equipment or having spoiled 
a job, wishes to cover it up 
instead of ordering a new 
piece. While we condemned 
the practice of stealing for 
the purpose of making a 
gang foreman's material ac- 
count appear small, we rec- 
ommended the consistent re- 
moval of pans from an en- 
gine xv the back shop in 
order to supply a duplicate 
piece to an engine undergo- 
light running repairs 


Mr. James L. Frazier 


Mr. Frazier was born June 17, 1849, at Staunton, Va. He graduated from the 
University of Virginia in 1870 as civil engineer and entered the service of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio in the same year as assistant engineer of coustruction. From 
October 1874 to December 1877 he was assistant and resident engineer of the Cin- 
cinnati Southern; from June to September 1878 engineer of location of the West- 
ern Road of North Carolina; December 1878 1o March 1880 resident engineer in 
charge of completion of the Cincinnati Southern Ry. across Tennessee; March 
to November 1880, resident engineer of construction Elizrbethtown, Lexington & 
Big Sandy Rd.; November 1880 to May 1881 assistant engineer maintenance of way 
Alabama Great Southern Ry.; May to September 1881 engineer in charge of bridge 
department Mexican National Rd. ; November 1881 to November 1882 engineer same 
department Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis Rd. ; December 1882 to March 1883 en- 
gineer in charge of erection Louisville Bridge & Iron Co. ; March 1883 to October 
1884 chief engineer and superintendent road department Chesapeake, Ohio & South- 
western Rd.; October 1884 to April 1891 superintendent western division Newport 
News and Mississippi Valley Co.; August 1891 to August 1892 division superinttndent 
Truckee division Southern Pacific Co. ; August 1892 to November 1894 superintendent 
San Joaquin division; November 1894 to May 1904 superintendent coast division same 
company; May 1904 to date general manager California Northwestern Railway Co. 

in the round house, advocating a systematic record of 
all parts so removed. 

Our correspondent seems to have overlooked the mean- 
ing of the first sentence of the editorial, wherein it is 
stated that the surreptitious removal should be discoun- 
tenanced, and he proceeds to a consideration of the ben- 
efits to be derived from the systematic interchange of 

He asks where the line should be drawn in the prac- 
tice of "robbing" one engine to keep another in service 
or to forward the completion of an engine nearly read} 
to leave the shop. Such a matter cannot be decided to 
a line, and is naturally dependent upon conditions. The 

point of argument is, however, the necessity of keep- 
ing some account of the parts taken in order that new 
material may be ordered and machined so as to cause 
no delay by the removal — the line being the difference 
between a systematic proceeding by which time is saved, 
and "stealing"' by which one foreman's interest is ad- 
vanced to the detriment of another. 

We have in mind an instance where two gang fore- 
men were converting two old class passenger engines 
into suburban engines. At the end of the month it was 

observed that one foreman 
had incurred a rather heavy 
expense for new material, 
while the other had con- 
verted his engine very cheap- 
ly. It was evident that some- 
thing was radically wrong. 
Upon investigation it devel- 
oped that much of the ma- 
terial ordered for Gang No. i 
had been applied to the en- 
gine in Gang No. 2 and the 
foreman of Gang No. 1 had 
to order additional material 
to replace that "stolen." Had 
there been a reason for rush- 
ing the engine in Gang No. 2 
and a transfer had been ar- 
ranged for by the shop fore- 
man, there would have been 
no inconsistency in takng the 
parts of one engine to hasten 
the completion of the other. 

It is unquestionably wise 
to use any of the parts of an 
engine shopped for heavy or 
general repairs to replace a 
duplicate piece or pieces on 
an engine which may be 
kept in service by such a 
course. But immediate steps 
should be taken to supply the 
parts in question in order 

that no delay may be occasioned to the engine whose 
parts have been so used. Such procedure is possible of 
successful results, but there is a difference between work 
of this nature and a man's presuming to dig freely 
through the piles of engine parts standing immediately 
outside of the shop until he finds pieces which he can 
use to his own advantage. One evidences careful man- 
agement and systematic preparation for emergencies, 
while the other indicates a want of proper supervision. 

We are not a little gratified that this editorial called 
forth discussion. Speaking generally, we feel that any 
discussion which impels exchange of experiences is al- 
ways profitable. 

May, 1905. 


Sand Houses and Appliances 


HE Erie Railroad uses two different kinds of 
sand driers and houses. Fig. 1 shows their 
steam drier. This consists of three hoppers 
joined in one continuous bin. The inside of 
the hopper is filled with steam pipes. As the 
wet sand, which is dumped or shoveled into 
the top, works its way downward it comes in 
contact with the hot steam pipes which dries 
it, and slowly drops into the hopper beneath. 
From the hopper it drops into the funnel, which is shown 
in detail in Fig. 7. The bottom of this funnel is con- 
nected to a pipe which leads into an air pipe. When air 

is passed through this pipe it takes the sand like an in- 
jector takes water and deposits it in the sand bin in the 

The other sand drier in use consists of a stove, as 
shown in Fig. 3. In this the sand is shoveled in the 
hood around the stove. As the sand dries it drops out 
through the holes in the iron ring at the bottom. This 
stove is usually placed over a funnel-shaped receptacle. 
The receptacle has a sieve in it to catch any gravel that 
may be in the sand. Below the receptacle and joined to 
it is a reservoir, the opening to which is controlled by a 
handle near the stove. This arrangement works as fol- 

Fig. 1 — Erie Railroad Steam Sand Drier. 

^F/oor /L//?e 



ir /nkt 




Sand 5/e/ofor 

I gygzzl 

So/id Dryer 

Fig. 3 — Erie Railroad Stove Sand Drier and Elevating Drum. 



May, 1905. 

May, 1905. 



Fig. 7 — Erie Railroad 
Hopper for Sand 

Fig. 6 — Erie Railroad Sand 
Valve in Storage Bin. 

lows: Sand is allowed to fill the reservoir by gravity; 
then the valve at the top is closed and the air pressure 
turned on. This pressure forces the sand through the 
pipe at the bottom and elevates it to the sand bin. 

The two kinds of sand houses in use are shown in Figs. 
2 and 4. In Fig. 2 the wet sand is stored at the left, 
where it is easily shoveled from cars through the open- 
ings at the side. From this it is moved in wheelbarrows 
to the drying room alongside. The drying room may 
have either of the driers described above. Fig. 2 shows 

the steam drier and boiler. The storage bin is directly 
above the drying room. 

Fig. 4 shows a narrow sand tower for use when there 
is litte room for spreading the tracks. In this case the 
drying and wet sand rooms may be placed at any conven- 
ient point. 

Fig. 6 shows the sand valve in the storage bin. This 
consists of a circular cast iron plate with a hole at one 
side and fastened in the middle by a bolt. This circular 
disk is revolved to open the valve. 

We are indebted to Mr. G. W. Wilden, mechanical 
superintendent, for the above information. 

The Cincinnati Northern uses two kinds of sand ele- 
vators. Figs. 8, 9 and 10 show one form. In this sand 
is stored in a bin as shown in Fig. 9, from which it is 
transferred into a steam drier as shown in Fig. 10. This 
has two sets of netting at the bottom to remove pebbles, 
etc. After the sand gets through the second netting it 
drops into a bin which slopes under a bucket elevator. 
The elevator drops the sand into the storage bin directly 
above the drier. 

Fig. 4 — Erie Railroad Sand Tower. 

Fig. 5 — Erie Railroad Sand Stove and Elevating 




May,. 1905. 

Norf/i £/7c/ f/eraf/o/? 

Fig. 8 — Cincinnati Northern — 
Elevation of Sand House. 

Fig. 9 — Cincinnati Northern — Plan of Sand House. 

The other form of elevator is shown in Fig. 1 1. This 
device is automatic in operation and works as follows : 

The sand is dried in any suitable drier and delivered to 
drum by gravity. The hoist consists of a drum and a 
system of weights and levers. The drum shown in Fig. 
1 1 will hold 800 lbs. of dry sand, and the weights are ad- 
justed to balance the drum when half full of sand, so 
when the drum is full it is 400 lbs. heavier than the 
weights, and when empty the weights are 400 lbs. heavier 
than the drum. A 2-in. pipe extends straight up from 
bottom of drum to top of storage bin in sand house tower, 
securely fastened to this pipe, and 1^2 inches below the 


casting on top of drum is a half rubber ball which forms 
an air-tight joint when drum settles down on it, the pipe 
being securely fastened at the top with a spring rigging 
not shown in cut. The nipple on bottom of drier is 4^ 
inches inside, which a i-in. space allowed the 2-in. pipe 
loose fit on nipple, so the drum is free to move up and 
down. A ^2 -in. nipple is screwed into top of drum, to 
which is fastened an air hose, the valve of which is con- 
nected to lever by rod. On each of the levers is a weight 
adjuster, which is so adjusted with a spring and screw 
that the drum is held in extreme position, either up or 
for sand to pass into drum. The casting on drum is a 
down, until it is either full or empty. 

In operation the drum is held in its uppermost position 
by the weights, which give maximum opening for sand, 
and also holds the air valve closed. When the drum is 

Fig. io^Cincinnati Northern Sand Drier. 

Fig. 12 — Cincinnati Northern — Detail of Sand 
Valve in Tower. 

May, 1905. 




Fig. 11 — Cincinnati Northern — Automatic Sand Elevator. 

full it drops down on the rubber ball, making an air-tight 
joint at sand inlet, and at the same time the outer end 
of lever moving upward opens the air valve, letting the 
air into top of drum, which forces the sand up through 
the 2-in. pipe into storage bin. When the drum is empty 
the weights pull the levers down, raising the drum, open- 
ing sand inlet and closing air valve, thus making it prac- 
tically automatic. 

The sand valve used in the storage bin is shown in 
Fig. 12. This has a slide which pulls out to open the 

We are indebted to Mr. A. H. Watts, master mechanic, 
for the above illustrations and description. 

The plan and elevation of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern are shown in Fig. 13. The wet sand storage bin 
is not shown in the engravings, but may be placed at 
either end of the drying room. The sand is dried in 
stoves as shown in Fig. 16. These are placed over hop- 
pers as shown in Fig. 15. The hoppers have a screen 
near the bottom to remove any pebbles that may be in the 


sand. When the sand falls through the screen it goes 
into the opening as shown in Fig. 14. 

The elevating device is automatic. The valve at the 
top of the reservoir consists of a rubber ball fastened to 
a rod which connects to a piston in a cylinder above. 
When the reservoir is full of sand the operator turns on 
the air in pipe marked to operating lever. This admits 
the pressure on the bottom side of the piston and raises it, 
closing the valve in the reservoir. When the valve is 
closed the piston uncovers the opening in the cylinder 
leading down to the reservoir. The sand is then forced 
through the 2-in. W. I. pipe to the storage bin atDve. 


Sand Valve in Tower. 

Fig. 16 — L. S. & M. S. — Sand Stove. 



May, 1905. 

S. Plan and Elevation of Sand 

When the operating valve is closed the pressure beneath 
the piston is released and a spring forces the piston down, 
opening the valve for admitting more sand to the res- 

The sand valve for the storage bin is shown in Fig. 17. 
It is controlled by a rope from below. It opens by remov- 
ing the bucket-shaped casting from beneath the opening 
in the outlet. 

We are indebted to Messrs. H. F. Ball and R. B. 
Kendig for the above illustrations. 

The sand house arrangement of the Chicago & North- 
western is shown in Figs. 18, 19 and 20. Fig. 18 shows 
the plan. In this sand is brought into the wet sand bins 
on tracks as shown. These tracks extend up to the sand 
stoves, of which there are three. The sand when dried 

Fig. 14 — L. S. & M. S. Elevating Device. 

in the stoves is allowed to drop on the floor; it is then 
shoveled on screens to remove the pebbles, etc. This ar- 
rangement is shown in elevation at the right of the floor 
plan and also in Fig. 20. The fine sand collects in bins 
below the screen and the pebbles fall on the floor again. 
From this temporary bin the sand goes to a reservoir by 
gravity, and from there by means of an air injector to 
the storage bins above. This injector consists of a large 
pipe tapping into the reservoir and a smaller air pipe pro- 
jecting into the end of the larger pipe. When air is ad- 
mitted under pressure it will create a vacuum, which 
draws the sand into the larger pipe until it comes in con- 
tact with the air jet, when it is forced to the bin above. 

May, 1905. 



- To <Sond House 

Fig. 19 — C. & N. W. Sand Tower. 

Fig. 20 — C. & N. W. — Plan and Elevation of Sand House. 

The sand tower, which is a separate structure, is shown 
in Fig. 19. This is simply a storage bin set on old rails. 
This form of bin can be used where the tracks are fairly 
close together and thus save space in a place where it is 
generally needed badly. 

We are indebted to Mr. H. T. Bentley for the above 

Figures 21 and 22 show one of the types of the Clark 

"Perfect" sand driers, which are manufactured by the 

Parkhurst & Wilkinson Company, of Chicago. This sand 

drier received the premium as the best sand drier at the 
National Exposition of Railway Appliances, and it is in 

extensive use not only throughout the United States but 
in Canada, Europe and South America. These driers are 
built in the fashion of an hour glass, the wet sand being 
shoveled against the stove and as it dries it is allowed to 
run out through apertures in the perforated ring which 
surrounds the bottom of the hopper. The amount of sand 
that will pass through this machine in a given time ra. 
variable and depends largely upon the conditions under 
which it is used ; that is to say, how wet the sand is when 

Fig. 21 — Cross Section of Clark's Sand Drier. 

Fig. 22 — Exterior View of Clark's Sand Drier. 



May, 1905. 

Fig. 18 — C. & N. W.— Plan of Sand House. 

Fig. 15 — L. S. & M. S. — Sand Hopper and Elevat- 
ing Drum. 

it is put in the hopper and also the intensity of the fire 
maintained in the stove. The furnace is arranged to use 
any kind of solid fuel such as hard or soft coal or wood. 
These driers are for use with clear sand only, as earth or 
clay will merely bake and will not discharge itself from 
the machine. These driers are claimed to be the best ever 
put upon the market for preparing sand for use on loco- 
motives and street cars. 

«» ♦» 

Stealing Locomotive Repair Parts 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

In the January issue of Railway Master Mechanic I 
note your objection to "robbing" engines, as it were, of 
parts for other engines in shop undergoing repairs and 
your statement recommending this practice to supply run- 
ning repair parts. We all have our opinions on these 
matters and an expression of the various said opinions 

generally has good results. The question had arisen with 
me : Where are we going to draw the line on running re- 
pairs ? I believe it to be generally conceded that where a 
running engine requires a minor small part that the bet- 
ter method of obtaining an exact duplicate is to remove 
it from another engine of the same class which might be 
awaiting or undergoing extensive repairs. This method 
can be used as to the smaller parts and up to and includ- 
ing parts of large dimensions. We will take for an in- 
stance that an engine in service has a broken driving 
wheel which has reached a dangerous point, the engine 
being in fairly good condition otherwise ; there is an en- 
gine in shop of the same class getting new side sheets, 
new cylinders or some equally heavy repairs ; is it not the 
proper thing to do, to use this engine's wheels, boxes and 
rods rather than to hold engine until a new pair of wheels 
can be gotten ready to replace the broken ones? 

I have seen this thing done and done so quickly that a 
disabled engine was out of service only twenty-four hours, 
missing one round-trip. We might go farther in this re- 
gard of heavy running repairs, using a pair of cylinders, 
say, taking into consideration of course that cylinders re- 
quired were detached from their original boiler on ac- 
count of putting on new smoke box. While I am not 
agreeing with your opinion expressed in the issue men- 
tioned in any way only that it is good practice to "rob" 
the necessary parts to keep engines in service. I would 
like to ask: Where will you draw the line? 

As to taking parts from one engine for another of the 
same class in shop, if this was to be prohibited in many 
shops, the output of repaired locomotives would be de- 
creased very considerably. 

A very large proportion of railway shops do not have 
a foundry in connection with the local plant and are de- 
pendent upon monthly requisitions for their stock of cast- 
ings ; possibly a telegram will hurry one of these requisi- 
tions so that it will be delivered within a month, other- 
wise, perhaps three months will elapse before the required 
material is in sight (the delay many times being due to 

May, 1905. 



lack of co-operative effort between the stores and me- 
chanical departments). I am sure, Mr. Editor, that you 
will not recommend holding an engine in shop three 
months waiting for a driving box, when there are several 
engines in shop of the same class, some of them requiring 
heavy repairs. " You, no doubt, have seen an instance in 
your experience similar to the following : An engine ar- 
rives in the night with a damaged pilot, which will re- 
quire two days' labor to repair, this engine is due to 
leave in three or four hours and the night force haven't 
the time to romove a pilot from another engine and re- 
apply to engine mentioned, but they go into the shop and 
find one which is ready to put onto an engine due to 
leave shop the following day, they not caring anything 
about the shop dates take and use the pilot. Now is it not 
the proper method to pursue for the gang foreman who 
has lost the pilot to immediately remove 'one from an en- 
gine in shop and apply to the completed engine rather 
than to hold engine until repairs are made to the one re- 
moved in roundhouse? Our first railway education 
teaches us to keep the rolling stock in earning condition. 
Where is the difference whether we keep the machine as 
a whole in service, or whether when the machine is dis- 
abled we keep its detail parts in service by applying to 
another engine? You mention an instance which has oc- 
curred, and does occur at present, that of employes of a 
railway shop taking a part from one engine and applying 
it to another without consulting any one in authority. 
This would denote, should say, a very careless manage- 
ment on the part of the gang foreman. If he is a good 
gang foreman he will see the engine being robbed in his 
own gang and other gang foremen will likewise see if 
another gang is taking material from their respective 


I dare say that there will be more difficulty in keeping 
an engine intact where there is a disposition to prevent 
robbing than there will be where it is a customary prac- 
tice, as in the former case the employe encouraged by 
some gang foreman will actually steal the article desired 
and in the latter will generally make a request for the 
required piece, thus allowing the losing gang foreman 
an opportunity to protect himself by immediately making 
requisition for a duplicate. I know of one shop in par- 
ticular where this idea of so-called robbing is worked out 
successfully, systematically, very seldom causing a delay 
at any point ; in fact, assisting the output yery materially. 
This shop is on a trunk line having as few as seventy- 
eight different classes of engines. These several classes 
are from time to time transferred from one division to 
another, for some reason known only to the higher au- 
thorities, thus changing their shopping terminal. In this 
case it would be a very unbusiness-like arrangement to 
keep in stock, at the various repair shops, material for all 
of these classes of engines, consequently material only for 
the classes in use generally at these points is carried in 
any great amount. Frequently some of the recently re- 
ceived class need overhauling before going into service 
again, there is not material in stock to make the necessary 
repairs and none other within from one to three months' 

sight; at this time this system mentioned comes into use 
and very nicely, too. The machine foreman makes all 
requisitions for castings for locomotive repairs, hence "it 
is up to him", so to speak, to furnish them to the gang 
foreman upon their order. We will take for an instance 
that a back cylinder head is needed for Engine 850, Class 
Gi, the gang foreman issues an order to machine foreman 
for this head, the stock of these, however, has become 
depleted until only one remains, this one must not be 
taken for shop use as the roundhouse may call for it at 
any moment; there is another Gi engine in shop for new 
flue sheet or some equally heavy job, the cylinder head 
is removed from this engine and placed on Engine 850, 
the gang foreman who had furnished the head accepted 
the order issued by the other gang foreman, which he re- 
tains for reference and immediately issued another order 
to machine foreman similar to the following, "Please fur- 
nish one back cylinder head for Engine , and charge 

to Engine 850." Engine 850 is due out of shop in three 

days and Engine is not due out for three weeks, 

nevertheless the assistance given to the 850 is considerable 
and perhaps uncomputable. 

We would not think it good policy to hold an engine 
in shop awaiting repairs to injectors, headlight or air 
pump, which were removed from it upon arrival in shop, 
wherein lies the difference between these detail parts and 
driving boxes, springs, shoes and wedges, etc., as far as 
interchange is concerned. 

Another item : Some shops have what is termed a 
"boneyard," that is, a storage track for engines waiting 
shop room ; the collection at times will contain a locomo- 
tive upon which there is a doubt as to whether it will be 
repaired at this shop or at some other shop having better 
facilities to perform the particular class of repairs needed ; 
occasionally the negotiations necessary will consume sev- 
eral months' time. Is it not proper to rob this engine of 
everything movable, if need be, as the gang foreman will, 
upon the actual shopping of the engine, have ample time 
to make requisition for everything required to again make 
the engine complete? I am of the opinion that where 
the right spirit of co-operation exists among the shop 
foremen that this matter of robbing can be taken care 
of very satisfactorily. E. O. Palmer. 

♦ * » 

The Gasoline- Electric Motor Car 

Built by F. M. Hicks & Co. 

ONE of the latest developments in electric traction 
has recently been completed in the form of a gaso- 
line-electric motor car, at the locomotive and car shops 
of F. M. Hicks & Co., Chicago Heights, 111. This car, 
which was designed and built for the St. Joseph Valley 
Traction Company, represents the most modern and scien- 
tific type of car construction. 

The problem of framing the car was carefully carried 
through to provide sufficient strength for the concen- 
trated loads upon the floor, and at the same time to reduce 
the number of redundant members to a minimum. Two, 
6-inch, fourteen and three-fluarter pound I-beams serve 



May, 1905. 

Hicks Gasoline-Electric Motor Car. 

as the center sills. The two side sills are 5 ins. x 8 ins. 
Yllqw Pine. There are four intermediate sills of 4 ins. x 
6^ ins. Yellow Pine, making a total of eight sills, to con- 
stitute the longitudinal under-framing. The transverse 
under-framing consists of the two end-sills 8 ins. x 12 ins. 
oak, two transoms, each constructed of two wrought iron 
plates, V/t. ins. thick and 10 ins. wide, also an abundance 
of floor joists 2j4 ins. x 6]/ 2 ins. The under-framing is 
amply tied with transverse, wrought iron tie rods, % in. 
in diameter. The floor is constructed of two thicknesses 
of 24-in. pine, separated by a layer of Neponset paper. 
The side framing is constructed extra heavy and rein- 
forced by continuous blocking. Although the under 
framing is designed to carry its load with a large factor 
of safety, additional provision has been made to transmit 
stresses, due to excessive bending movements upon the 
under-framing, to heavy wrought iron car lines which 
serve as trusses across the deck of the car. The body 
is trussed by two 1^2 -in. rods with i^4-in. ends. The 
structure as a whole is so perfectly and compactly built 
that all vibration is practically eliminated. 

The car is divided into two compartments, an engine 
room and a baggage room, being 34 ft. in length over 
end sills, and 9 ft. 8 ins. in width over side sills. The 
external appearance is very neat. It is finished in Pull- 
man standard color with gold striping and lettering. The 
trucks are the heaviest design of street railway trucks 
with 33-in. wheels. • I 

The motive power is derived from a four cylinder 
gasoline engine of the marine type, built by the Marinette 
Gas Engine Company. Under factory tests, this particu- 
lar engine developed 70 dynamometric horse power at 325 
revolutions per minute, with a consumption of one pint 
of gasoline per horse-power hour. The cylinder jacket 
water is kept in constant circulation by means of a rotary 
pump, belted to a pulley on the engine shaft. The cool- 
ing of the jacket water is effected by circulation through 
800 ft. of %-in. automobile radiator pipe, and thence 
through a supply tank of 190 gallons capacity. The radia- 
tion of heat from the radiator is rendered more effective 
by a blast from two 42-in. fans revolving in a horizontal 
plane, at the rate of 300 revolutions per minute, directly 



Floor Plan Hicks Gasoline-Electric Motor Car. 

May, 1905. 



Interior of Hicks Gasoline-Electric Motor Car. 

under the radiator and exhausting the air through venti- 
lators in the upper deck. 

The engine is direct connected to a Sprague Electric 
Company 50 k. w., 250 volt, direct current generator 
which supplies current to four 35 h. p. motors, mounted 
upon the trucks. To provide for the heavy load which 
is thrown upon the generator, for an instant, due to ac- 
celerating the car in starting, a battery of 120 chloride ac- 
cumulators were installed. The normal rating of each 
cell is 2.08 volts and the 120 cells connected in series, 
give a difference of potential of 249.6 volts at the termi- 
nals of the battery. The cells are placed in well venti- 
lated lockers, painted internally with asphaltum paint. 
The gases arising from the battery are drawn from the 
lockers and exhausted through the ventilators by the 
previously mentioned fans. 

The car requires 140 amperes current for ordinary run- 
ning, which allows 15 amperes for charging the batteries. 
For starting the car on a heavy grade the storage bat- 
teries furnish 300 amperes. 

The leads for the battery are carried to the switch 
board, which is of special design, and there connected in 
multiple with the generator leads to the main controller 
leads. In this method of connection it is very evident 
that when a heavy pull comes upon the generator and its 
voltage drops below that of the battery, the load is divided 
between them, and vice versa, when the load does not 
require the total output of the generator, the excess cur- 
rent is utilized in charging the battery. Circuit breakers 
capable of adjustment for a series of amperages, are con- 
nected in the battery and generator leads to the switch 
board, to obviate the necessity of replacing blown out 

In addition to the traction load, the generator supplies 
current for a four h. p. motor compressor connected with 
the air brake system ; current for lighting purposes and 
for small storage battery used in the gas engine ignition. 

The car is equipped with the National Electric Automatic 
Air Brake System, and also a hand brake rigging. In 
the upper deck, directly above the engine cylinders, are 
two heavy hinged trap doors, through which the cylinder 
heads and pistons may be readily removed. This trap 
door may also be used in fair weather as a means of ven- 
tilating the car. The gasoline supply is carried under- 
neath the car in a heavy galvanized iron tank of 125 gal- 
lons capacity. 

The supply of gasoline to the engine is fed by a 
small reciprocating pump. The supply is always 
greater than that required for the engine and the 
excess gravities back to the reservoir through an 
everflow pipe. 

One of the greatest difficulties to be surmounted in the 
use of a gasoline engine for this particular kind of service, 
is that of starting the engine, since such engines are not 
self starting and one man is usually expected to start them 
alone. In this car two methods for starting have been 
installed ; either of which may be used independent of the 
other. The first method, and the one which will no doubt 
be more generally used, is that of driving the generator 
as a motor from the storage battery until the gasoline 
is working normally through the engine. To accomplish 
this end, the field leads from the generator, instead of 
being run directly to the field rheostat, are led through 
an intermediate switch upon the board. By throwing this 
switch, the field of the generator may be connected with 
the storage battery and fully excited; then by means of 
a single pole, four point switch, connected with a series 
of resistance, current may be gradually introduced to the 
armature, when the generator will start as a motor. As 
soon as the engine takes hold of the load it is only nec- 
essary to throw the field current back under the control 
of the rheostat. 

The second method is that of driving the engine pis- 
tons by compressed air until gasoline . works normally 
through the engine. For this purpose, an air compressor 
is belted to a pulley on the engine shaft. This compres- 
sor has a capacity of 5.9 cubic feet of free air per minute, 
running at 165 revolutions per minute, and maintains a 
pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch in two cylindri- 
cal steel reservoirs. These reservoirs are also connected 
with the reservoirs of the air brake system (where a pres- 
sure of 90 pounds per square inch is maintained) through 
a reducing valve, so that in case the motor compressor 
should become disabled, the air brake system could be 

The mechanical and electrical equipment of this car, all 
of which is representative of the best and most modern 
design, occupies 33 per cent of the floor space of the car 
and aggregates a weight of about 25 tons. It is well 
assured that the car will easily meet the requirements for 
which it was designed, i. e., for efficient interurban ser- 
vice. Although no efficiency test has yet been made, a 
trial trip through the switch yards at the shop demon- 
strated the fact that 25 miles per hour could be attained 
with ease. 



May, 1905. 



Gas engine 18,000 

Generator ..'. 6,000 

Storage Battery 9,250 

Motors 10,000 

Body and trucks 33,6oo 

Gasoline tank, full 2,000 

Jacket, water and tank 2,000 

Miscellaneous 4,000 

Total, approximately 85,650 

♦ » » 

New Angus Shops, Canadian Pacific Railway--II. 


The machines are located in large groups, each ar- 
ranged for a certain class of work. The machines for 
wheel work are located at the end of the shop nearest the 
midway. There is a wheel storage track alongside of the 
central supply track. Alongside of this track on the erect- 
ing side are five wheel lathes and the quartering machines. 
The machine shop traveling crane covers this space and 
is used for placing the wheels in and out of the machines. 
The wheel press is located at the end of the building in 
line with the lathes. This press is served by a jib crane 
fastened to a steel column, and has a small electric chain 
hoist. The open space. in front of the press is used for 
the setting. All the machines for driving and truck 
wheels, such as boring mills, axle lathes, milling machines, 
etc., are located on the other side of the central supply 

The next group of machines is for cylinders, trucks, 
and driving" box fittings. There is a clear floor space for 
some distance, with lateral tracks and numerous jib 
cranes, supporting air hoists used for repairing engine 
trucks. The large cylinder planer and cylinder boring 
machine are placed in line with the wheel lathes and are 
served by the shop crane. Across the track are located 
machines for driving box fittings. The cleaning vats are 
placed in an addition just outside of the machine shop 

The next machines are the large frame planer, triple 
head frame slotter and multiple spindle frame drill. Across 
the track from these are machines for cross head and pis- 
ton work, as well as machines for lighter frame work. 

from 115.) 

The next group of machines consists of planers, slotters, 
milling machines, etc., for rod work. There are also a 
number of benches for fitting in this group. There are a 
large number of jib cranes in this section. The next group 
of machines are used for valve motion and general ma- 
chine shop work. Following these are the machines and 
floor space for brake and spring work, scale repairs, air- 
brake work and steam pipe fitting. 

The rest of the main floor of the machine side is taken 
up with machines for boiler work. The first part has the 
flue shops, with the regulation machines and furnaces, 
and a chain wet flue rattler. The latter machine is of in- 
terest on account of the small amount of time required in 
changing flues. This feat has been accomplished in six 
minutes. The other boiler shop machines are arranged 
on either side of the central track to the end of the build- 
ing and include a number of hydraulic punches and shears 
as well as those driven by motors. This section has a 
large number of jib cranes with chain hoists, driven by 
air motors. The hydraulic pump and accumulator are lo- 
cated in the corner on this side of the building. The 
hydraulic riveters, of which there are two, one with 17 ft. 
gap and one of 6, are located at this end on the erecting 
side, where fitting up boilers and tank work is done. 

In the gallery are located the small machines of all 
kinds for light work, including a tin shop, bolt department, 
brass work, tool work, etc. 

There are three alternating-current and one direct-cur- 
rent circuits from the power house entering the machine 
shop. Each circuit conies to a large distributing board, 






Group 55 

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ni n M Bench C) C3 fs c=j C3 


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Heating Apparatus 

, Meeting Apparatus 


Fig. 1. — Floor Plan of Locomotive 

May, 1905. 



Fig. 2. — Flue Rattler in Boiler Shop, C. P. R. Shops. 

from which circuits are distributed in the shop. Each of 
these circuits serve approximately 100 h. p. of motor ca- 
pacity. The leads are taken from the distributing board, 
which is located in a gallery, above and outside the ma- 
chine gallery, by three heavy insulated wires, carried on 
porcelain insulators along the roof trusses. The motor 
connections are made directly to these leads at the most 
convenient point. On each lead, just before the motor 
connection is taken off, is located an oil circuit breaker in 
a convenient position. There are no fuses, switches or 
other instruments in this circuit up to> this breaker. The 
leads to the motors are carried through piping down the 
posts or walk to the starting box of the motor. This 
starting box is arranged in the form of a street-railway 
controller, and each notch cuts out resistance as the motor 
gains in speed. There is a no-voltage release at each oil 
circuit breaker. 

The direct current machines, of which there are com- 
paratively few, are taken from a circuit running the full 
length of the building, at the nearest available point. They 
have variable speed controllers and circuit breakers lo- 

p IG _ 3. — Niles Wheel Lathe, C. P. R. Shops. 

cated on each machine. All crane motors are connected 
to this circuit. 

The lighting circuits are taken from the three-phase 
line through transformers to the lighting points. The 
transformers are arranged in pairs, one being connected 
to wires 1 and 2 and the other to wires 2 and 3. These 
transformers change the voltage from 550 volts to no 
volts. The light distributing boards, or panels, contain 
two copper buss bars, from which the several lighting 
circuits are carried through fuses and switches. Each 
of these small circuits carries not more than one enclosed 
are or 12 incandescent lights. There are 15 transform- 
ers in the locomotive shop and 29 lighting panels. The 
lighting in the erecting shop is mostly by arcs hung 
from the roof trusses and with incandescents along the 
side walls, while that in the machine shop is practically 
by incandescent lights. There are plug receptacles lo- 
cated at short distances in all pits and along the posts 
as well as at benches and any other place where they may 
possibly be needed. The electrical distribution is clearly 
shown in the accompanying diagram. 

n *« OfOI/PSS emu n a tit 

rise ting apparatus 

Shop, C. P. R. Shops 



May, 1905. 

List of Tools in Locomotive Shops 


No. Group No. 1: 

134 90-in. boring machine. 
Group No. la: 

51-in. boring mill. 
Group No.. 2: 
51-in. boring mill. 
Group No. 4: 
122 Car wheel boring machine. 
121 64-in. boring machine. 
Group No. 5: 
28 32-in. Engine lathe. 

8 84-in. boring mill. 
145 Emery wheel. 

Group No. 7: 

139 4-ft. x 4-ft. x 12-ft. planer. 
Group .No. 6: 

137 4.ft. x 4-ft. x 14-ft. horizontal mill- 
ing machine. 
Group No. 8: 

21 30-in. chuck lathe. 

135 37-in. boring mill. 
58 12-in. shaper. 

140 24-in. shaper. 

42 2-ft. x 2-ft. x 8-ft. planer. 

5 Axle lathe. 

6 Axle lathe. 
234 Axle lathe. 

Group No. 8a: 

14 48-in. radial drill. 
287 50-in. drill. 

34 14-in. •slotter. 

141 20-in. slotter. 
Group No. 3: 

132 90-in. wheel lathe. 
Group No. 9: 

3 80-in. wheel lathe. 

9 Quartering machine. 
Group No. 10: 

2 84-in. wheel lathe. 
1 84-in. wheel lathe. 

4 60-in. wheel lathe. 
Group No. 11: 

158 72-in. x 72-in. x 22-ft. planer. 

Group No. 12: 
155 Cylinder boring machine. 

Group No. 14: 

15 6-ft. radial drill. 
Group No. 13: 

157 9-ft. radial drill. 
Group No. 15: 
36 14-in. slotter. 
8 5-ft. x 5-ft. x 8-ft. planer. 

16 Cylinder boring machine. 
Croup No. 16: 

150 60-in. boring mill. 
Group No. 17: 

22 30-in. lathe. 

23 24-in. lathe. 
193 36-in. lathe. 

30 24-in. lathe. 

147 36-in. lathe. 

65 24-in. lathe. 

Group No. 18: 

162 6-ft. x 6-ft. x 32-ft. frame planer. 

Group No. 19: 

164 Frame drill. 
Group No. 20: 

146 28-in. lathe. 
25 32-in. lathe. 
32 30-in. lathe. 

43 2-ft. x 2-ft. x 8-ft. planer. 
52 36-in. drill. 

45 24-in. drill. 
24 24-in. drill. 

Group No. 21: 

18 4-ft. x 4-ft. x 25-ft. frame planer. 
20 Frame slotter, three heads. 

11 36-in. and 72-in. lathe. 
188 Boring mill. 

67 Vertical milling machine. 
136 Cotter drill. 

49 6-ft. radial drill. 
149 5-in. turret lathe. 

Group No. 22: 

46 24-in. planer. 

165 40-in. drill. 
Group No. 23: 

163 Frame slotter, three heads. 

Group No. 24: 
284 48-in. double planer. 

Group No. 25: 
251 24-in. shaper. 

Group No. 26: 
123 Boring mill. 
178 Side rod borer. 

Group No. 28: 

44 2-ft. x 2-ft. x 11-ft. planer. 

50 Cotter drill. 

166 40-in. drill. 
Group No. 29: 

184 16-in. slotter. 

175 24-in. shaper. 

176 24-in. shaper. 

50 Two spindle drill. 

19 Double slotter. 
Group No. 30: 

174 30-in. boring machine. 
66 20-in. planer. 

61 24-in. shaper. 
60 12-in. shaper. 

63 24-in. lathe. 

64 20-in. lathe. 

62 16-in. lathe. 
72 Small drill. 

Group No. 31: 

80 23-in. lathe. 
206 24-in. lathe. 
204 30-in. lathe. 
210 18-in. 'lathe. 
225 16-in. shaper. 

95 20-in. vertical drill. 

96 20-in. vertical drill. 

81 18-in. lathe. 

78 18-in. lathe. 

79 18-in. lathe. 
224 24-in. shaper. 

92 Circular shaper. 
86 Single drill. 
Group No. 32: 
84 2-ft. x 2-ft. x 6-ft. planer. 
83 2-ft. x 2-ft. x 5-ft. planer. 

124 24iu. lathe. 

87 Single drill. 

88 Single drill. 
183 Slotter. 

231 36-in. vertical drill. 
Group No. 33: 

217 Horizontal boring machine, 3-in. bar. 
33 Horizontal boring machine, 2-in. bar. 
93 10-in. shaper. 

182 Turret lathe. 

238 Centering machine. 

Group No. 34: 
231 Universal grinder. 
236 Buffing wheel, 30-in. x 8-in. 
254 Double emery wheel. 
227 Link grinder. 
203 Twist drill grinder. 

Group No. 36: 
17 4V 2 -ft. x 4%-ft. x 20-ft. planer. 

Group No. 35: 
10 36-in. lathe. 

218 42-in. boring mill. 
Group No. 37: 

29 21-in. lathe. 
190 20-in. lathe. 

59 Double shaper, 12-in. stroke. 
192 24-in. lathe. 

48 6-ft. radial drill. 
Group No. 38: 

168 36-in. drill. 

169 36-in. drill. 

57 Double spindle drill. 

38 10-in. slotter. 

39 10-in. slotter. 
37 12-in. slotter. 

Group No. 39: 
26 24-in. lathe. 
189 24-in. x 23-ft. lathe. 
154 8-ft. boring mill. 
Group No. 40: 
18-in. lathe. 
55 36-in. drill. 
143 45-in. drill. 
235 4-in. pipe threading machine. 

Emery wheel. 
286 4-in. pipe threading machine. 
285 10-in. pipe threading machine. 

Group No. 39a: 
235 Face grinder. 

200 Double buffer. 

197 Buffing belt. 

198 Grindstone. 

199 Grindstone. 
179 Disc grinder. 

201 Double emery wheel. 
71 Double emery wheel. 

Flue cutter. 
Flue cutter. 
Welding machine. 
Welding machine. 
Group No. 82: 

405 Mudring drill. 
402 Drill. 

406 Double drill. 

407 Plate planer. 

418 Double screAV machine. 
414 Small bending rolls. 

Group No. 82a: 
411 Small punch. 

May, 1905. 



413 Circular shear. 

Group No. 85: 
419 Double punch and shear. 

Group No. 86: 
410 Punch and shear. 

Group No. 80c: 

403 Double drilling and milling machine. 

404 Double drill. 
Group No. 81: 

412 Horizontal punch. 
Group No. 80b: 

427 Three spindle drill and milling ma- 


Group No. 84: 
426 Boiler plate planer. 

Group No. 83: 
415 Large bending rolls. 

Group No. 80a: 
433 Mudring drill. 

Group No. 80: 

428 36-in. drill. 
Group No. 58: 

117 Nut facer. 

118 Nut facer. 

116 14-in. stud lathe. 

113 12-in. bolt lathe. 
112 12-in. bolt lathe. 

119 Centering machine. 
273 Bolt lathe. 

277 Triple screwing machine. 

269 Bolt lathe. 

270 Bolt lathe. 

271 Bolt lathe. 

272 Bolt lathe. 

114 12-in. bolt lathe. 

115 12-in. bolt lathe. 
Group No. 59: 


Tinsmith rolls. 


Nut facer. 


Small drill. 


Cutting off saw. 



Group No. 52: 




6-in. emery wheel. 





Group No. 57: 




2-in. x 24-in. turret lathe. 


2-in. x 24-in. turret lathe. 

Group No. 54: 


2-in. x 24-in. turret lathe. 


14-in. speed lathe. 


2-in. x 24-in. turret lathe. 


16-in. turret lathe. 


2-in. x 24-in. turret lathe. 


16-in. turret lathe. 


Bolt lathe. 


Turret lathe. 


Nut facer, 1-in. 


Four-spindle drill. 

Group No. 56: 


14-in. speed lathe. 


20-in. lathe. 


14-in. speed lathe. 


16-in. lathe. 


Turret lathe. 


Small lathe. 


Iroup No. 53: 


Small lathe. 


16-in. turret lathe. 


Small lathe. 


Turret lathe. 


Small lathe. 


Single drill. 


Small lathe. 


Cock grinder. 


Small lathe. 

Group No. 51: 


Small lathe. 


16-in. chuck lathe. 


Small lathe. 


Turret lathe. 


Small lathe. 


22-in. engine lathe 


Universal milling machine. 


20-in. engine lathe. 

Group No. 55: 


14-in. engine lathe. 


Single drill. 


Milling machine. 


4-in. double shaper. 


Milling machine. 


Small lathe. 


26-in. lathe. 


Small lathe. 


23-in, turret lathe. 


18-in. Universal grinder. 


Turret lathe. 


Universal grinder. 


Turret lathe. 


Single drill. 


17-in. turret lathe. 


Universal cutter and reamer grinder. 


Turret lathe. 


Universal miller. 


Turret lathe. 


Small lathe. 

(To be continued.) 


14-in. lathe. 

The Ridgway Boring and Turning Mill 

A BORING mill which is typical of the * character 
product to be brought out by the Ridgway Ma- 
chine Tool Company, Ridgway, Pa., was the first tool 
to be produced by this new company. It is a machine 
built essentially for high duty, and is designed and con- 
structed to meet every requirement of the present day 
need for rapid production, as it utilizes to their fullest 
capacity the modern high duty tool steels. The massive 
proportions and the structural features which impart to 
it greatest rigidity are plainly shown by the accompany- 
ing illustrations. The machine was built with a view of 
combining the very highest degree of rapidity with ac- 
curacy, and the results at the works of its purchase, 
where it was shipped several weeks ago, stamp it as a 
complete success. 

As will be noted from the engravings, the mill is of 
the extension type. Its swing with the upright in the 
forward position is 10 ft. 8 ins., while with the hous- 
ings moved backward to their extreme position the 
machine has a swing capacity of 16 feet 4 inches. The 
greatest height over the table is 5 feet 2 inches to the 
bottom of the tool holder and 5 feet 10 inches to the 

cross rail. The bed, which is of box form throughout, 
is 23 inches deep, and the table is 10 feet in diameter, 10 
inches deep at the edge and 13 inches deep in the center. 
It is supported on a circular track of large diameter and 
wide face, which, is so constructed that the bearing sur- 
face is immersed in oil. The spindle is carried in two^ 
bearings, which are placed wide apart to insure stability. 
Each bearing is fitted with a split taper bushing for 
taking up wear. A foot step is provided at the lower 
end of the spindle for raising the table off the circular 
track when it is desired to operate the mill at high speeds. 

The raising and lowering of the table are performed 
by means of the wrench shown directly under the table 
in Fig. 1. This it will be noted is in a very convenient 
position, making it possible for the operator to quickly 
change the machine as desired for either rapid or slow 
feeds. The table driving gear ring is cut in high carbon 
rolled steel. 

The structural features of the machine which are most 
apparent give it rigidity to stamp up under any strain 
that may be placed upon it, but with all this massiveness 
of design the machine is not unwieldly. On the other 



May, 1905. 

Fig. 1. — Ridgway Boring Machine. 

hand, it is so ingeniously fitted with power movements 
and controlling apparatus located at the proper place that 
the manipulation of all movements is most easily and 
quickly accomplished. All Of the principal movements, 
including those on the extension bar, have rapid power 

The machine is driven by a 30 horse-power variable 
speed motor of 4 to 1 range, having 10 speeds. By 
means of mechanical changes 30 table speeds are obtain- 
able in correct geometrical progressions, ranging from a 
maximum of 18.75 revolutions per minute, equaling 25 
feet on 6 inches diameter, to a minimum of 0.32 revolu- 
tions per minute, equaling 16 feet on 16 feet diameter. 

All of the speed changes are made by two parallel 
vertical levers, shown on the side of the mill in the illus- 
trations. These it will be noted are in a very handy posi- 
tion for the operator. They are made interlocking by 
a very clever device. It will be observed that they move 
parallel with the bed, and each half has a latch lever 
which moves a latch pin running through the main lever 

and entering a hole in the casting behind it or into a 
groove in the round sliding bar which carries the other 
grooves past its pin so that the other lever must remain 

The right hand lever has three locking positions, while 
the one at the left has two. With the interlocking device, 
however, it is impossible to move either one of the levers 
with the other displaced from its neutral position. 

The driving motor, clutches and speed changing gear- 
ing are all placed inside of the bed of the machine below 
the floor line. The approximate maximum power of the 
mill is two simultaneous cuts, each y 2 inch deep with }&- 
inch feed, running 40 feet per minute in steel of about 
80,000 pounds tensile strength. 

The housings, which are of box form, are designed to 
properly carry the stresses imposed, and in practice have 
been proved to afford the great stiffness calculated to 
them theoretically. Their form permits the use of the 
very wide top shelf which takes up the twisting strain 
due to heavy cuts when the cross rail is at its highest 
position and the housings are in the extreme back posi- 
tion. The cross brace to the housings effectively coun- 
teracts the tilting strain under similar conditions to those 
cited above and when taking heavy side cuts. The 
housings are provided with power traverse driven by 
the main motor, and controlled by means of the right 
hand lever, shown at the base of the mill. A pair of 
faced pieces, properly marked with center lines, is pro- 
vided at the front of the housings and base, which, when 
brought together exactly, bring the center of the tool 
holder exactly over the center of the table. 

The cross rail is 31 inches deep and 8 inches thick in 
front of the housings, increasing to 22 inches from face 

Fig. 2. — Ridgway Boring Machine. 

to back in the center. It is held to the 



May, 1905. 



means o v f the, special clamps on the inside edges, which 
avoid transmitting the strains through the sections of 
the rail directly in front of the housing, which is neces- 
sarily the weakest part of the cross rail. There are also 
clamps on the outside edges of the uprights to insure 
the greatest possible rigidity. It is raised and lowered 
by the power furnished by the traverse motor, shown on 
the top of the machine. The elevating gear is controlled 
by means of the lever on the housing and a little below 
the cross rail. The saddles are of solid construction, 
eliminating the use of gibs entirely. They are so de- 
signed that the point of pressure is brought to the lower 
web of the cross rail. 

The heads have 34 inches bearing on the cross rail. 
The guiding surfaces are both on the lower edge of the 
cross rail. This greatly diminishes the cramping of 
action, due to the taking of heavy cuts when the two bars 
are extended below the cross rail. The tool bar is of 
large box section, 7 feet 6 inches long and having a 
travel of 4 feet 1 inch. Each bar is separately counter- 
weighted, one weight being on each end of the cross rail. 
The overhead motor traverses the heads of the cross rail 
and the bars in the heads, independent movement in either 
direction being obtainable by means of the two parallel 
levers shown projecting underneath the cross rail. The 
outer one of these levers controls the feed while the inner 
one manipulates the rapid traverse of the heads. These 
cross rail levers are in duplicate, being located on each 
side of the cross rail. 

Each head has 12 changes of feed, ranging from zero 
to 23^2 inches, and each is entirely independent of the 
other. The machine is designed to be built with either 
positive or friction feed, as desired. The purchaser of 
this particular machine expressly desired a friction feed, 
which is plainly shown. This feed is controlled by 
means of the lever moving on a projecting arm, shown 
near the friction disk. 

The arm carrying the extension head is of large box 
section. It has the unusually large bearing on the cross 
rail of 4 feet. It is of proper length so that the center of 
the tool bar is over the center of the table when the up- 
rights are in their extreme backward position, but as it 
carries a saddle arranged with power feed it is capable 
of operating at any part of a piece of work within the 
maximum capacity of the machine — 16 feet. The saddle 
carries a swivel which permits the boring of a taper hole. 
The weight of the machine is about 102,000 pounds. 

The machine was shipped to the Bucyrus Company, 
South Milwaukee, Wis., where upon arrival Mr. Morgan 
conducted a series of tests as to its capacity. The follow- 
ing low results were obtained : The specifications called 
for 2 cuts ^-inch deep taken simultaneously on high 
tensile steel at the cutting speed of 40 feet per minute, 
1-16 feed on 10-foot diameter work. The machine not 
only fulfilled this test but stood up under cuts ranging 
from y 2 to over 1 inch deep on an irregular steel casting 
at 3-16-inch feed at a cutting speed of 50 feet per minute, 
developing twice the rated capacity of the motor and 

maintaining this speed without any ill effects. It was 
found that few, if any, of the steels tried would stand 
long at this high rate of speed, proving the machine fully 
equal to the modern high speed steels. The chips result- 
ing from this performance constitute one of the most 
remarkable collections of their kind. 

A noteworthy feature of this machine is that it was 
ordered from rough sketches, and the plant had not yet 
been placed in operation or a casting made. From that 
date until the delivery of the mill only seven months 
elapsed, which reflects great credit on Lewis H. Morgan, 
the superintendent and manager of the Ridgway Com- 
pany who, together with F. B. Cockburn, chief engineer, 
designed and produced the machine complete in so short 
a space of time and simultaneously organized and 
equipped the shop in which it was built. 


Grindstone in the Pere Marquette Shops 

THE accompanying cut shows a grindstone and 
frame in the Pere Marquette shops at Grand 
Rapids. The frame is not all in place, as the stone is 
not in permanent position. When completed there 
will be a shield to prevent the discharge of water from 
the stone and an adjustable rest with grooves for 
holding the tool, which will be appreciated by all 
mechanics. The frame is water-tight, has the uni- 

Grindstone in Pere Marquette Shops. 

versal journal box, and the bearings are effectually 
protected from the grit of the stone. The arbor is 
made with flanges and nuts, and so arranged that a 
heavy stone can be hung with as little trouble, and 
held as firmly, as a saw. 

The frame for the stone was furnished by the How- 
ards Iron Works of Buffalo, N. Y. 

1 62 


May, 1905. 

General Scheme of Hydraulic Accumulator. 

Pneumatic Device For Controlling The Quantity of 
Water in a Hydraulic Accumulator 

THE accompanying line drawings illustrate a device 
for controling the quantity of water used in con- 
nection with a hydraulic accumulator. Fig. 1 is a dia- 
gramatic view of the whole arrangement. When the 
acumulator is full it will be at the top and turn a 
handle which cuts the air out of the line leading to the 
pumps and exhaust the air at the same time by means 
of a three-way cock. When the air pressure is relieved 






+ -r- 







Op T. 













Pump Valve Cylinder of Hydraulic Accumulator. 

from beneath the piston shown below the pump valve, 
it will come down and close the throttle valve and thus 
stop the pump. 

When the accumulator is empty it will lower and turn 
the three-way valve, admitting air in the pipe again, 
which raises the piston and starts up the pump in the 
power house. 

Fig. 2 is a detail of the three-way valve used. Fig. 
3 is a detail of the cylinder used in controlling the 
throttle valve, and Fig. 4 has details of levers employed. 

When this system was first installed water pressure 
was employed, but the action was too slow on account of 
the accumulator being too far away from the pump. 
For this reason air was substituted, which necessitated 


3mt/to/rf Comp/e/e £/(/?// f/r 

Details of Hydraulic Accumulator. 

£e cf/ori ofP/vj ova tfou<5/ng 
on /.mc A- A 

May, 1905. 




a cylinder with a piston about 1 inch in diameter 
place of the 4-inch cylinder used with water. 

This device is in use in the Chicago shops of the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway, and we are indebted 
to Mr. R. Quayle and Mr. W. E. Dunham for the draw- 
ings and description. 


Air Pump Rack 

THE accompanying cut shows an air pump rack as 
used in the East Moline shops of the Chicago, 
Rock Island and Pacific Railway. 

On the right is a movable rack for repairing the pumps. 
The pump is fastened to this after which it can be moved 
in any desirable position for the convenience of the work- 

On the left is the testing rack which has a capacity 

Air Pump Rack in Moline Shops. 
of six pumps. The pumps are connected up to steam 
and air pipes and given a test similar to actual practice. 
The racks are served by an air hoist and differential 
chain pulley. 

+ * » 


Mr. R. J. Farrell has resigned as master mechanic 
of the Illinois Southern at Sparta, I'll. 

Mr. W. D. Lowry has been appointed master car 
builder of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, with 
headquarters at Lima, O. 

Mr. Thomas Marshall has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & 
Omaha at St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. H. B. Sutton has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Newton & Northwestern, with head- 
quarters at Boone, la., succeeding Mr. L. L. Collier, 

Mr. J. H. Fulmer has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Schuykill division of the Pennsylvania 

Mr. R. E. Smith, assistant to the general manager 
of the Atlantic Coast Line, has been appointed gen- 
eral superintendent of motive power. 

Mr. Webb C. Ball has been appointed general time 
inspector of the Toledo, St. Louis & Western, with 
headquarters at Cleveland, O. 

Mr. Alexander Kearney has resigned as superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio at 
Pittsburg to accept a position with the Norfolk & 

Mr. J. T. Stafford has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Grand Rapids district of the Pere Mar- 
quette, with headquarters at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Colonel Frederick de Funiak, formerly superintend- 
ent of machinery of the Louisville & Nashville, died 
at his residence in Louisville, Ky., on March 29, at 
the age of 65 years. 

Mr. O. J. Kelly, master mechanic of the Baltimore 
& Ohio at Parkersburg, W. Va., has been transferred 
to Grafton, W. Va., in a similar capacity, to succeed 
Mr. W. S. Galloway, transferred. 

Mr. H. H. Maxwell, formerly assistant engineer of 
motive power of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Jersey 
City, N. J., has been appointed master mechanic, with 
headquarters at Trenton, N. J. 

Mr. E. D. Andrews, formerly road foreman of 
equipment of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at 
Shawnee, Okla., has been appointed master mechanic 
of the El Paso division, with headquarters at Dah- 
hart, Tex. 

Mr. W. D. Lowry has been appointed master car 
builder of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, Chi- 
cago, Cincinnati & Louisville and the Pere Marquette, 
with headquarters at Lima, O. 

Mr. S. C. Graham, formerly master mechanic of the 
Chicago, & Northwestern at Lake City, has been 
transferred to the Ashland division, with headquar- 
ters at Kaukauna, Wis., succeeding Mr. J. F. Fluscher, 
who has been appointed master mechanic of the Sioux 
City division, with headquarters at Sioux City, la. 

Mr. J. A. Driscoll has been appointed roundhouse 
foreman of the Philadelphia & Reading at Cressona, 
Pa., in place of Mr. LI. I. Clouse, resigned. Mr. Joseph 
K. Downs has been appointed roundhouse foreman at 
East Penn Junction, Pa., to succeed Mr. Driscoll. 

Mr. J. E. Gould, who recently resigned as master 
mechanic of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Colorado & 
Nebraska division of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific, with headquarters at Goodland, Kan. 

Mr. Richard F. Whalen, Jr., has been appointed 
foreman of locomotive repairs of the Chicago, Burl- 
ington & Quincy at Hannibal, Mo., in place of Mr. 
W. J. Hoskins, resigned to accept a position as master 
mechanic of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois at Dan- 
ville, 111. 

Mr. O. A. Fisher has been appointed road foreman 
of engines on the Kansas Southern division of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., with headquarters 
at Chanute, Kansas. Mr. Fisher was formerly an en- 
gineer running out of Chicago. 

The following changes are announced on the South- 
ern Railway Co.: Mr. W. S. Murrian is appointed 
master mechanic at Spencer, N. C, vice Mr. J. T. 
Sheahan, who has been transferred to Atlanta, Ga., 



May, 1905. 

vice Mr. S. M. Dolan, resigned. Mr. W. F. Kaderly 
is appointed master mechanic of the Washington di- 
vision, vice Mr. Murrian, transferred. 

«♦ « » 

Anti- Friction Metal 

An interesting feature in the line of anti-friction metals, 
and something which is entirely new, is shown in the half- 
tone reproduction below. 

The particular point of interest lies in the peculiarity of 
crystallization, and forms the chief basis of claims of superi- 
ority which are made by its producers. The photograph rep- 
resents a piece of metal which has been nicked on one side 
and, after being placed in a vise, has been broken off by 
a sharp blow from a heavy hammer. This operation reveals 
a fibrous, stringy mass; the crystals, it will be seen, extend 
perpendicular to the chilling surfaces. The alloy is of tin 
and aluminum base and a remarkable characteristic is that 
these fibers always radiate from the chilling surfaces, re- 
gardless of the number of times reheated, thereby presenting 
the ends and not the sides of the fiber to the sliding friction 

It is well known that in the case of wood and of wrought 
iron the surface exposing the ends of the fiber will stand 
a greater amount of crushing weight and wear than the 
sides of the material. It was for this same principle in an 
alloy that the metallurgist who produced this worked. His 

Anti-Friction Metal. 
efforts extended over a period of twenty years and the result 
is claimed to be all that could be wished. 

To prove the soundness of the theory of resistance to wear 
the composition was given many severe tests which were, 
in all instances, gratifying. Its great toughness and mallea- 
bility combined, it is* claimed, permits it to withstand the 
most severe shocks without becoming brittle or what is or- 
dinarily called "crystallized." 

A close examination of the fractured metal shows it to 
be of so fine and smooth a texture, with no granular matter 
intervening, that it may be said to be a truly chemical com- 

Users of anti-friction metals always experience difficulty 
in remelting and using them over, owing to the grosser met- 
als — those which melt at the lowest point — volatilizing and 
escaping, which leaves the composition harder with each pour- 
ing. The producers of this metal say they have entirely 
overcome this, and that by a perfect combination of metals 
they have secured an alloy which, it might be said, has pro- 
duced — not a new composition— but an entirely new metai 
in itself that will admit of remelting an indefinite number 
of times without becoming hard or harsh or losing any of 
its original properties. 

The characteristics of this metal would make it particu- 
larly desirable for use in linings of driving box and engine 
truck brasses, eccentric straps, cross-head gibs, steam and 
gas engine bearings, ships' bearings, wood working, and all 
kinds of high speed machinery. 

The Buda Foundry & Manufacturing Company of Chicago 
will place this metal on the market, together with some new 
bronzes and a copper-steel composition, the latter being, they 
say, a rediscovery of the lost art of copper hardening. 

This new departure on the part of the Buda Foundry & 
Manufacturing Company, whose former output has been 
largely confined to track supplies, will in the future be made 
an important branch of their increasing business, though it 
will not in any way interfere with their railroad specialties. 
"We were attracted to these metals," said Mr. H. K. Gilbert, 
Secretary of the Buda company, "by the exceptional merits 
which they possess. Thorough tests have convinced us that 
we have in them, something which will be an agreeable sur- 
prise to users of anti-friction alloys, and that they will create 
a great demand for themselves. We are sending out sam- 
ples free to interested persons, and an examination will show 
them to be of unusual interest and value." 


Merritt & Company Lockers 

The accompanying illustration shows the factory of Merritt 
& Co., located at Front and Arch Sts., Camden, N. J., where 
all kinds of expanded metal lockers are manufactured. 

Expanded metal has in itself many advantages over any 
other type of material for open mesh lockers. It supports 
and braces its developing frame, instead of having to be 
supported by the same, consequently the danger inherent in 

Plant of Merrit & Co. 

all wire mesh lockers of disalignment of doors or panels is 
eliminated. Each panel is a single piece of metal, conse- 
quently the mesh cannot be spread apart, and articles ex- 
tracted through large openings so made. Expanded metal, 
being neat and smooth, has all the advantages of wire mesh, 
with none of its weaknesses 

In an experience of many years in locker building, the 
Merritt company have found that no locker will be thor- 
oughly satisfactory which does not combine sanitary quali- 
ties, security to the belongings of the occupant, and dura- 
bility; not only general durability of the main structure, but 
also in all details such as hinges, locks, lock fastenings, etc. 
They have also learned how strong each such part must be 
made and advise careful examination and investigation of 
such details when contemplating the purchase of a locker 
equipment, for upon them largely depends the success, or fail- 
ure of the system. They make lockers of all types and in any 
size, either signle or double tire. 

•» * » 

The Acme White Lead and Color Company 

The accompanying illustrations show the plant of the 
Acme White Lead & Color Works of Detroit, Michigan, to- 
gether with the members of the railway department. 

The Acme White Lead & Color Works is one of the most 
progressive and successful paint and varnish manufacturing 
concerns in the United States. The secret of its wonderful 
growth and unparalleled success is due to the fact that it 
makes but one grade of goods— "Acme Quality"— the best that 
science and modern methods can produce. 

It has over one hundred representatives selling its products 
in every section of the United States. 

May, 1905. 



B. E. Brown, Manager. 

K. J. Bowers, Secretary. 

Works of the Acme White Lead and Color Co. 

Mr. R. C. McIntosh, Eastern 
Representative, N. Y. 

Mr. R. E. Mills, Southwestern 
1 . Representative, St. Louis. 

Mr. H. Y. Deming, Western 
Representative, Chicago. 

1 66 


May, 1905. 

No. 7 Grinding Machine 

The accompanying illustration shows a N. 7 grinding ma- 
chine as manufactured by the J. G. Blount Co., Everett, Mass. 
This machine is of high efficiency, simple in construction and 
operation, strong and heavy. The metal is so arranged as 
to reduce vibration to the lowest point. The bearings are 
large, long and self-oiling. The spindles are of steel, ground 
to size, and the pulleys and collars are pressed on. The 
dimensions of the machine are as follows: 
Size of wheels .24 in. x 4 in. x 2 in. 

can thus be made of such large proportions as to be free from 
slippage under the severest cuts, and obviating the use of 
loose delicate parts, a source or" frequent breakage on most 
other makes of radial drills. A motor of any type may be 
readily attached at any time, connection being made through 
chain, gear or belt. The speed box can be easily interchanged 
with a cone by simply breaking a coupling connection on the 
lower driving shaft of the machine. 

The spindle has- eight changes of speed, ranging from 13 to 
300. in geometrical progression, all immediately available 

Blount Grinder. 

Radial Drill. 

Distance between wheels 35 in. 

Length of bearings 10 in. 

Diameter of spindle in bearings 2% in. 

Diameter of spindle between flanges 2 in. 

Size of spindle cone pulley 7% in. and S 1 ^ in. x 4% in. 

Height from floor to center of spindle 32 in. 

Weight without countershaft About 800 lbs. 

Speed of countershaft 425. 

■» » » 

Three-Foot Arm Combination Radial Drill 

In order to meet the changed conditions and greatly in- 
creased duties now imposed upon machine tools, consequent 
upon recent developments in modern shop practice, the Ameri- 
can Tool Works Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, have completely re- 
designed their entire line of Radial Drills, taking into account 
every condition influencing modern radial work, and every 
point which would tend to increase their efficiency, with the 
result that the new "American" radial is very efficient in its 
capacity for continuous hard service under modern methods, 
and for using high speed twist drills. 

The feeding mechanism on the head provides four distinct 
rates of feed covering a carefully chosen range, in geometrical 
progression, from .007 in. to .041 in. These feeds are all read- 
ily obtained by the simple turning of a dial on the feed box 
until the desired feed, indexed thereon, comes opposite a fixed 
pointer. This method of feed change is by far the simplest 
yet devised, as it requires no reference to index plates and 
subsequent handling of levers. The all-gear feeds, when 
supplied instead of belted feeds, insure vastly increased pro- 
ductive capacity, rapidity of change, and positive action. The 
feeds can be automatically tripped at any position of spindle 
by adjustable trip dog and pointer, acting on the worm 
clutch. Depth graduations are on the spindle, and all depths 
can be read from zero. 

The speed-box is of the geared friction type providing four 
changes of speed, each being instantly available by use of the 
two levers shown. Frictions are of thin patent double band 
type, employing very few parts in their construction, which 

without stopping the machine. This wide range of spindle 
speeds, combined with the exceptional driving power of the 
machine, renders the drill equally efficient with either ordi- 
nary or high speed twist drills. Spindle is regularly bored 
for No. 4 Morse taper hole. The column is of box girder type, 
revolves in a stationary stump carrying conical rollers, and 
is clamped securely in any position by means of a lever near 
the foot. Thus it is in effect and has all the good qualities 
of a round column capable of being swung in a complete 
circle unless arrested by belt, if driven from overhead, a very 
desirable feature. The arm is of parabolic beam section, 
strengthened along top and bottom lines by circular section, 
giving great resistance to bending and torsional strain. Its 
design leaves the lower line parallel with the base, and thus 
permits work being operated xipon in close proximity to the 
column without the necessity of an extreme reach of spindle. 
Arm is clamped to column by binder levers, obviating loose 
wrenches, and is raised and lowered rapidly by a double 
thread coarse pitch screw, hung on ball bearings, and con- 
trolled instantly by a convenient lever. 

The head is moved rapidly along the arm by hand-wheel 
through spiral pinion and rack, the hand-wheel being located 
on head directly at hand of operator. Back gears are located 
on the head, thus bringing the greatest speed reduction direct 
to spindle. They may be engaged or disengaged without shock 
or jar while the machine is in operation. The spindle is 
counterbalanced and has quick advance and return. It is 
noted that all operating levers are controlled by operator at 
front of the machine, and within easy reach. 

The tapping mechanism is carried on the head, between the 
back gears and speed box, thus giving to the frictions, already 
very powerful, the benefit of the back gear ratio, making un- 
usually heavy tapping operations possible, and also per- 
mitting taps to be backed out at accelerated speed. The lever 
for starting, stopping, or reversing the spindle, is controlled 
at the head from the front of the machine. 

The base is of massive proportions, strongly ribbed, in fan 
shape, radiating from column, making a particularly rigid 

May, 1905. 



base. It is accurately planed, and has large T-slots with an 
ample allowance of metal around them. The plain table has 
top surface of 16 in. x 26in., and also side surface, the latter 
giving the equivalent of an angle plate. Both top and sur- 
faces are accurately planed and supplied with large T-slots. 
The worm swiveling table can be revolved to any angle 
horizontally, thru worm and worm-wheel. It is graduated in 
degrees at point of swiveling contact, and can be readily set 
to permit a hole being drilled at any angle within range. The 
top surface is 16 in. x 24 in. The round table is 24 in. diam- 
eter, and may be fitted to either the plain or worm swiveling 
table, as illustrated above. It revolves by hand on stump fitted 
into other table, and is thus very convenient for jig drilling. 
It can be securely locked by binding screw. 

♦» - » . 

Power Circular Saw Bench 

The accompanying illustration shows a power Circular saw 
and bench as manufactured by J. M. Marston & Co., Boston, 
Mass. The frame is made of cast iron and is well braced and 
bolted. The top part of the frame is made very rigid, the 
center cross bar being double. The arbor is 18 inches long, 
one inch diameter, and made of open hearth steel with a col- 
lar to take up end motion. There is a %-inch hole in end for 
machine bits. The pulley is 2% inches in diameter, 4 inches 
wide and placed on the arbor between the bearings. The dis- 
tance from center of arbor to top of table is 2% inches. The 

Power Circular Saw Bench. 

bearings are 3 inches long and lined with best genuine bab- 
bitt. The caps are securely bolted. 

The top of table is 28 x 38 inches. The iron center part is 
8 inches wide, running the whole length of table, being accu- 
rately planed, and has two grooves for cutting-off gauges to 
slide in. It has removable wooden mouthpieces, to admit of 
using growing saws or cutters. Huther grooving saws or 
dado head, from No. 1 to No. 5, 8 to 12 inches in diameter, 
can be used on this machine to especial advantage. 

The height of the table is 32 inches above the floor. The 
floor space occupied is 28 x 38 inches. Two adjustable cut- 
ting-off or mitre gauges and one rip gauge are furnished with 
each machine. The counter- shaft is well made with self- 
oiling, adjustable boxes. The pulleys on countershaft are one 
16 x 3 inch driving pulley, and one each tight and loose 
pulley 9x3 inches. The countershaft should make 500 revo- 

+ *» 

Twenty-Four Inch Shaper 

The accompanying illustrations show a 20-in. back-geared 
shaper, as manufactured by the Queen City Machine Tool Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, 0. Great care is exercised in the design and 
manufacture of these machines to secure a high degree of 
efficiency. In order to derive the full benefit of high speed 
tool steels, the back gearing is made 29 to 1. 

The column is of large proportions, very heavy and is re- 
inforced at proper points to resist working strains. The bear- 
ing for the ram is 40x11 inches. The ways of the ram have 

24-lNCH Shaper. 

an overhang, especially in front, which gives the tool increased 
stiffness. This construction of ram is the design of the Queen 
City Machine Tool Company. The arch construction brings 
the maximum section of metal into service when the cutting 
tool is in its extreme forward position. The length of stroke 
and position of ram can be changed without leaving the work, 
and while the tool is in motion or at rest. 

The rail is extremely heavy. It has 9-inch front and 1%-inch 
top wearing surfaces, inswing permanent alignment of table. 
The cross traverse is 30 inches and the screw has a graduated 
collar. It has a cam at this point, providing for rapid chang' 
ing of feeds from to extreme, without stopping the machine. 

24-lNCH Shaper. 

1 68 


May, 1905. 

The Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls, 0., have 
received a large order for Falls Hollow Staybolt iron from 
the Western Australian government railways; also one from 
the Cuba Co. 

24-lNCH Shaper. 
The vertical adjustment is effected by means of bevel gears, 
which are protected from chips and dirt, and provided with 
ball bearings, reducing the friction to a minimum. The tele- 
scopic screw does away with cutting a hole in the floor. 

The rocker arm is connected to the ram by means of a 
link, giving a straight pull and an even cutting speed, with a 
quick return and no lost motion. This construction is shown 
in the line drawings. 

The table is box form, T, slotted on top and sides, has V for 
holding shafts and similar work vertically, and can readily be 
detached from saddle. An extension provides for broad clamp- 
ing surface, utilizing the full length of stroke. An outer sup- 
port is furnished for all 24-in. machines. The vise is planer 
type and will hold absolutely solid, even on angle cuts. It has 
a base that can be firmly bolted to the table, and the swivel 
Js held to this base by two steel planer head bolts. The head 
swivel is held in the same manner; both are graduated, and 
can be set at any angle. A double feed screw to head is pro- 
vided with a graduated colla>\ 

All fiat wearing surfaces are scraped to a standard surface 
plate; are extremely wide,' and so gibbed as to permit of close 
adjustment for wear. All column holes are unusually long, 
and bushed, providing for the maintenance of original centers. 

The materials are carefully selected. All pinions, bevel 
gears and vise jaw plates are of steel. All gears and T-slots 
are cut from solid stock. The wrench connections are hard- 
ened and feed gears are covered. The large opening under the 
ram provides for key-seating shafts or similar work of any 

24 in. B. G. 16 in. B. G. 

Actual length of stroke 25 in. 16% in. 

Vertical traverse of table , 15 in. 15 in. 

Cross traverse of table 30 in. 21 in. 

Greatest distance ram to table. 17 in. 17 in. 

Diameter of head 9% in. 8 in. 

Feed to head 7% in. 7 in. 

Top of table 27x14 in. 15x11 in. 

Side of table.. 27x17 in. 15xl3y 2 in. 

Length of ram bearing in column 40 in. 30% in. 

Width of ram bearing in column 11 in. , 10 in. 

Key seating capacity up to 3% in. 3 in. 

Vise jaws 14x2% in. 10x2% in. 

Vise opens 13 in. 8 in. 

Number of grades to cover 4 4 

Number of speeds to ram 8 8 

R. P. M. of countershaft 330 300 

Net weight of machine and C. S 4400 lbs. 2500 lbs. 


Notes of the Month 
The office of J. W. Taylor, Secretary of the Master Car 
Builders' Association, Master Mechanics' Association, and 
Western Railway Club, has been changed from the Rookery 
to 390 Old Colony Building, Chicago, 111. 

♦ ♦ » 

Mr. L. D. Bolton, heretofore Chicago representative of the 
Federal Manufacturing Company, is now with the Diamond 
Chain & Manufacturing Company, of Indianapolis, and will 
represent that company in the Middle and Western States. 

♦ * » 

The past month was banner month for rail anchors. Among 
the consignments shipped by B. Burgess, Danville, 111., were 
six anchors for the Southern Pacific Company and eight for 
the Boston & Albany Railroad. 

* * » 

The Haberkorn Engine Co., of Ft. Wayne, Ind., has closed 
a contract with the Litchfield Foundry & Machine Company, 
Litchfield, 111., granting them the right to manufacture sta- 
tionary engines under the Haberkorn patent valve and valve 

♦ » » 

J. G. Blount Co., Everett, Mass., have issued a catalogue 
illustrating and describing their grinding, polishing machinery 
and speed lathes. This catalogue illustrates seven grinding 
machines, five combination grinding, polishing and buffing 
machines, buffing machines and three speed lathes. 

* ♦ » 

The Landis Machine Company, Waynesboro, Pa., have is- 
sued a neat little catalogue on their bolt cutters and nut tap- 
ping machinery. This gives detail drawings of the mechani- 
cal construction of all the parts, together Avith illustrations of 
the principal sizes of bolt cutters. 


Under date of January 9, 1905, United States Consul Fred 
D. Fisher, Tamsui, Formosa, reports that inquiries have recent- 
ly been made at his office for catalogues of American manu- 
facturers of boring machinery for sinking petroleum and ar- 
tesian wells and of accumulators and second batteries for tele- 
phone and telegraph lines. The consul adds that if manu- 
facturers of these lines will furnish him with their catalogues 
he will see that they are placed in the hands of the inquirers. 

•» ♦ » 

On April 4th Dr. J. A. L. Waddell, of the well-known firm 
of Waddell & Hedrick, of Kansas City, delivered a lecture to 
the Seniors and Juniors of Stevens Institute of Technology on 
"The Form of Engineering Contracts." The following day 
Dr. Waddell also lectured to the Seniors upon "The Present 
Practice of Bridge Construction." This was followed by an 
informal talk lasting about an hour, the students having 

manifested great interest . 


Mr. E. H. Mumford and C. S. Lovell, formerly with the 
Tabor Mfg. Co. of Philadelphia, have formed the E. H. Mum- 
ford Co. for the manufacture of foundry moulding machinery 
of every description, aiming especially at simplicity, strength 
and efficiency. Their long and thorough experience in this 
business will be used in the development of the latest modi- 
fications and combinations in moulding machines amply pro- 
tected by patents. They will be located at Callowhill and 
17th streets, Philadelphia. 

The many friends of Mr. W. C. Johnston, so well know to 
the machinery trade, will be glad to hear of his connection 
with the Diamond Drill & Machine Co., of Birdsboro, Pa., 
since the severance of his connection with Alexander Foster, 
of New York. Mr. Johnston will be a machinery salesman 
for the Diamond Drill & Machine Co., representing their Wag- 
ner Cold Saw, Jackson Belt Lacing Machines, Punches, 
Shears, Rolling Mill Machinery, Open Hearth Steel Cast- 
ings, Air Furnace and Cupola Castings, etc. 

May, 1905. 



The Champion Blower & Forge Company, Lancaster, Pa., 
have just issued, their catalogue of steel blowers and forges, 
lever and crank blowers, portable forges, blacksmith drills, 
tire binders, screw plates, taps and dies, tire and axle shrink- 
ers and welders, etc. This catalogue is handsomely illus- 
trated, giving full descriptions of machines and prices. This 
firm started in business 27 years ago with a single rented 
lathe and to-day their works cover ten acres of land with 
solid buildings filled with the latest and best steel tools for 
manufacturing purposes. 

I +—*■ 

The plant of the Pittsburgh Spring and Steel Company, at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has now been in successful operation for two 
years, manufacturing springs for every purpose. They make 
a specialty of elliptic and coil springs for locomotives, pas- 
senger, freight, traction and interurban cars; also machinery, 
valve, switch, governor, trolley, agricultural implements, and 
for other requirements. Their equipment is modern in every 
respect, which facilitates turning out the highest grade of 
springs promptly. Good results are obtained because they 
use the highest quality of material and employ only experi- 
enced workmen. 

1 ■*—•■ 

The firm of John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard Ave., New York 
City, reports a good demand for the well-known 'Allen" rivet- 
ing machines, with sales during the month of March to the 
following concerns: Driggs-Seabury Ordnance Co., Sharon, 
Pa.; Pierson & Goodrich, New York City; Springfield Boiler & 
Mfg. Co., Springfield, 111.; Baltimore Bridge Co., Baltimore, 
Md.; Groton Bridge Co., Groton, N. Y.; Berger, Carter & Co., 
San Francisco, Cal.; Amer. Tank & Tower Co., Elgin, 111.; 
Amer. Car & Foundry Co., Memphis, Tenn.; Christopher & 
Simpson, St. Louis, Mo. 

! . -4~«~» 

Adreon & Company, St. Louis, announce that they have se- 
cured exclusive selling rights covering the United States 
railroad trade for "Anti-Selenite" Boiler Scale Solvent. This 
compound is manufactured in Monterey, Mexico, and its 
basis being vegetable, it protects instead of injures the metal 
in boilers, and is remarkably effective in removing scale un- 
der all conditions. It has been subjected to exhaustive tests 
in this country by all classes of steam users, and reports on 
file prove every claim made for it by the manufacturer. 
"Anti-Selenite" received a gold medal, the highest award, at 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, against 72 competitors. 

■> » » 

The Niles-Bement-Pond Company has leased an entire floor 
in the new Trinity Building at 111 Broadway, New York, and 
willbe located there after May 1st. As is well known, the 
executive offices have been located in New York since the 
organization of the company under its present title. The Niles- 
Bement-Pond Company employs about 5,000 workmen, and 
has two factories in Philadelphia, one in Hamilton, Ohio, one 
in Plainfield, New Jersey, and it also owns the Pratt & Whit- 
ney Company at Hartford, Connecticut, thus constituting this 
company very much the largest builder of iron-working ma- 
chinery in the world. 


The International Acheson Graphite Company, of Niagara 
Falls, N. Y, announce that they have made arrangements 
with The Sherwin-Williams Company by which the latter 
firm becomes the sole manufacturer in the United States and 
Canada of Acheson Graphite Paint. Acheson Graphite is 
made by heating anthracite coal in an electric furnace at an 
almost inconceivable temperature which vaporizes and drives 
off all impurities and converts the carbon form of the coal 
into pure graphite. The process was invented by Mr. Edward. 
G. i\cheson, one of Carnegie's "Captains of industry", and al- 
by the inventor of Carborundum. Acheson Graphite is said to 
process inherently the requisite characteristics of an ideal 
pigment for protective paints for metal surfaces. 

The H. A. Rogers Company, 19 John street, New York, desire 
to announce that they have made permanent arrangements 
with Mr. E. W. Saunders to devote special attention to the 
machine tool department which has always been an impor- 
tant adjunct to their line. Mr. Saunders has for many years 
been identified with the machine tool trade in New York and 
being well versed in machine tools and their uses, his views 
will benefit purchasers, especially those seeking outside aid in 
selecting plants for manufacturing machinery on the inter- 
changeable plan with greatest economy. The II. A. Rogers 
Company represent the well-known firm of Bentel & Marge- 
dant, Hamilton, , Ohio, manufacturers of high grade wood- 
working machinery. Principals not represented in New York 
territory can secure active cooperation in the sale of their 
product for equipment of mills, mining property, factories 
and machine shops. 


The instructions to the Canadian section of the international 
commission to investigate and report upon the conditions and 
uses of the waters adjacent to the boundary line between the 
United States and Canada have been framed by the Dominion 
government. Among the subjects that may come up for con- 
sideration by this commission are the following: 1. The 
proposed diversion southward by the Minnesota Canal & Power 
Company, of Duluth, of certain waters in the State of Minne- 
sota that now flow north into the Rainy River and the Lake 
of the Woods. 2. The diversion about a mile and a half east 
of the town of Sault Ste. Marie of part of the waters of the 
St. Mary River into the Hay Canal entirely through American 
territory. The river St. Mary now forms part of the boundary 
between the United States and Canada, and the waters of the 
river are clearly international. Canadian vessels, of neces- 
sity are using the Hay Canal, but no treaty has been made 
confirming their right. 3. Inquiry into the effect of the con- 
struction of the Chicago Canal on the levels of lakes Huron 
and Erie. 4. The building of a dam and other obstructions 
on the St. John River, flowing through the State of Maine into 
New Brunswick, contrary to the express stipulation of the 
Ashburton treaty. 


Mr. Newbigging, chief engineer of the Manchester munici- 
pally owned gas works, in a paper read recently before an 
association of students of civil engineering, said that the in- 
troduction of the incandescent gas-burner had given a new 
lease of life to gas undertakings, and had placed gas in the 
front position as the cheapest illuminant. While he did not 
deny that, for decorative effects, electricity had advantages 
over gas, he thought the recent introduction of the inverted 
incandescent gas-burner bade fair to rival the present in- 
candescent electric light. Having made the statement that 
electricity, light for light at Manchester prices, is eight times 
dearer than gas, he said an incandescent gas-burner develops, 
per cubic foot of gas consumed, from 15 to 40 candles, ac- 
cording to the system employed. With gas at 56 cents per 
1,000 cubic feet and electricity at 7.72 cents per unit, average 
prices in Manchester, and taking the lowest power developed 
by the incandescent gas-burner, viz., 15 candles per cubic 
foot, 15,000 candles per 1,000 feet, the cost would be 3.72 
cents for 1,000 candles, while one unit of electricity developed 
in "an incandescent burner," a light equal to 256 candles each 
at 7.72 cents per unit, or 30.10 cents per 1,000 candles. 

That the steam turbine and turbo-generator are destined 
to be one of the greatest power developing and distributing- 
factors is evidenced by the number of units of this type 
which have been installed, and which are the process 
of construction. Owing to the restrictions placed by recipro- 
cating engine speeds upon the designs of engine type gener- 
ating machinery, their dimensions and bulk, as also the cost, 
have increased enormously in the past few years with the 
increase in capacity. With the advent of the steam turbine 



May, 1905. 

the speeds have increased so as to secure in generator con- 
struction minimum bulk and cost consistent with strength 
and durability. A striking example of this may be seen in 
the power equipment of the Eapid Transit Company in New 
York. Turbine type generators with a rated output of 5000 
kw., weighing 234,000 lbs., run at 750 r.p.m. Generators of 
the same output driven by reciprocating engines at a speed 
of 75 r.p.m. weight 980,000 lbs. Orders for eight turbine 
generators have been placed with the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company in the past few days, mostly for 
400 and 500 kw. units, with one 2000 kw. and one 2500 kw. 


The executive offices of the American Steel Foundries un- 
til lately were located at No. 74 Broadway. With the object 
of concentrating all of the departments of this well-known 
concern, it was found necessary to lease the entire eleventh 
floor of the recently completed building known as No. 42 
Broadway, and henceforward communications should be sent 
to this new address. It is well known that in the new move- 
ment towards consolidation of allied industries, one of the 
chief elements of success involves the systematizing aud har- 
monizing of every branch of the business. With this end 
in view the executive officers of the American Steel Found- 
ries are inaugurating, simultaneously with the removal, a new 
system of accounting and distribution of orders, which will 
improve the organization and simplify their work. This will 
assist them in taking care of the many large orders they are 
receiving due to the increased demand for new equipment 
by the railroads and other large producers. The output of 
their eight plants for all kinds of steel castings is enormous, 
and they are always in a position to undertake new work 
and make prompt deliveries. With the acquisition of the 
Simplex Railway Appliance Company they are even better 
equipped than ever to fill the requirements of railroad com- 
panies and car builders. 

■» « » 

Though the average American is far ahead of the German 
or Frenchman in inveutive talent, he is handicapped by lack 
of technical knowledge. The little town of Sonneberg, in 
Germany, for instance, has ah industrial school which has 
been in existence for twenty years. This school gives in- 
struction in drawing, painting, modeling, turning in wood 
and ivory, wood carving, geometry, and arithmetic. The 
principal object is to train young people for the manufac- 
ture of toys and ceramic ware, which are the chief industries 
of the dictrict. The school has 74 students, and the cost of 
tuition is but 50 marks ($12.90) per year. Additional tech- 
nical schools, giving instruction in glass blowing, painting 
on porcelain, drawing, modeling, and carving are located in 
Schlakau, Limbach, Lauseha, and Rauenstein, which are quite 
small places in the Sonneberg district. The town of Sonne- 
berag has also a commercial school attended by 151 pupils, 
who are instructed in commercial knowledge, political econ- 
omy, the English, French, and Spanish languages, bookkeep- 
ing, stenography and typewriting, calligraphy, and arithme- 
tic. The efficient training given by such schools makes Ger- 
many capable of successfully competing with countries pos- 
sessing superior natural advantages, and accounts in part for 
the wonderful rise of Germany's export trade and merchant 


A model of a recently invented automatic buffer coupling at- 
tached to two model cars has been exhibited at the offices of 
the London and Northwestern Railway Company. The coup- 
ling not only connects the vehicles, but at the same time con- 
nects the Westinghouse or vacuum brakes. The model shows 
the cars on a two-chain curve, which is more acute than any 
of the. curves in existence on British or Continental lines. The 

outstanding feature of the invention, it is claimed, is that no 
manual labor is required to complete the act of coupling, the 
patent differing materially in this respect from the couplings 
which require to be put into position by a lever. The attach- 
ment has both an up and down and a lateral movement, thus 
adapting itself to either loaded or unloaded cars, and to sharp 
curves. To use the new coupling no alteration is required in 
the general construction of railway rolling stock. Being a 
buffer in itself, the two side buffers can be dispensed with, 
thus saving, it is estimated, at least nine hundredweight 
(1,800 pounds) in weight on each vehicle. There is also an 
attachment by which, in case of accident, or in the event of 
the vehicles becoming separated, the brake is automatically 
applied to all the cars. The coupling consists of only five parts, 
and no springs are exposed. It is said to work so easily that 
an engine fitted with the new coupling could be sent after a 
runaway car, and become attached to it on the slightest im- 
pact. In addition to being adapted for railway rolling stock, 
the coupling can be used for many other purposes, it is claim- 
ed, such as limbering or unlimbering gun carriages. 

Many tentative efforts have been made to adapt the self- 
propelled stage coach to metropolitan conditions, and out of 
them several styles of motors have survived as suited to 'bus 
purposes. The points claimed in favor of each style are cheap- 
ness, trustworthiness, comparative simplicity in handling, and 
freedom from noise and odor. Each of the great London omni- 
bus companies has adopted its type of motor car, and each is 
striving to see which will be the first to make the change in 
locomotive power. The first installment of the new autocars 
are now running for hire, and are taking their turn in the long- 
procession of the streets. London is, without doubt, the chief 
'bus-using city of the world. It is estimated that there are 
about 2,500 omnibuses in that city. To replace them, reckon- 
ing two motorbuses to three horse omnibuses, would require 
over 1,600 autobuses at least, but more likely 2,000 will be 
necessary, for on some of the routes small single-decked vehi- 
cles will be used. The field is a very large one, and the re- 
placement of horses by motors will not be a matter of months, 
but of years. The London General Omnibus' Company, which, 
as the greatest of the 'bus companies, had most to lose by any 
wrong step, deliberated over the idea for some years before it 
began to change its motive power. It has had two motorbuses 
running for a few weeks, and the trials have been so satis- 
factory that the company has decided to turn its 1,600 horse 
'buses into motorbuses by mounting them on motor chasses. 
Two types of 'buses have been chosen. The speed of one type 
will be about 11 miles an hour, and it will carry the usual 
twenty-six passengers. The other type is a steam car with 
no roof seats, which is intended to carry sixteen passengers, 
but the police will not allow the two front seats beside the 
driver and the single seat beside the conductor to be used. 

-» » » 

A description of a machine for accurately registering the 
cubic contents and linear measure of lumber or logs at the 
saw mill will be of interest to those connected with the lum- 
ber industries in the United States. It can be applied to 
either circular or gang saws, and a test witnessed proved 
the machine to be more accurate than the recognized stand- 
ard tables for computing the cubic contents of lumber in a 
log. The mechanical principles involved are so simple that 
one could not but wonder that it had not been thought out 
before. The machine is attached to the side and upper part 
of the gang-saw frame, is operated by a chain belt from the 
feed-roller gear, and so geared that the length of the log is 
registered as it is drawn into the saws. By the attachment 
of a small roller placed between the feed roller and the saws 
and fastened to the feed roller, the irregularities of the log's 

May, 1905. 



surface, by the rising and lowering of tbe feed roller, are 
communicated to the indicator, which in turn controls the 
numerators registering the cubic contents. After the log has 
passed through, the feed roller, carrying with it the roller, 
lowers, thereby disengaging a small ratchet, throwing the in- 
dicating machine out of action. The indicator is first set at a 
point indicating the average diameter of the logs to be sawed, 
and the supplementary roller, which is attached to and work- 
ing in harmony with the feed roller, causes the pointer to 
indicate the exact diameter of the log, which in turn regu- 
lates the speed of the gear wheel operating the cubic num- 
erals. The machine is compact, strongly made with inter- 
changeable parts, and should wear indefinitely. A mill- 
wright or machinist would readily understand the principles 
involved and be able to attach the apparatus without diffi- 
culty. The American rights are for sale, and at the desire 
of the inventor interested parties are requested to address all 
communications to the United States Council at Glauchau, 

Technical Publications 

Tests of Pennsylvania Railroad Consolidation Locomotive 
No. 1499, Pennsylvania Railroad Co., Publisher. Price 50 
cents. Complete results of test of the P. R. R. consolidation 
locomtive; 34 tables; 64 curves; 7 drawings of apparatus 
and engine. 

Arbitrary Price Making Through the Forms of Law, by 
Henry Wood. Lee and Shepard, Boston, publishers; 29 
pages. Price 10 cents. A few points bearing upon the proper 
limits of governmental supervision or interference in railroad 

Lecture Notes on Some of the Business Features of Engin- 
eering Practice — 187 pages. Department of Business Engin- 
eering, Stevens' Institute of Technology, 1905. Contents— 
The Point of View, by W. C. Kerr; Notes on Contracts, by 
H. E. White; Accounting, Repairs and Depreciation, Account- 
ing as Applied to Depreciation, Systems of Classification — 
Taxes, Analysis of a Balance Sheet, Analysis of Data, and 
Estimates and Specifications, by Humphreys. 

•» " » 

Railroad Paint SHop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest 0/ 

CHARLES E-. COPP &;&& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (Sk» M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 

The Number of Coats on a Car 

The time was once when it was thought by many that the 
more coats of paint and varnish there were put upon a car 
the more thorough was the job and the better the wood would 
be "preserved." It was like the Irishman with his boots; he 
got more leather for his money by buying several sizes too 
large for him. Thirty-five years ago, when most passenger 
coaches were painted light yellow, if the painter did not put 
oh about ten coats of paint and three coats of varnish to a 
newly painted car from the wood it would have been con- 
sidered that he was not doing justice to it; that he was 
"skinning out," or cheapening work. But the world has 
moved since that day and the paintshop has kept in pace with 
it Now, instead of a car lying in the shop three months to 
have all these coats and much ornamenting put on, it is 
hustled out in less than that number of weeks. Coat by coat 
little by little, year by year, has the method and cost of 
painting a passenger coach shrunken, until it has now reached 
sensible and businesslike proportions. Rough-stuffing and 
block pumicing to get a piano levelness, requiring three ex- 
tra coats of material, if not more, has given away, or is giv- 
ing away, to a method that only requires three operations, 
or coats, from the wood to bring it up with the required sur- 
face to the color; and with two coats of color and two coats 
of durable finishing varnish — all that is necessary, under 
ordinary conditions— the job is complete from the wood, with 
seven coatings, to-wit: 1. Priming. 2. Knifing surfacer. 
3. Sanding coat. 4. First coat color. 5. Second coat color. 
6. First coat varnish. 7. Second coat varnish. In the case 
of a baggage or mail car the second coat of color and first 
coat of varnish can be applied at once in the form of an 
enamel or varnish color, and thus the operations or coatings 
be successfully reduced to six. We have recently turned out 
a new 60-ft. mail in this way and have another to do. 

It is manifest that the least material that can be applied to 
a car from the wood, consistent with a passable surface, the 
better it is for the life of the ear; not only in less liability of 
the material itself to crack, but it adows of the annual 
"cutting in" and varnishing and an occasional entire painting 
over the old paint without such an accumulation of material 
as would otherwise be with its bad results, and longer life, 

we believe, to the job as a whole. Of course much depends 
upon the nature of the material used in either case, but the 
writer is of the opinion that at last — and he has been slow 
to adopt a knifing system — the right kind of material is upon 
the market for this purpose, and he is obtaining good results 
from it in the shop, with every indication of its durability 
in years of service. At present he is more than pleased with 
the appearance of the work and that the slop bucket has 
been abolished on sheathed cars at least— he may rub down 
an occasional panel car yet for a while, but hopes, in the 
near future, that block pumice surfacing will be no longer 
needed for any kind of car exterior. There is a class of cars 
at least— baggage, express, mail and milk— that one can ex- 
periment on and when he has got a number of men broken in 
on it and somewhat expert, then coaches and other and better 
work can be undertaken. Once established we believe this 
system will never be abandoned for the old method, with men 
growling with rheumatism and sore hands, to rub a car with 
block pumice and water, to say nothing of soaking the work 
to its injury, with necessary time to dry. 


Exterior Natural Wood Finish 

To attempt now, in the light of leading railroad experi- 
ence and the practice of the Pullman Company, and in view 
of the universal testimony of master painters in convention 
assembled, to finish car sashes of mahogany in the natural 
wood on their exteriors is to take a long step backward to the 
primitive, the pre-historic and the impracticable. It is the 
waking up of Rip Van Winkle to do something that was 
abolished during his long nap. 

Why, do you ask? Because every foreman car painter of 
experience knows that natural wood finish exposed to the 
weather is not a durable foundation for varnish. Conse- 
quently it will perish and the smoke, working its way rapidly 
into the perished varnish, like into one's chapped hands, soon 
begrimes them into an appearance intolerable to the esthetic 
eye. Then, to keep on in this unwise practice, there is noth- 
ing else to do but to scrape and plane off again and proceed 
as before, ad finitum, ad nauseam, until the sash grows too 
thin to keep in the car without rattling, and then a new set 
must be made, only to repeat the former errors upon. It is 



May, 1905. 

so well known now that it almost goes without saying that 
a good paint foundation is the best to sustain varnish upon 
exposed to the weather. To this end, if a mahogany finish is 
desired, the natural wood itself is easily reproduced in paint 
by painting the sashes with the suitable ground color and 
then with the gelatine roller take from the natural wood the 
exact impression of it and reproduce it upon the sashes by 
the printing process as accurately and tastefully as by 
chromo-lithography. There is no perceptible difference, 
hardly in the eyes of an expert, between this effect and the 
wood itself finished in varnish; but the durability of the job 
is far superior. Sashes finished in this way, by actual ex- 
perience and observation, are good for the life of the paint 
on the rest of the car with annual varnishing, and will not 
need scraping until does the rest. The writer knows of a 
batch of fifty cars so treated nine years ago and are in good 
order today, with only annual cleaning and varnishing. And be- 
ing built outside of his own shops, in a car manufactory be- 
fore he knew anything about this method, or had much to do 
with the specifications, he varnished them two or three years 
before he knew they were grained, and would not have known 
then except for an accident that happened to them, and then 
he scraped a spot with his knife for confirmation of his 
new-found light. Such is the effect that the painter's art can 
be brought to that, you see, "the very elect" can be thereby 
deceived. What better can be desired for a finish then, 
durability considered? 

There is but one practicable alternative, and that is to 
paint the sashes the body color of the car where Pullman 
color is used. This the Pullman company are already doing 
with their parlor and sleeping cars; and it may be argued 
that if it will do for them why will it not do for rairoads to 
follow suit? There is some foundation for an argument here, 
we are ready to admit, especially since we long ago painted 
the extei-ior of deck sashes that way; also doors of pas- 
senger cars, and now we are painting side vestibule doors in 
that fashion. But, having seen a train done that way in 
which at least one railroad has followed the Pullman style, 
we object to it on account of the hearse-like appearance pro- 
duced. It needs the mahogany finish of sashes on the body 
of the car to break up this all-overish, monotonous, gloomy, 
paint effect. And this can be done with very little, if any 
extra cost; consequently, finance and finish impels its con- 
tinuance. Still, it is more practicable to do even this than to 
finish in the natural wood. 

♦ » » 

Outs About Piece-Work 

One of the disadvantages of piece work, for the company 
at least, is to introduce any new, quicker and cheaper methods 
of doing the work during the year or season under way. 
The schedules are all made, the contracts given, prices estab- 
lished and men employed to do it, and everything running 
so smooth that if some bright, thinking mind devises a 
shorter cut to get an equal result with less expense to the 
company and to the betterment of the car it will be .difficult 
to introduce it, because it interrupts the present order of 
things, which must run the season out on the let-well-enough- 
alone principle, though at more expense to the company; and 
possibly when a new year's force is employed it may be 
considered worthy of adoption. 

Now with day work any new idea introduced to shorten 
labor can be belted right on to at once, without spoiling any- 
body's piece-price profits, and tbe company begin to reap- 
the benefits of it immediately. What think ye? We recog- 
nize that there are benefits to the employer and to the em- 
ployee under the piece-work system. Still, as with about 
everything else in this mundane sphere, there are some outs 
about it— it is not perfect, perhaps far from it. The! work is 

probably not so well done, for another item on the list of 
imperfections, no matter how well inspected. Charity covers 
the multitude of sins here more readily than on day work. 
Having seen day work and piece work running neck and 
neck on the same railroad at two shops fifty miles apart, 
with the odds in favor of the day-work shop in point of work 
turned out per man, we are not at present convinced that the 
company is gaining a whole lot at the piece-work shop, 
though we are ready to concede that some of the men are 
making a good thing at it. "Well," yon say, "then they must 
be paying too much at the piece-work shop." We doubt 'it; 
the prices are reasonably low. Possibly the day-work men 
are "scratching gravel" a little for fear of its adoption, per- 
haps a needless fear on the"ir account. It goes to show what 
can be done at day work to carry cut a principle; and possi- 
bly what can be done at piece work to keep from making 
too much to have the prices further cut. Justice is some- 
where located between these two shop crews, but where 
we are not at present prepared to state. At any rate, piece 
work has its outs and day work its ins, which we shall 
doubtless hear all about when this perplexing subject comes 
up at the next convention, when able advocates will have 
their say on both sides of the question. At present, however, 
Ave are inclined to think that, in general, piece work has the 
abler advocates, take the country over, who have long been 
at this form of work and know its ins as well as its outs. 
We shall hear what we shall hear, and see what we shall see. 

4 » » 

Courtesy Breeds Courtesy 

A surly, overbearing employer can hardly expect to de- 
velop courteous, willing employes. Half the trouble with 
help comes from the fact that some men forget what 
they felt like when they were journeymen themselves, 
and never give any consideration to the fact that their 
employes are human like themselves. A man need not 
be "Jack" or "Bill" to his workmen, but he can be pleas- 
ant and agreeable, while exacting, as to the relationship 
between himself and those about him. A gentleman will 
always be treated like a gentleman by everybody he meets. 
The reason why some men are always being insulted or im- 
posed upon is that they leave themselves open to such treat- 

A Scroll by Warner Bailey. 

May, 1905. 



ment. Kindness and courtesy are cheap and will go a long 
way towards making your business relationships satisfactory 
as well as profitable.— Selected. 


Early Manufacture of Varnish in London 

In or about- the year 1760, a poor French gentleman, by 
reason of a rebellion in France, emigrated to London and took 
lodgings in a house near Long Acre. To support himself, he 
manufactured a little varnish, and not knowing the English 
language he was compelled to get a young woman liviug in 
the house to dispose of it. She took some to Mr. Hatchett 
to test, which he did, and then ordered two gallons more of 
it. The Frenchman was highly pleased with the success. The 
girl stood by him while he made it. She thought he might 
allow her to make some, and refused to sell any more unless 
he allowed her to make it, which he did. He stood over her 
to see that the gum was not spoiled, and she made it equal 
to what he v first made. The girl was the (afterward) cele- 
brated Mrs. Ives.— George Burgess, in Carriage Builders' 

About tlie year 1845 the once celebrated carriage making 
firm of Ives & Innell, of Long Acre, London, failed, and the 
business closed up. Mr. Ives, having secured the formulas 
from his aunt, the Mrs. Ives referred to above, began the 
manufacture of varnish. His son, John Edward, then just 
attaining his majority, began with his father the study of 
the manufacture of varnish, and accepted his first position as 
varnish maker for a firm in Liverpool; after a two years' en- 
gagement he went to Scotland, and remained in the employ of 
Messrs. Dawson & Co., of Leith (now North British Color 

In 1854 John Edward Ives went to London, and entered 
the employ of Pontifex & Wood. About the same time Wil- 
liam Marshall, then a boy of six years, removed with his par- 
ents from Scotland to London, and in 1859 went under the 
tuition of Mr. Ives to learn the business of varnish making, 
and remained with him, hearing many a good story about 
the above Lady Ives, until 1869. 

In 1870 William Marshall came to America, and since 1872 
has been engaged in the manufacture of varnish at Newark, 
N. J. He has very properly adopted the name of "Anglo- 
American Varnishes" as his trade-mark. 

In the main features of varnish making he is making his 
goods on the same principles as those handed down to pos- 
terity by the poor Frenchman in London.— Exchange. 

And today this same William Marshall is making varnishes 
which are noted for their permanence of lustre. The Anglo- 
American Varnish Co. is also producing a black rubbing var- 
nish which is a delight to all who use it.— From "The Ameri- 
can Vehicle." 

■» » » 

Among the Supply Men 


Mr. William Marshall, secretary and general manager of 
the Anglo -Aemrican Varnish Company, Newark, N. J., whose 
photo adorns our columns this month, was born Sunday; 
Jan. 9, 1848, at Edinboro, Scotland. The family left Scotland 
and went to London, England, six years later, and on 
Wednesday, April 13, 1859, young Marshall, at eleven years 
of age, entered the varnish works of Pontifex & Woods, Lon- 
don. There, under tuition of John Edward Ives, who was a 
third generation of varnish makers, the subject of our sketch 
received education both in general knowledge and varnish 
making, where he remained until June, 1870. Then he set 
out, Columbus like, for the New World and made Canada the 
place of abode for a time; then to New York, where for 
eighteen months he was in the employ of the old house of 
Win Tilden Blodgett. In December, 1872, he started in busi- 




• - ;• ' 




Wm. Marshall. 

ness at Newark, N. J., and in 1890 became incorporated under 
the name of the Anglo-American Varnish Co. Since then he 
has devoted almost all the time to the production of the 
highest class of railway varnishes and has the high honor of 
furnishing a number of the leading railway systems of the 
United States with his product. 

The writer first met Mr. Marshall at the Buffalo conven- 
tion in '94. He shares the friendship and confidence of his 
fellow supply men, having for years acted as secretary and 
treasurer for them at our conventions, and is withal a fast 
friend of our association and a genial, acquaintance with 
those who know him. 

■» » » 

Varnish and Paint Removers 

Becently the attention of the Ball Chemical Co., Allegheny, 
Pa., was called to several varnish removers now being placed 
on the market. Thej succeeded in getting samples of nearly 
all of them and find, by anaylsis, that they are all infringe- 
ments on the patent issued to Mr. Ball and now owned by 
their company. In order to protect their rights under the 
patent they have had the patent attorneys, Messrs. Kay, Tot- 
ten & Winter, of Pittsburgh, make a complete examination 
of the patent records and rendered the following report: 

"At your request we have made an investigation of patent 
No. 488,416, for a paint and varnish removing composition, 
granted Dec. 20, 1892, to George L. Ball, and now owned by 
your company. 

"We find that this patent was regularly issued and is 
valid in all particulars. We made a thorough investigation 
of the prior art and find that this is the first patent for paint 
and varnish removing composition consisting of solvent hy- 
drocarbons. There were prior thereto a number of patents 
for paint and varnish removing composition, but these con- 
sisted of entirely different ingredients and all containing 
either alkali or acids. There were also prior thereto com- 



May, 1905. 

positions for cleaning purposes which contained some one of 
the ingredients mentioned in this patent, but none of these 
latter compositions were capable of removing paint or var- 
nish and did not even remotely resemble Mr. Ball's composi- 
tion. Although the patent office cited a number of such ear- 
lier cleaning compounds it did not maintain that Mr. Ball's 
invention was affected thereby, for it allowed his application 
without requiring any change whatsoever to be made either 
in the specification or claim. 

"The patent is a pioneer one, and is therefore entitled to a 
broad and liberal interpretation, so that the courts will give 
it a very wide range of equivalents and will hold as infringe- 
ments thereof any compositions having the essential ingre- 
dients of the composition described in the patent, or the 
equivalents thereof. This will bring within the scope of 
the patent many varnish removing compositions placed on 
the market since the grant of the Ball patent, and which con- 
tain similar ingredients to those mentioned in said patent, 
or their equivalents, and producing the same result. The 
sale and use of all such compositions can be enjoined, and 
damages collected from the manufacturers, the sellers, or the 
users. We advise that you take steps to enjoin the manu- 
facture, sale and use of these infringing compositions." 

♦ » » 

Notes and Comments 

The man who courts trouble is soon married.— The Western 
And not easily divorced. 

and wonder if this is another case of varnish remover and 
the flame of something that should have been kept away from 
it. We believe Bro. Younger is foreman painter at this place. 

THEY COVER THE EARTH.— A special train of seventeen 
cars loaded with Sherwin-Williams' paints and varnishes 
passed through Newton today. The train is en route from 
Cleveland, Ohio, to Texas, where its contents are consigned 
to retail dealers— Newton, Kansas, Republican. 

ANOTHER BRANCH.— The Sherwin-Williams' Co., of Cleve- 
land, O., will erect a large warehouse at Fort Worth, Tex., 
for the more convenient handling of their paints and var- 
nishes.— Exchange. 

The paint shop of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and South- 
ern Railway at Little Rock, Ark., was destroyed by fire 
March 19, entailing a loss of $65,000." 

We clip the above from "The Western Painter" for March 

April 1 an explosion in Berry Bros', varnish factory at 
Detroit, Mich., started a fire which caused a loss of $25,000 
before it was extinguished. Fortunatey no one was injured. 

The N. E. R. R. Club held its last meeting at Pierce Hall, 
Copley Square, Boston, April 11. This elegant hall, where the 
club has met for several years, being a part of the Pierce 
building, built and owned by the S. S. Pierce Co., Boston's 
famous grocers, is to be remodelled the coming season into 
offices. The club will, at its May meeting, visit the new large 
car shops of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. at Readville in the 
afternoon of the third Tuesday (postponing its meeting one 
week on account of the International Railway Congress at 
Washington), returning to dine at some hotel not yet decided 
upon, where the meeting will be held. It is now probable 
that next season's meetings will be held in a hotel, preceded 
by a dinner, reading papers and holding its discussions at the 
tables while the cigars are passed. This will make it very 
social. "The Curtis Steam Turbine" was the subject at the 
April meeting, with stereopticon and interesting paper by a 
representative of the company. 

There is one man at least who would hail with delight the 
success of the committee on uniform stenciling of freight 
cars, and he is Wm. E. Dyer, foreman painter at the B. & M. 
shops, Lyndonville, Vt. During the month of March he had 
two wrecks of three or four cars each of Chicago refrigerator 
beef cars to repaint, with all their indescribable hieroglyphics 
and variations of outline and color. We believe there were 
just two alike in the lot. This, to a small shop with limited 
men, was a great burden with its regular work to be got out 
for the month. Will the "beef trust" submit to uniform 
stenciling? We trow not. Perhaps it is not intended to ap- 
ply to their cars. 

Somewhat hearse-like in appearance, passing by where 
this writer sees them in a train of coaches with mahogany 
sashes, are Pullman parlor cars with sashes painted the body 
Pullman color of the car. It is an all-overish look to the car, 
for all that breaks the monotony of color now is one wide 
gold stripe near the bottom of the car, a few narrow ones 

June, 1905. 



Established 1878 


Published by the 

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Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
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Vol. XXIX. 


No. 6. 


Editorial 175 

Improvement of the Locomotive 175 

Mr. Theodore P. Shonts', Chairman Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission 176* 

The International Railway Congress .177 

Railway Appliances at Washington 189* 

Pacific Type Engine with Superheater, Erie Railroad 202* 

Visit of Engineer Delegates to the Schenectady Works... 203 

NeAV York Central Simple Conolidation Engine 203* 

Personals ! 204 

Fay & Egan Building an Addition 205 

The Detroit Five-Feed Locomotive Lubricator. 205*. 

Ball Bearing Locomotive Jack ........ .-. . . . . . -.205* 

Ideal Emergency Coupler 205* 

Twenty-Inch Crank Simper 206* 

New Machine Shop Appliances 207* 

New Pintsch Mantle Lamps .208* 

Garvin Milling Machine 209* 

The Grinding Machine as a Stock Remover 211* 

Portable Tools 211* 

New Improved Detent Motion for American Thompson 

Indicator 212* 

Wheel Boring 213* 

The Landis Bolt Cutter .. ... 211* 

McGrath Pneumatic Turntable Motor 215* 

The Exhibit of the Westinghouse Companies at the Inter- 
national Railway Exhibition 216* 

Notes of the Month 217 

Paint Department 219 

Railway Mechanical Index Adv 50-52-54 

IT is a pleasurable duty to record the fact that the 
American Railway Appliance Exhibition was not 
only an unqualified success, but it has eclipsed the most 
ardent expectations of the friends of the supply frater- 
nity and manufacturers of railway specialties. In point 
of thoroughness it was unequalled, and furnished a lib- 
eral insight into the intricacies of details necessary to 
the maintenance of power, rolling stock and permanent 
way. To make a showing as complete as this one, meant 
the expenditure of much money, gray matter and energy, 

more than can come within the mental grasp of anyone 
not familiar with the inside of the railway supply busi- 
ness, and it was worth all the time and trouble involved, 
for it was the most perfect exhibition of the kind ever 
gotten together. 

These features which were of such magnitude as to 
require a separate pavilion for a proper presentation, 
constituted a very attractive part of the show. Most of 
these buildings were put up sufficiently durable to be 
permanent structures, and cost a nice sum to erect, 
evincing a spirit of enterprise that will bring golden re- 
turns. While all who were identified with this magni- 
ficent show are entitled to great credit, the chairman, 
George A. Post, has covered himself with undying fame 
as an organizer and director, by his indefatigable work 
in piloting such an immense project to a glorious issue. 


Improvement of the Locomotive 

N the development of the steam locomotive to its 
present high standard, the general aim of the de- 
signer^ has been in the direction of fuel saving, first, 
by perfecting the valve motion to produce a correct and 
economical steam distribution, next by compounding 
the cylinders to obtain an increased range of expan- 
sion, for the extraction of as much heat from the steam 
as possible, and of these there are the two-cylinder, 
three-cylinder and four-cylinder types. The latter sys- 
tem has many points of superiority over the first named, 
not, however, from the principle of compounding, but 
rather from the fact that the engine may be made a 
balanced machine, containing within itself the germ 
that has produced a more nearly perfect locomotive than 
any that has preceded it, and one that makes the most 
radical change in its history. 

Coming with this improved type of locomotive, there 
is a well defined revival of interest in compounding, not 
from the fact of an increased efficiency of the newer 
types in handling of steam, but for the advantages due 
to the balancing referred to, which eliminates the stresses 
and shocks heretofore absorbed by the machine and road- 
bed. That this interest will survive is fair to believe, 
for the reason that the question of superheating in con- 
nection with compounding has assumed an importance 
second to no other scheme so far worked out for the 
heat engine, and supplements rather than antagonizes all 
that has gone before in the direction of improvement. 
The efforts made abroad for some years, and latterlv in 
this country to show the economy possible in the use of 
superheated steam in all types of cylinders has been so 
productive of flattering results, that even the simple en- 
gine has a longer lease of life, since it has been demon- 
strated that it can when using superheated steam develop 
a horse power on less fuel than can the compound en- 
gine when using saturated steam. 

German engineers have been most persistent in this 
race for results with the superheater, and to them great 
credit is due for blazing the way to a higher steam per- 
formance, for their attention 'has been given unceasingly 
to its application to both simple and compound engines. 
Their latest attempts in this direction have been made 
on the Prussian State Railway, which has been the scene 
of the most extensive tests of the superheating system on 



June, 1905. 

locomotives. In this case the engines were of the out- 
side cylinder simple build, corresponding to our mogul 
type, and equipped with the Schmidt superheater. In 
a competitive test with other, simple engines and also 
with compound engines in the same service, but which 
used saturated steam, this mogul showed that the super- 
heater gave an efficiency of 20 per cent for water, and 
15 per cent for fuel. The superheat ranged from 570 
to 65o degrees F. 

The devices tested for superheating on above railway 
embraced also the Pielock 
system which differs from 
the Schmidt in the partic- 
ular that it can be applied 
to any boiler already in 
service and be in harmony 
with existing details. In 
competitive tests in passen- 
ger service with simple en- 
gines without a superheat- 
er, the Pielock device gave 
an economy of 16 per cent 
in water and 12 per cent in 
fuel, while a compound en- 
gine gave an economy 10 
per cent in water, and 3.5 
per cent in fuel over the 
compound using saturated 
steam. The Pielock sys- 
tem is very elastic in point 
of application, since it may 
be placed at any position 
in the boiler, and does not 
depend on a smokebox 
connection as in other sys- 
tems. A superheat of 350 
degrees Centigrade (660 
degrees F.) is obtained in 
the Pielock superheater, 
which is seen to compare 
closely with the heat devel- 
oped in other systems. 

In the Schmidt system 
the superheating is accom- 
plished by means of either 

Mr. Shonts was born in Crawford County, Pa., in 1855. He 
graduated from Monmouth College in the class of 1876, with the 
degree of B. A. In 1879 the degree of M. A. was conferred by 
the same college. He entered railway service in July, 1881, since 
which time he has been, consecutively, superintendent Iowa Con- 
struction Co. till May. 1882; May. 1SS2. to 1886. general superin- 
tendent Indiana. Illinois & Iowa Rd. ; 1886 to 1898, general man- 
ager same road; 1898 to 1902. president same road; on January 
15, 1904 he was chosen president of the Toledo, St. Louis & 
Western, and upon the organization of the new Isthmian Canal 

Pacific Ry., in pushing investigations of the merits of 
this idea of the conservation of heat, was of such a posi- 
tive character as to enlist the best efforts of the engi- 
neering fraternity in this country, and we can -now point 
to superheaters of an improved form going into service 
on several of our prominent roads. The heavy simple 
Pacific type engines recently going into service on the 
Erie R. R. exemplifies the activity of our designers in 
superheating, as it is equipped with the system devised 
by the American Locomotive Company, several of which 

are in use on other roads, 
and giving most excellent 

It is not in evidence that 
the economy of the simple 
engine having a super- 
heater, will have the effect 
of making the compound 
engine an undesirable fac- 
tor in transportation, for 
the friends of that type 
of machine are quite ready 
to take advantage of a de- 
vice that promises a saving 
in stead in addition to that 
due to compounding, and 
this is already being done on 
the Soo Line, a road that has 
given the compound engine 
a thorough trying out, and 
continued the use of that 
type of power during the 
wave of popularity on 
other roads. It is note- 
worthy that there is an ad- 
vantage due to superheat- 
ing that is rather more 
than was expected when 
the increase in thermal 
efficiency between that due 
to temperature of saturat- 
ed steam and that of super- 
heat was the goal aimed 
at. This advantage lies in 

Photo copyrighted by C. M. Bell, Washington. 

Mr. Theodore P. Shonts. 


Commission, Mr. Shonts was chosen chairman. 

a single large tube located — 

in the boiler at the bottom line of boiler tubes, and con- 
necting with the superheating tubes in the smokebox, or, 
by a number of smaller tubes located near the top line 
of boiler tubes, and connecting with the smokebox tubes. 
A very high temperature is possible with the first of 
these arrangements, the gases being heated to a tempera- 
ture of 1,500 to 1,800 degrees F., with a resulting tem- 
perature of from 550 to 650 degrees F. While the initi- 
ative in 'superheating was taken abroad, and followed up 
so intelligently as to give results plainly worthy of con- 

the lesser liability of disas- 
ter to cylinders and re- 
ciprocating parts due to condensation, and also working 
entrained water. Of the first there is necessarily less than 
in the use of saturated steam, and of the second there 
is practically none, since entrained water cannot be 
carried over, no matter what the quality of feed water 
used or how pumped. It is not easy to forecast the 
next improvement in locomotives that will be of equal 
importance to those here merely touched upon, but it is 
probable that the boiler will receive early considera- 
tion, since not only an improved circulation cost is one 

sideration, the interest awakened in this country is by of the requirements, but a reduced maintenance cost 

no means a passing one. The action of the Canadian is an absolute necessity. 

June, 1905. 



The International Railway Congress 

THE seventh session of the International Railway Congress 
opened at Washington, D. C, at 11 o'clock a. m., Wednes- 
day, May 3, with an address of welcome by the vice-president 
of the United States, Fairbanks. The attendance was large, 
35 countries being represented. The meeting was held in 
the large ball room of the new Willard Hotel and it was 
handsomely decorated with flags of the different countries 
represented. Mr. Ernest Gerald, of Belgium, acted or Presi- 
dent Dubois, who was not present. He introduced Mr. Stuyve- 
sant Fish, president of the American section of the Interna- 
tional Railway Congress, who made an elaborate and inter- 
esting address in English. This address was then read in 
French by Mr. Edward Sauvage of Paris. President Fish, 
by consent, appointed Messrs. Weisenbruch and Allen tem- 
porary secretaries. Announcement was then made that the 
live secretaries would immediately meet in the room assigned 
them to organize. 

The questions for discussion at the Congress covered all 
branches of railroading and each topic was assigned to its 
special section. Those matters which are of interest to the 
mechanical department are reviewed in the following pages 
of this issue. 

Under the general head of "Locomotives and Rolling Stock" 
came first locomotives of great poAver, the discussion of 
which referred to the increase in the power of locomotives 
by the adoption of high pressures and of the compound prin- 
ciple. Improvements in construction from this point of view. 
Use of nickel steel. Then in the second part of this section 
came the question of pooling locomotives, the use of two or 
more crews and the advantages and disadvantages of the 
practice and the result of such common use with respect to 
the efficiency and care of the locomotive. The third part 
of the section discussed automatic couplers, their advantages 
and disadvantages and the improvements 'effected in their 
construction and their use in connection with other coup- 
lings. The fourth part of the section took up electric trac- 
tion, discussing the progress made on important lines of 
railways, continue current, alternating currents, ,polyhase 
current, experiments made with high tension currents. 

Under the general head of "Working" there was taken up 
in the first part of the section the question of lighting, heat- 
ing and ventilation of trains and the improvements made 
regarding the same. 

On May 4, the first day the sections met mainly for the 
purpose of organization, and the discussion of reports and 
papers was not taken up until the second day, May 5. 


In the discussion of this report Mr. J. F. Deems of the New 
York Central lines examined different special points, especially 
the use of devices for increasing traction at starting, which 
in his opinion have not as yet given all the results that might 
be expected. He referred to mechanical stokers and said 
that it would be of interest to see them tested further. A dis- 
cussion ensued on the use of these devices in which a promi- 
nent part was taken by Messrs. Muhlfeld, D. F. Crawford 
(Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburg). F. G. Wright (Great 
Western Ry., England), A. W. Gibbs (Pennsylvania R. R.), 
Th. Laurent (Paris to Orleans R. R., France). The conclusion 
arrived, at was that up to the present time these mechanical 
stokers do not appear to have secured any considerable saving 
of fuel and are still in the experimental stage; furthermore, 
they seem to have given only mediocre results in England 
on the Great Western Ry., and Mr. Muhlfeld expressed his 
belief that the hardest service required of locomotives of 
the existing types can be secured without the use of these 
devices. It would be interesting, however, to continue ex- 
periments along this line. 

Mr. Deems made some remarks on the most desirable forms 
of fireboxes. He has ascertained that narrow fireboxes Avear 
out less quickly than wide ones, although the latter in cer- 
tain cases appear to be necessary in order to secure the 
necessary amount of grate surface. He cited also a number 
of cases of breakage of cylinders which might unquestionably 
have been avoided by the use of pressed steel. Mr. R. P. C. 
Sanderson (Seaboard Air Line Ry.) recommended at all events 
the use of hard cast cylinders with soft cast jackets. 

Ideas were exchanged in regard to the use of the com- 
pound system, which appears to have been confined in Amer- 
ica until recently almost exclusively to 2-cylinder engines 
or 4-cylinder engines without crank axles. 

The reporter was of the opinion that increased engine 
capacity could be best attained by compounding, but his 
opinion did not appear to be shared by the majority of the 
American representatives who engaged in the discussion. 
Some stated they were not yet prepared to express an opinion 
on this subject. The saving secured by compound engines 
appeared also less noticeable on lines of irregular grades 
than on lines of light grades, and the decreased consumption 
of fuel is largely made up by the increased cost of mainte- 

While admitting the merit of the compound system with 
four balanced cylinders. Mr. Deems expressed fears on the 
subject of durability of crank axles even Avhen made from 
special grades of steel, OAving to the great increase in the 
poAver of the engines. 

Mr. H. H. Vaughan (Canadian Pacific Ry.) stated he had 
had an extensive experience Avith two-cylinder compound 
locomotives, and had noted in certain eases a saving of fuel, 
but also an increased cost of maintenance. He thought the 
use of superheating would give better results and he estim- 
ated at 10 per cent the saving of fuel thereby secured in 
connection Avith two-cylinder compound engines. Data sup- 
plied from various roads showed that there will soon be in 
operation in America 110 locomotives fitted with super- 

Referring to remarks by the reporter regarding the in- 
sufficient investigation of certain details of high power en- 
gines Mr. Deems called attention to the fact that these in- 
vestigations were often rendered impossible by the haste 
with which orders had to be placed owing to the require- 
ments of traffic. 

After some remarks by Mr. A. Buchanan (Central Vermont 
Ry.) and Mr. F. H. Clark (Chicago Burlington & Quincy R. 
R.), Mr. A. Lovell (Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. R.) 
reported experiments carried out successfully on his system 
for the comparison of compound and ordinary engines under 
identical conditions during 1he same kind of work. These 
experiments have proA'ed that the compound engines were 
more economical as to the expense in fuel, but that their 
maintenance was slightly higher. Noting especially the com- 
parative experiments made betAveeu simple and compound 
engines with four balanced cylinders, both using liquid fuel, 
have demonstrated that for long and heavy hauls simple 
expansion engines cannot carry the same load as the com- 
pound engines and that the latter have shoAvn a saving 
in fuel of 20 to 24 per cent with respect to the foi'mer. In 
this special case it has been observed that the boilers of the 
simple expansion engines require more frequent repairs than 
those of the compound engines. This was due to the fact 
that the fire had to be forced to produce a sufficient steaming. 

Mr. Lovell thinks positively that there is little difference 
between the cost of maintenance of compound engines and 
simple expansion engines and if an increase in these expenses 
is observed it is chiefly due to the increase in the power 

1 7 8 


June, 1905. 

of the engines. He urther added, that the fears expressed 
by Mr. Deems as to crank axles do not appear to him to be 

M. E. Sauvage (Western Railroad of France) read the 
conclusion of his report, as follows: 

Conclusions.— (a) Wheel loads: An important point in 
considering locomotives of great power is the wheel load 
permisssible. Most of the lines of any importance allow at 
least 7.5 English tons; frequently the limit is 8.5 to 9 tons. 
It is 10 English tons on several English railways; in the 
United States there are instances where higher wheel loads 
are admitted. If we limit ourselves to the continent wheel 
loads hardly exceed 9 tons (8.86 English tons). But it is 
probable that the traffic of trunk lines will require a new in- 
crease in the power of locomotives for fast trains, so that. 
it will be desirable to have tracks which can stand wheel 
loads of 10 tons (9.48 English tons). However, in order not 
to fatigue the rails too much, it might be specified that this 
limit of. 10 tons (9.48 English tons) is only allowed in the 
case of locomotives constructed so as to keep within suffi- 
ciently narrow limits, at the highest speeds, the variations 
of load which are produced at each revolution of the wheels. 

(b) Gauge of the Tracks.— The power of locomotives built 
for track of wider gage than the standard, which are used 
in some countries (Spain, Portugal, Ireland, empire of India, 
Russia) does not exceed that of locomotives running on 
standard gage tracks. In' order to benefit by the wider gage 
it would be necessary for the track to stand heavier wheel 

(c) Diameter of Driving Wheels.— The diameter of the 
wheels hardly exceeds 2 meters (6 feet 6% inches) with the 
fastest locomotives; at most it amounts to 2.10 or 2.15 meters 
(6 feet 10 11-16 inches or 7 feet % inches). Very high speed 
locomotives often have wheels of a less diameter than 2 
meters (6 feet 6% inches). This results in more than 300 
revolutions per minute; this corresponds to a speed of 113 
kilometers (70.2 miles) per hour with 2 meter (6 feet 6% 
inches) wheels. It would be desirable not to exceed this 
limit, in order not to have too much wire drawing of steam; 
but the disadvantages of large wheels are too great nowa- 
days. There would be an excessive increase in the weight 
of the locomotives, and in the weight not carried on springs, 
and it would be necessary, as in the old locomotives, to 
reduce the diameter of the boilers. The disadvantages of 
great angular speeds is counteracted by giving large cross 
sections to the steam passages, particularly by using piston 

On the other hand, with locomotives having six or eight 
coupled wheels, very small diameters are not used; the diame- 
ter is hardly ever less than 1. 4 meter (4 feet 7% inches.) 

(d) Material Used.— The tendency is to use metals of good 
commercial quality; the use of exceptional qualities, e. g., 
of nickel steel, is very exceptional and does not appear to 
be extending. The applications of steel casting are becom- 
ing more and more numerous and varied. 

(e) Boilers.— In the case of boilers a grate area of 3 square 
meters (32.29 square feet), with a heating surface of 75 to 
80 times the size, is obtained by the usual construction, with 
narrow firebox. It appears to be difficult. to obtain a much 
larger grate area on this plan, and this leads to the use 
of fireboxes extending over the wheels. Tin; large diameter 
wheels of the high speed locomotives must then be below the 
barrel of the boiler; this can be done in the case of the 
Atlantic type. In Europe, several applications of these ex- 
tended fireboxes now begin to be seen, and it is probable 
they will multiply. For a long time hesitation was shown in 
placing the grate above an axle, particularly in England; 
now that position of the grate is generally accepted. No 
doubt the same will happen with regard to the extension of 
the firebox above the wheels. 

Very high pressure (14 to 16 kilograms per square centi- 
meter (199 to 228 pounds per square inch) are used at 
present, particularly with compounds. They necessarily in- 
volve an increased cost of maintenance of the boilers. 

Serve ribbed tubes are generally used, particularly in 
France; they are useful by making it possible to have a 
larger heating surface with a boiler of given size. The tubes 
must be cleaned out frequently and with care. 

(f) Compound System.— As a general rule, it is well estab- 
lished that the compound system results either in a certain 
economy of fuel for the same power, or more frequently in 
an increased power for the same fuel consumption. In some 
few cases these advantages have not been realized; this may 
depend on the particular use made of the locomotives or to 
some defects in the application of the system. 

The use of four separate cylinders, acting by twos on 
cranks placed at 180 degrees to each other, makes it possible 
to obtain greater power without fatiguing the mechanism 
too much; this arrangement balances the reciprocating masses 
without producing vertical disturbances. As far as possible 
the cylinders must act on two different axles, but these are 
coupled up. 

It is advisable that each system should have a valve gear 
of its own and that it should be possible to operate indepen- 
dently the reversing shafts belonging to the two groups of 
cylinders, high pressure and low pressure. 

(g) Valve Gear. — No mechanism has succeeded in replac- 
ing the valve gear consisting of a slide valve and link mo- 
tion. The link motions most generally used are Stephenson's 
and W'alschaerts'. Valve gear without eccentrics has the dis- 
advantage of being disturbed by vertical displacement of the 

The only modification of these ancient systems at all com- 
mon is the replacement of flat slide valves by piston valves, 
which reduce friction, and consequently wear, and "make it 
possible to arrange larger passages for the steam. On the 
other hand, a piston valve may leak; it makes it absolutely 
necessary to have a valve for admitting air to the valve 
chest for running with regulator closed, and it is advisable 
to fit relief valves on the cylinder ends. 

(h) Motion.— Tail rods are to be recommended as soon as 
the diameter of the cylinders attains or exceeds 500 milli- 
meters (1 foot 7 21-32 inches). The lubrication of the slide 
valves and pistons is ensured in a continuous manner by 
lubricator pumps or by sight feed lubricators, placed under 
the eyes of the crew. 

(i) Power of Locomotives.— With the present limits of 
weight admitted on the main European systems, locomotives 
can be built, thanks to the use of high pressures and the 
compound system, giving 1500 to 2000 indicating horsepower 
(1480 to 1973 indicated British horsepower). 

(j) Locomotives, for High Speed: Trains.— For heavily loaded 
high speed trains, locomolives of the Atlantic type or loco- 
motives with six large coupled wheels are used., The choice 
between the two types depends on the nature of the service, 
on the profile of the lines, and also on the maximum wheel 
load allowed. 

(k) Locomotives for General Purposes.— The locomotive 
with six-coupled wheels and bogie, the wheels having a dia- 
meter of 1.5 to 1.8 meters (4 feet 11 inches to 5 feet 10% 
inches), is eminently suitable for a passenger train service, 
and the same locomotive can also haul goods (freight) trains 

(1) Locomotives for Heavy Goods Trains.— For heavy goods 
trains there is a return to locomotives with eight coupled 
wheels, by preference with a leading pair of carrying wheels. 
Those locomotives can exercise tractive efforts of more than 
10,000 kilograms (22,000 pounds); they are limited by the 
strength of the couplings used in Europe. 

(in) Tank Locomotives.— A very fair amount of attention 

June, 1905. 



is being paid to the design of tank locomotives with six or 
even eight coupled wheels, either for suburban tiain services, 
where very quick starting is necessary, or for very long dis- 
tance runs. A leading pair of wheels or bogie is added either 
at one end, or at both, according to the nature of the service. 
Having two bogies, however, results in having very long and 
very heavy locomotives. 

For the convenience of the service, these locomotives have 
long footplates for the crew and carry large quantities of 
water and particularly of fuel, at least as much as is carried 
in the small separate tenders which are still in use. 

(n) Locomotives with Flexible Wheelbase. — The only type 
of powerful locomotive with its whole weight adhesive and 
arranged to run over specially sharp curves, which is largely 
used, is the Mallet type. However, most railways content 
themselves with locomotives of the ordinary type, without 
flexible wheelbase. 

(o) General Remarks.— The railway industry does not es- 
cape a law which nearly all industries are subject to, owing 
to the rapid progress made in engineering, of almost con- 
tinuously modifying its stock. As soon as new locomotives 
have been designed, which are very superior to those used 
previously, one is tempted to think that to some extent finality 
has been reached, or at least that during a sufficiently long 
period it will be possible to do without any new designs. It 
appears very tempting to keep for a long time to standard 
types, which are cheaper to build and easier to maintain, 
but progress, which does not stop, hardly allows definite 
types to be determined in this way. 

Thus on European railways we find locomotives running 
developing 1,480 and even more indicated British horsepower; 
but the continual increase in train weights and train speeds 
make it necessary today already to look for still more power- 
ful locomotives, if not for actually existing needs, then at- 
loast for the needs of the immediate future. 

Certainly the old stock is, therefore, not to be given up 
entirely, and the variety of existing railway services makes 
it possible to utilize well locomotives which are already of 
older date, but care must be taken that the unavoidable age 
of such locomotives, which is the result of the time which 
passes away, is not increased by an artificial age, by making 
them several years old already when building them. 

The conclusions of this report were then opened for dis- 
cussion jointly with those of Mr. Muhlfekl's report. Mr. 
Moffre (Railroad of the Midi, France) states that if some 
American engineers find compound engines of small advantage 
because the increase in the cost of maintenance exceeds the 
economy in fuel, this opinion is not shared either by the 
French engineers nor by the engineers of the adjacent coun- 
tries. It is true that a comparison is often difficult, as there 
are no engines exactly similar and doing exactly the same 
work. On the Railway of the Midi he had occasion to com- 
pare ordinary engines with double cylinder compound engines 
which were rebuilt from the former, and, therefore, had 
exactly the same boilers; this comparison has shown an 
economy of 20 per cent in fuel in favor of the compound 
engines. In France the arrangements with four balanced 
cylinders is generally preferred, as it is thought to give a 
better distribution of work, and a balancing of parts in al- 
ternating movement. 

Mr. Moffre also thought that if compounding should at some 
time be abandoned for superheating, the arrangement in four 
cylinders will still be the best. As to the question of crank 
axles, it does not exist in Europe, where axles of ordinary 
steel can be seen seven or eight years old, and having run 
more than 600,000 kilometers (some 370,000 miles) without 
developing any cracks. Still better results may be expected 
with special steels. 

The cost of maintenance of the machinery of four-cylinder 

engines should in no case exceed by more than 40 per cent 
that of the ordinary engines; in some special cases a saving 
has even been observed. As to the cost of maintenance of the 
boilers, that increase is solely due to the greater pressure, and 
it could without doubt be reduced by making certain changes 
in the present form of construction. 

Mr. W. Mcintosh (Central Railroad of New Jersey) stated 
that he favored compound engines which, according to him, 
are an improvement, and he thought that if the first types 
have not realized all expectations there is no reason for 
condemning the system, which can still be improved. 

Mr. Karl Steinbiss (royal management of the Altona Rail- 
road, Prussia) reported on experiments made in Germany 
during 20 years on compound engines of various types with 
two, three or four cylinders of the systems von Borries, Mallet, 
etc. At present more than a thousand engines of these types 
are in service in Germany, both on passenger trains as well 
as on freight trains, and they give the best results in respects 
of economy. The saving in coal is on an average 10 per 
cent; excepting the starting valves, the repairs are not more 
costly than for the ordinary engines. 

Reeeut'ly another great question has been investigated, that 
of superheating. Thanks to the use of the Schmidt super- 
heater and to the improvements made by Mr. Garbe, great 
progress is expected with simple engines, with two-cylinder 
engines, with cylindrical or balanced valve chests. In con- 
eluding Mr. Steinbiss remarked that German locomotives can 
not attain such great dimensions as American engines, be- 
cause the load per wheel is limited to eight tons in general, 
and to nine tons in special cases, 

Mr. Alfred W. Gibbs (Pennsylvania R. R.) made some re- 
marks in regard to the DeGlehn type of locomotive built for 
his company by the Societe Alsacienne. This engine repre- 
sents a very fine type of construction and is a very handsome 
example from the standpoint of lightness of parts; still the 
distribution of parts does not seem to him superior to that 
in American engines, and he stated that he had had many 
cases of hot boxes. He would be very glad to have the 
opinion of French engineers on these points, and also re- 
garding the best type of crank axles to adopt. He added 
that the De Glehn locomotive had excellent qualities in the 
matter of quick starting. 

Mr. Laurent (Chemin de Fer de Paris a Orleans, France), 
replying to Mr. Gibbs, admitted that copper staybolts also 
give a great deal of trouble in France; that the upper rows 
have had to be replaced with manganese bronze staybolts, 
and they are still seeking a better metal. But these diffi- 
culties are also experienced with the American engines be- 
longing to his company and appear inherent to the use 
of high pressure. As to hot boxes on drivers, he had tried 
American lubrication with wool waste and derived no ad- 
vantage from them, and after many cases of hot boxes with 
this system, he has returned to the system of lubricators 
which, on the whole, seems to him preferable. 

Returning to the question of firing, Mr. Laurent reported 
that by using grates inclined at an angle of about 18 degrees 
a single fireman can fire about two tons an hour on the 
powerful engines of his company. It has been shown in fact 
by very accurate tests made by his company that, within 
limits of load varying 50 per cent, the consumption of fuel 
per unit of work does not vary over five per cent. 

Mr. Asselin (Chemin de Fer du Nbrd, France) stated that 
on his line copper staybolts have been replaced entirely with 
manganese bronze staybolts, the heads of which, it is true, 
burn out more quickly than those of copper staybolts, but by 
being careful to replace all staybolts whose heads have burned 
out, whenever the engine is laid oft' for any reason, all objec- 
tions are overcome. For crank axles, his company uses oil 
tempered gun steel, which gives entire satisfaction. 



June, 1905. 

Mr. Dubois (Cherain de Fer de l'Ouest, France) declared 
that his company bad not observed any difference in wear 
between tbe three designs of crank axles which they have 
tried, and they have finally taken to using the least expensive 
design, viz., parallel crank axles. 

Mr. Bowman Malcolm (Midland Railway, Ireland) esti- 
mated the saving of fuel by the use of compound engines at 
ten per cent., and thought that they do not involve any per- 
ceptible increase of cost of maintenance. In his opinion the 
difficulties experienced with them at the start should not in- 
terfere with their general adoption, and he spoke particular- 
ly of the four cylinder system. 

On Monday, May 8, Section 2 again took up the subject of 
"Locomotives of Great Power." A discussion -took place on 
the maintenance of boilers, and especially on leakage at the 
joints with the tubes and the rupture of stay bolts, which 
was participated in by Messrs. H,. C. King (Great Western 
Railway), Th. Ronayne (New Zealand Government Rail- 
ways), B. Malcolm (Midland Railways), A. W. Gibbs (Penn- 
sylvania Railroad), and J. E. Muhlfeld. 

It appeared from the discussion that in the United States 
the use of soft steel fire boxes with well spaced wrought 
iron stay bolts proves, satisfactory, the use of soft steel for 
stay bolts being limited to Belpaire boilers. Some engineers 
prefer, if possible, to leave the fires banked during the hous- 
ing of the engine, to avoid cooling and contraction. Mr. Gibbs 
stated that the wear of fire boxes is not so rapid as it is 
commonly believed to be. Thus on his system, having 3,300 
locomotives in service, 700 of which are heavy engines, in 
late years not n ore than 65 to 70 fire boxes have to be re- 
placed annually. In a boiler having a life of 20 years the fire 
box has been replaced on the average twice. Bad quality of 
water and lack of care in construction are the most frequent 
causes of boiler defects. 

Mr. Wright observed that experiments made 20 years ago 
with compound locomotives on the Great Western Railway 
were given up because of damage due to the water entrained 
in the cylinders because of poor design. They have been 
taken up again, and last summer his company put into ser- 
vice a de Glehn compound locomotive which has covered the 
distance from London to Plymouth (246 miles) without a 
stop. Mr. Wright believes that the superiority of this engine 
consists in its two independent mechanisms. 

On the compound engines of the London & North Western 
Railway, where the two mechanisms were connected together, 
the results obtained were not so good, and a very noticeable 
improvement was obtained after separating the distribution. 
The Great Western Railway has ordered two other machines 
of the same type, but of higher power. 

M. Ronayne said that the need of increasing the power of 
engines has also made itself felt on the railroads of New 
Zealand. He has ordered four locomotives of the de Glehn 
type to be built, and the opinions expressed at the congress 
by other members indicate to him that he is on the right 
road. He reported that he has experienced with nickel steel 
with little success. The use of the latter material has given 
better results with piston rods, and it is at the present time 
being tried for smoke tubes. He also, intends to experiment 
with spiral tubes in order to suppress the flying of .sparks 
through the stack. The cylindrical valve boxes used in con- 
nection with the Walschaerts distribution give full satisfac- 
tion, and he prefers them to the balanced valve boxes. 

M. Tordeux (East French Railroads) stated that all loco- 
motives built for the last seven years by his comapny have 
four cylinders. It has 260 of this type already in service and 
will soon have 320 or 330. The main reason for adopting the 
compound system on his roads is flip economy in coal. There 
are no coal mines in the vicinity, and the cost of fuel is about 
18 francs per metric ton. The first hundred compound loco- 

motives which were built had flat valve boxes. After the 
Universal Exposition of 1900 the comparative experiments 
which were made with engines having cylindrical valve boxes 
and those with fiat boxes have shown that the former behaved 
better, that they were maintained easier and that they pro- 
duced a saving in fuel of 4 to 5 per cent compared with the 
latter, which is due to the reduced throttling of the steam. 
All new locomotives are built at present with cylindrical valve 
boxes. The Comnagnie de l'Est has also been making for a 
year past experiments with steam jackets, but without ap- 
preciable results. As to lubrication, the substitution of the 
wick lubricator by the American syphon lubricator has re- 
duced the consumption of oil from 35 to 40 per cent. The use 
of the latter device is therefore being extended. 

Mr. D. F. Crawford (Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburg) 
confirmed what has been said on the advantages of cylindrical 
valve boxes. Trials made covering a period of three years by 
his company on an equal number of engines of the same type, 
one scries having flat valve boxes and the other cylindrical, 
proved the superiority of the latter for passenger locomotives. 
This system reduces the throttling of the steam; it causes only 
an insignificant wear, while the flat valve box requires the 
adjustment of the distributing mechanism between two gen- 
eral repairs, and, finally, notwithstanding the extreme bal- 
ancing of the flat box, the lifting mechanism is much more 
difficult to handle. Similar trials are being made on freight 

Mr. Muhlfeld then summed up the vai - ious points which 
were brought out by the discussion, and pointed out the main 
differences between American and European practice as fol- 
lows: The working pressure of the boilers is somewhat 
higher in the United States than in Europe; the slow adop- 
tion of the compound system in America, which is attributed 
to difficulties encountered at the beginning and to the differ- 
ent object aimed at by compounding, which in Europe is 
chiefly for the saving of fuel, while in the United States in- 
crease in tractive force is principally desired; the difference 
in the construction of fire boxes and staybolts, etc. Mr. Muhl- 
feld considers that superheating is not sufficiently developed 
in his country, and that it should attract the attention of en- 
gineers. He also called attention to the advantage which 
heavy tank engines offer by utilizing the weight of the fuel 
and water to increase the friction on the rails for certain 
classes of service, besides suburban traffic and operations, 
for which this kind of engine is used exclusively in America. 
There are also very few articulated locomotives in the United 

Mi-. Muhlfeld's last remarks led. Mr. Asselin (Nord Francais) 
to refer to the construction on his line of an engine of great 
power, designed by Mr. du Bousquet, the chief engineer, which 
is simply an articulated tender engine. It is a compound 
freight engine working 228 pounds pressure, with an excep- 
tionally powerful boiler for a European locomotive, as it has 
a capacity of 283 cu. ft, 32 square feet of grate surface, and 
a heating surface of 2620 sq. ft., of which 129 sq. ft. is fire- 
box. There are 130 tubes of the Serve, type, 2% ins. outside 
diameter and 15.6 ft. long. The object aimed at was to build 
an engine capable of hauling 1,100 tons 011 a 1.2 per cent 
grade at a speed of 12M> miles an hour and this same load on 
lines having- no gradients exceeding 0.5 per cent at a speed of 
at least 30 miles per hour. With this object the drivers were 
given a diameter of 4 ft. 9 ins. 

Mr. Asselin gave some details of the construction of this 
locomotive, which is not a Mallet engine, as its boiler rests 
on two articulated trucks. For this purpose the two ordinary 
bolsters of the engine are replaced by a single center beam 
which carries the boiler and rests on the two trucks. Like 
the Mallet locomotive on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, of 
which Mr. Muhlfeld spoke in his report, the two driver trucks 

June, 1905. 



nre furnished with three coupled axles. As there is a fourth 
carrying axle placed on each truck, the weight per axle does 
not exceed 16% tons. The steam is led to the high pressure 
cylinders mounted on the rear truck through the center bear- 
ing of the truck. Connection with the low pressure cylinders 
is made by means of articulated metal pipes. The total length 
of engine is 53 ft. Weight, empty, 85.8 tons, and loaded, 112 

Following the same line of thought, Mr. Flobert (Nord de 
1'Espagne) described an engine in course of construction for 
his company and intended for hauling coal trains at a speed 
of 12V2 miles an hour on a line containing 2 per cent grades 
and curves of 820 feet radius. This engine is composed of 
two locomotives with three coupled axles and pony truck 
ahead, coupled to a single rear tender. The whole engine 
weighs 33 tons and is 82 feet long. The tractive power is 
26,400 pounds. It takes one engineer and two ttremen to 
handle the engine. 

The president read the following draft of conclusions to be 
submitted to the general meeting on the question of engines 
of great power: 

"The power of locomotives is more limited in Europe than 
in America, owing to the lower allowance of weight per axle. 

"European engineers generally agree in thinking that com- 
pounding admits of the construction of engines giving the 
maximum power and economy. This system utilizes the 
steam very well and does not appear to increase to any no- 
ticeable extent the cost of maintenance of locomotives; it does 
make the maintenance of the boilers more difficult, but that 
is due to their increased size and higher working pressure, 
which are necessary in all cases. Almost all locomotives built 
in France in recent years have four balanced cylinders. These 
engines, as well as compound engines of other systems, are 
also employed in other European countries, especially Ger- 
many, Austria, Spain, etc. Several engineer:; in Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland express equal satisfaction from their use and 
insist on the advantage of separating the high and low pres- 
sure machinery. A number of American engineers also ex- 
press opinions favorable to compound locomotives, which have 
given satisfactory results on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railway; the sentiment on this matter is, however, less 
unanimous in the United States than in Europe. The section 
has been informed of experiments made in New Zealand with 
four-cylinder compound locomotives. 

"The introduction of American locomotives in Europe and 
European locomotives in America has had the advantage of 
making known on both sides some interesting details of con- 
struction, particularly the light weight of the parts of Euro- 
pean locomotives and the syphon and sight feed lubricators 
of American locomotives. 

"The constantly increasing use of cast steel is observed, 
which in the United States has even been tried for cylinders. 

"The use of the Walschaerts motion gear is extending in 
the United States. 

"Generally speaking, all the engineers who have spoken 
of cylindrical valve chests appear well satisfied with them. 

"A number of tests of automatic stokers have been made in 
the United States and on the Great Western Railway, of Eng- 
land, but as yet the results have not been definite. It has 
also been found, both in America and in England, that with- 
out the aid of these devices, but with proper arrangements 
.'of grates, the heaviest firing necessary at the present time 
can be effected without difficulty. 

"Finally the section has examined the use of articulated 
locomotives of great power on lines of irregular grades, par- 
ticularly Mallet locomotives and those designed by the Nord 
Francais and Nord de 1'Espagne railways." 

These conclusions were adopted, after Mr. Muhlfeld had 
called attention to the necessity of giving more care to de- 

tails of construction and maintenance of engines, and made a 
statement regarding the maximum load per axle in America 
(62,000 lbs.), and the maximum weight for a locomotive 
(334,500 lbs.), for a wheel base of 30 ft. 6 ins. 


Mr. C. B. Dudley (Pennsylvania Railroad) summarized his 
report on the lighting, heating and ventilation of trains. This 
report shows that the use of candles is being abandoned, ex- 
cept in cases of emergency, and the same is largely true of 
oil lamps. The carburetter system seems to have given good 
results on branch lines. The use of oil gas is being largely 
extended, while that of coal gas is disappearing. At the 
present time 25,000 to 26,000 cars in the United States are 
lighted with oil gas, and this number tends to increase. 
Electric lighting has been tried on a large scale under five 
distinct forms: 

First— By the use of movable storage batteries. 

Second— By the use of storage batteries placed permanently 
under the cars and charged during stops of the latter. 

Third— By the use of dynamos operated by the motion of 
the car axle. 

Fourth— By the use of .a dynamo placed in a baggage car. 

Fifth— By means of a steam turbine driving a dynamo 
placed on the locomotive. This last system has been tested 
in only a few cases. 

It did not seem possible to the reporter to render at this 
time a final decision on these different systems. 

Acetylene lighting has been tried under three forms: 

First — With acetylene generators hung under the cars. 

Second— With receivers holding compressed acetylene. 

Third— With acetylene dissolved in acetone, in cylinders 
containing some absorbent material, such as disks of asbestos. 

Electricity seems to be the most economical system as re- 
gards consumption, but it is difficult to give figures regarding 
the cost of maintenance of the apparatus. 

As for car heating, in tne reporter's opinion, the best 
method is to use steam from the locomotive, and he par- 
ticularly recommended the Baker system, which admits of the 
use of either steam or coal, as may be desired. The proper 
diameter to be used in the pipes and the arrangement of the 
couplings are the most delicate points in the equipment, and 
the reporter called attention to the systems shown at the ex- 
position, which provide for coupling simultaneously aud auto- 
matically the pipes for the steam, air and signal pipes. 

On the subject of ventilation the reporter remarked that a 
good system should work both in summer and winter, and 
should be properly harmonized with the heating system. He 
described the system used on the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
whereby the air is taken from outside, under the flooring of 
the cars, is heated by radiators and admitted inside the car 
through openings under the seats and passed off through ven- 
tilators in the roof. 

The secretary then read the conclusions from the report 
presented on the same subject by Mr. Cajetan Banovits (Hun- 
garian State Railway), published in full in the Bulletin of the. 
International Railway Congress, page 1,383, Vol. XIX, 1905, 
which were as follows: 

"In consequence of the continual improvements and ad- 
vances made in the lighting, heating and ventilation of rail- 
way carriages, the general character of these appliances has 
steadily improved during the last few years. Nevertheless 
appliances are still largely used which only very inadequate- 
ly or moderately satisfy the reasonable requirements of pas- 

J'The better and more improved appliances may be divided 
into two groups; the one comprises the appliances which by 
their efficiency are capable of satisfying all requirements, 
however exacting, but which require separate attention, and 
can consequently be used with advantage only in special 

1 82 


June, 1905. 

cases, not where there is much traffic; the other comprises 
the appliances which can satisfy all modern requirements, 
and owing to the simplicity of their manipulation are suit- 
able for the best trains, and allow a large amount of traffic 
to be dealt with readily and expeditiously. It is evident, how- 
ever, that in such appliances also further improvements may 
still be made. 

"To the second group, which is most suitable for the im- 
provement of deficient appliances, belong: 

"(a) As regards lighting: Gas, mixed gas and electric 
lighting. The last, owing to its many advantages, is worthy 
of special attention aud its use should be extended as much 
as possible. 

"(b) As regards heating: The various systems of steam 
heating, the steam and the condensed water conduction being 
kept as separate as possible, or even separate piping being 
provided for carrying off the condensed water. 

"(c) As regards ventilation: The roof ventilators, with 
their action increased as much as possible by combining them 
with pipe ventilators.' In this connection it should also be 
noted that it is desirable to supplement the ventilation by pro- 
viding for the supply of fresh air in addition to removing the 
foul air. 

"Finally, it must be emphasized that for these reasons also 
special importance must lie attached to the proper and suit- 
able design of the carriages, by which not only is the proper 
working of the appliances mentioned above better ensured, 
aud consequently the legitimate demands of passengers met 
by this means, but the safety of the traffic is also increased." 

-Mr. Wickersheimer (State Railway, France) asked for some 
details on the use of acetylene gas, which, when under low 
pressure, did seem to him dangerous, and, particularly, 
whether freezing of generators on cars cannot be prevented 
by adding a certain proportion of alcohol to the water. 

Mr. Max Toltz (Manistee & Grand Rapids R, R.) gave an 
account of experiments made with a system designed by him- 
self conjointly with Mr. Lipschutz. In this system they use 
acetylene compressed to 10 atmospheres in receivers hung 
under the cars, and to avoid explosions arising from the heat- 
ing of the each receiver is fitted with a number of fusible 
plugs. To avoid beating of the gas during its compression 
the latter is effected in three successive periods, and the gas 
cooled after each compression. This system is being used at 
the present time on a large scale by the Great Western Ry. 
(United States) and the Canadian Pacific Ry., and no serious 
accident has so far occurred. Replying to the question pre- 
viously asked by Mr. Wickersheimer, Mr. Toltz said that as 
far as he knew only glycerine has been used to prevent 

Mr. W. E. Fowler (Canadian Pacific Ry.) confirmed the 
information given by Mr. Toltz on the subject of his system, 
which is now in use on 36 cars of his company, and is work- 
ing there in a satisfactory manner, without having caused any 
accident. He stated that this system gives three times as 
much light as oil lamps for the same expense. 

In reply to an inquiry from Mr. Brisse (Chemin de fer de 
l'Est, Fiance), Mr. Fowler stated that the Toltz system did 
not give any more trouble or inconvenience than the Pintsch 
system as regards charging the tanks at stations. 

Mr. R. F. De Salis (North Staffordshire Railway, England) 
described a system of obtaining acetylene gas without water 
by mixing calcium carbine wiili bicarbonate of soda. This 
process, which avoids any trouble in regard to freezing has 
been employed only lor stationary apparatus, up to the present 
time, but he thinks it would he interesting to try its applica- 
tion to the lighting 01' cars. 

Mr. N'erlant (Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry., France) 
staled that his company, which has in its ears about 25,000 
lamps burning a rich gas. has improved its lighting in the 

last few years by mixing this gas with 20 to 25 per cent of 
acetylene. A further improvement has been attempted by 
using incandescent mantles, 'out as these wear out quickly 
with acetylene, and the fact that two generating plants are 
required (one for gas and one for acetylene), is a disad- 
vantage, Mr. Yerlant thinks that with incandescent mantles 
it is preferable to give up using acetylene. 

Mr. Brisse reported that the Compagnie de l'Est has de- 
cided to adopt on its entire rolling stock the use of rich gas 
with incandescent mantles. This method of lighting, while 
given a greater illuminating power than ordinary gas burn- 
ers, secures at the same time a very marked saving. Two de- 
signs of tips are used — the straight burner and the reverse 
burner. The latter gives a more satisfactory appearance, but 
the life of the mantles is much longer with the former. 

Mr. J. J. W. Van Loenen Martinet (Chemins de fer Hol- 
landais) said that his line has been using for the last eight 
years oil gas mixed with 15 per cent acetylene, but that a 
serious explosion occurred in a stationary acetylene plant 
used for lighting a station, and it was thought more prudent 
not to extend the use of this system. They resorted, there- 
fore, to electric lighting by the Stone system, with which 10 
per cent of their cars are now equipped. According to the 
speaker, the net cost of this method of illumination, without 
allowing for depreciation, is 20 per cent greater than that of 
gas mixed with acetylene. 

Mr. R. Salle (German Empire Railway) stated that in Ger- 
many the mixture of rich gas and acetylene is extensively 
used, but owing to a very severe explosion some years ago in 
Strasburg, the cause of which could not be ascertained, it 
has been decided to seek some other process. They have con- 
sequently begun to experiment with incandescent burners, 
using, however, two mantles for each lamp. 

Mr. W. Clow (Great Central Ry., England) expressed the 
opinion that electric light gives the best results. Out of 631 
cars belonging to his company 50 per cent are lighted with 
electric light, 40 per cent with gas and 10 per cent with oil. 
Mr. H. C. Hpdgson (Midland Ry.. England) recalled that 13 
years ago his company experimented with a Brotherhood en- 
gine driving a dynamo set on the locomotive, but after a few 
years they abandoned this arrangement. 

Mr. L. Rouet de Journel (Madrid-Saragossa-Alicante Rail- 
way, Spain) gave complete data on the Vicarino system of 
electric lighting as applied to 23 cars belonging to his com- 
pany. The net cost of this system would be 1.55 francs per 
1.000 candle-power (French measure) per hour, 40 per cent 
of this being charged to depreciation and interest, 20 per cent 
to operation, 15 per cent to maintenance of dynamos, 11 per 
cent to maintenance of accumulators, 7 per cent to keeping 
up belts and 7 per cent to maintenance of lamps. A number 
of cases of slipping of belt have been experienced, and to 
avoid the consequences thev propose to try coupling the dif- 
ferent cars to each other. The speaker thought it would he 
advantageous to devise some arrangement for stopping the 
process of charging the accumulators when the necessary 
voltage is reached. 

Mr. Ch. Jenny (South Austrian Railways) thought that 
electric lighting would be particularly advantageous for lines 
having numerous tunnels, to save the expense resulting from 
the prolonged burning of gas lamps. 

M. Karl Steinbiss (Royal Management, Altona Ry., Prussia) 
described two interesting experiments in electric lighting. 
The first, undertaken three years ago, consisted in driving a 
dynamo by a Laval turbine, mounted on the locomotive. The 
lighting worked well, but the consumption of steam was ex- 
cessive, and the (are of the electric apparatus required much 
attention from the engine crew. This system was therefore 
abandoned and a dynamo mounted on the wheels of a car 
was tried, according to an arrangement devised by Messrs. 

June, 1905. 



Wittfeld and Rosenberg. The dynamo produced a current of 
200 amperes with a tension of 72 volts, and sufficed to illum- 
inate a train of seven ears, each 01 which was provided with 
two storage batteries of 32 volts. This seems to give excellent 

M. F. Paul-Dubois (Paris-Orleans Railway, France) stated 
that his company is .very well satisfied witli the Stone electric 
lighting system, which is at present installed in 50 cars. Some 
suburban trains ire lighted by means of a single dynamo set 
up in the baggage car. 

M. C. Roell (State Railroads, France) reported that after 
having tried electric lighting- without great success by mov- 
able accumulators, his management has adopted for the prin- 
cipal trains the Vicarino system, which gives excellent re- 
sults. The majority of cars of his system are furnished with 
rich gas burners, which will be improved by the use of in- 
candescent mantles. 

Mr. Anderson (Government Railroads of India) said that 
lighting by electricity has been considered as a great im- 
provement in Europe and in America, and it is almost a neces- 
sity in the Oriental countries, because it absolutely avoids 
heat and, still better, permits the use of fans by the same cur- 
rent. On the maiu lines of India about 95 per cent of the 
cars are lighted by electricity and it is certain that the use of 
gas will completely disappear. The only question is to de- 
cide which of the various systems should be used. Until the 
present time three methods are in use. 

First— The use of a dynamo placed at the end of the train. 
This system has been used for years past with good results. 

Second— Lighting by means of a storage battery which is 
being used at the present time on one system operating 1,600 
miles of track. It was at first feared that the replacing of 
the storage batteries would involve much cost, but these fears 
have not been realized. On the above distance there are six 
stations where storage batteries are recharged. 

Third— The Stone system, which is used between Bombay 
and Calcutta, on the Peninsular Express. This system, how- 
ever, does not give the best results, because it is difficult to 
keep the apparatus in good order, partly on account of the 
scarcity of electricians in India and to the lack of capacity of 
the ordinary train staff. 

Mr. J. J. di Salva, Freire (locomotive superintendent, Cen- 
tral Brazil Railroad), informed the section that the system 
of lighting, by Pintsch gas, has been in use for a long time in 
Brazil, and that an attempt had been made to obtain a better 
light by mixing acetylene gas with the Pintsch gas, which, 
however, did not give satisfactory results. The speaker in- 
quired whether others had made similar experiments, and 
thought that the want of success on the Brazilian railroads 
was due, at least in part, to the smaller diameter of the pipes 
used. On certain lines, especially on the St. Paul Railway 
System, the Stone system has been in use for the past ten 
years with very good results. Unfortunately this system is 
costly. The Brazilian railroads are always on the lookout for 
a better light, provided that it will not cost too much. 

Mr. Crawford (locomotive superintendent. Pennsylvania 
Railroad Lines West of Pittsburg) stated that on his syste?n 
all the trains are heated by steam from the locomotives. The 
Pullman cars are in addition equipped with fixtures which 
enable them to lie heated either by a hot water system, or 
by steam from the locomotvie. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has experimented with steam at 
low pressure and the main difficulty has been to rind good 
coupling connections. In the matter of ventilation, about 200 
passenger cars out of the 400 in service on the Pennyelvania 
Lines West of Pittsburg are being operated upon the system 
of ventilation described in Mi*. Dudley's report, with excel- 
lent results. 

The greatest difficulty encountered in the system of direct 

heating by steam is in regulating the- temperature in the 

cars. Automatic regulators have been Hied in several car-. 
but have not shown good results up to the present time, and 
the cars arc- generally overheated so that the temperature 
has to be regulated by the train staff. 

The direct heating system, described by Mr. Dudley, is not. 
the speaker stated, used by the Pullman Company, and he at- 
tributes this to the fact that this company has car- with 
panels of very expensive woods and that the difference in 
temperature between the periods during which the cars are 
in motion and those during which they are stationary would 
soon destroy the paneling. 

Mr. Dudley replied that the direct system of heating by 
steam is used in the Pullman cars if by the direct system 
is understood one in which each car is supplied with the nec- 
essary steam from a main pipe coming frprn the locomotive 
and extending from one end of the train to the other, the con- 
densation water being discharged onto the track without a 
special valve. 

Mr. Crawford replied that the Pullman Company uses the 
steam heating system, but also each car has a hot water 
system which enables the temperature to be maintained dur- 
ing stops. Mr. Fowler (Canadian Pacific Ry.) understood by 
direct heating the use of the steam as it comes from the loco- 
motive, and again expressed his opinion that this system is 
inadvisable in cars with costly wood panels. 

M. Brisse (assistant chief of operation of the Eastern 
French Railroads) iuformed the section that his company has 
experimented with a mixed heating system, using steam and 
compressed air supplied by the air pump of the locomotive, 
a sy-tem which was invented by Mr. Lancrenom for the re- 
quirements of the heating of trains of great length. The use 
of steam alone presented great difficulties, especially in the 
suburban service of Paris, where trains frequently consist 
of 24 units on two or three axles each. This heating system 
has been gradually extended on all trains of the Eastern 
Railway. It has the advantage of permitting a reduction in 
the diameter of the pipes. The hot mixture is led under the 
feet of the passengers, which is preferred in France, and is 
also either along the sides or under the seats, where it pro- 
duces heat by radiation. In the cars in the international 
service this sj stem permits also heating by steam alone when 
outside of French territory. The improvements made by this 
inventor enabled the road to maintain in its cars during last 
winter an average temperature of 20 degs. Centigrade when 
it was outside minus 15. With tins system no special diffi- 
culty is experienced in maintaining pressure. 

Mr. Hodgson (general manager. Midland Railway of Eng- 
land) calied the attention of the meeting to the fact that in 
England the differences in temperature, though sudden, are 
never very excessive. There is no extreme cold, and opinions 
are divided between the use of hot water heaters and steam 
heating. Two types of cars are in general use on the rail- 
roads of Great Britain ; and the heating systems are ap- 
plied according as the cars have a central passage or side 
doors. In cars of the first type it is difficult to use water 
heaters, but in the second they give general satisfaction. 
Opinions are also divided as to the best lo -atlon of the main 
steam pipe. If it is placed outside of the cars a great loss 
of heat is occasioned, but, on th-^ other hand, if placed on the 
insiele it becomes impossible to isolate a car placed in the 
mielelle or at the front of the train. This trouble is avoided 
when each car is equipped with its own radiating apparatus 
feel by an external pipe. 

M. Hodeige (Belgium State Railroad) stated that a certain 
number of water heaters are still in use in Belgium where. 
however, they have begun to use the system of heating by 
steam taken from the locomotive as well as the system ele- 
scribed by Mr. Brisse. Belgium still being in an experi- 

1 84 


June, 1905. 

mental stage, the speaker regretted not being able to rec- 
ommend any system. 

Mr. Mitchell (Lehigh Valley Railroad) stated that a direct 
heating system by steam is in use on all cars of his com- 
pany. At the yards special generators are installed, which 
furnish the steam necessary to maintain the temperature in 
ears during long stops. The innovation has permitted the 
abandonment of the hot water system with which 132 cars 
were previously equipped, which has resulted in an increased 
space in each car. Several years ago a commission was ap- 
pointed by the American Master Car Builders' Association to 
determine whether the main pipe of 1% ins. in diameter which 
had been previously used, was sufficiently large. This com- 
mittee recommended the adoption of pipes 2 ins. in diameter, 
which were then installed on certain lines. The main objec- 
tion to pipes of 2-in. diameter is that they require coupling 
connections of the same diameter, which are difficult to keep 
in order. In some cases these pipes are supplied with re- 
ducers, thus permitting the use of connections with pipes of 
1% inc. diameter. 

Mr. Fowler (Canadian Pacific Ry.) informed the session 
that the Canadian Pacific has equipped all of its cars with 
2-in. train pipes and couplings of the same size. It is due to 
this large diameter that they have succeeded in keeping up 
a comfortable temperature in their cars when the tempera- 
ture outdoors is 60 degs. below zero (Fahrenheit), as hap- 
pens at times along Lake Superior. 

Mr. Ronayne (New Zealand Railways) stated that the lines 
in his country generally use systems of foot warmers for car 
heating, although they are now considering the introduction 
of a system of steam heating. In the southern island espec- 
ially the cold at some seasons is quite severe. 

While the New Zealand railways have had little experi- 
ence in the matter of heating, they have had occasion to 
study the system of ventilating ears. In some parts of the 
territory through which they run the air is full of a very 
fine white dust, which penetrates everywhere. All of the cars 
are supplied with double windows. In dining cars especially 
the air is admitted through openings in the side panels 
through a strainer, and in many cases it is cooled with ice. 
This system has given very satisfactory results. Ordinary 
coaches are ventilated through openings in the sides fitted 
with two sides, which passengers can lower or close as they 

Mr. Clark (Buffalo & Susquehanna Railroad) observed that 
nothing had been said about the economy of using steam for 
heating trains. Some companies have tried to utilize the ex- 
haust steam from the vacuum pumps on the locomotive and 
obtained very fair results. As the radiators are the same 
as those used in other steam heating systems, it is easy for 
the engineer to turn live steam into them when the tempera- 
ture gets too low. The chief objection to this system is that 
it causes back pressure on the steam piston of the vacuum 
pump. This objection, however, is unimportant. On the other 
hand, at least in American practice, it obviates the necessity 
for discharging the exhaust steam from the vacuum pump 
through the stack of the locomotive and thus avoids an ir- 
regular draft on the fires. 

Discussion having ceased, the president proposed the 
adoption of the following conclusions: 

"As regards lighting, the congress notes the development 
of the use of incandescent mantles, heated by oil gas and 
sometimes by common gas, and of different systems of elec- 
tric lighting. Cylindrical mantles seem to be somewhat 
stronger than globe mantles, but the latter distribute the light 
somewhat better. Various types of mantles are used in 
Europe by different managements, especially in France and 
Germany, and are beginning to extend to the United States. 

"Systems of electric lighting are giving satisfaction on dif- 

ferent roads. Attention is called to their advantage in cer- 
tain cases for intermittent lighting, in passing through tun- 
nels and operating driving fans. 

"Acetylene gas has been used mixed with Pintsch gas, 
especially in France and Germany, but a tendency is ob- 
served to abandon this mixture, owing to the use of mantles. 
On the other hand, mention is made of the use in America of 
pure compressed acetylene, with some special precautions. 

"Steam heating has a tendency to extend in different coun- 
tries. To obtain sufficient heat for very long trains, or in 
cases of very low temperature, care is taken either to use 
pipes of sufficient diameter or compressed air mixed with 

"The adoption of a uniform coupling for all the cars in the 
same territory is an important question to be solved. 

"The congress notes the different systems of car ventila- 
tion that have been applied, especially that in use on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad." 


The use of two or more crews. Advantages and disad- 
vantages of the practice and the result of such common use 
with respect to the efficiency and the care of the locomotive. 

Reporters for the United States: Mr. G. W, Rhodes, gen- 
eral superintendent Wyoming District, Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railway, Alliance, Neb.; Belgium, United Kingdom and 
Colonies, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Rus- 
sia, Mr. Hubert, director of the Belgian State Railways, 13 
Rue de Louvain, Brussels; other countries, Mr. Boell, chief 
engineer of mines, chief engineer of rolling stock and motive 
power of the State Railways of France, 136 Boulevard Ras- 
pail, Paris. 

Mr. Boell (State Railroads, France) summed up his report, 
which was published in full in the bulletin of the Interna- 
tional Commission of the Railway Congress, Vol. XVIIL, 1904, 
and read his following conclusions: 

1. That the pooling system always leads to a very per- 
ceptible increase in the expense per kilometer, and therefore 
it ought not to be employed except in case of absolute neces- 

2. That for the purpose of increasing the work of engines 
it is preferable to have recourse to the system of auxiliary 
crews. Or to the multiple crew system, the evils of which 
are infinitely less. 

3. That the double crew system is particularly to be ap- 
proved, particularly for switching suburban or shuttle train 
service, and even for certain classes of through train serv- 
ice, for the reason that, while affording better utiliza- 
tion of engines than the single crew system, it may permit 
of a slight saving in fuel without appreciable increase in cost 
of repairs. 

4. That with these various systems it may be of advan- 
tage in fuel expense to assign to each engine man a particu- 
lar tender which, however, gives rise to certain complica- 
tions in the service and cannot always be realized. 

5. That the system of three-men crews may in certain 
cases be substituted advantageously for that of double crews. 

6. Finally, that other systems than that of the single crew 
have little to commend them for fast express train service, 
which demands engines in a perfect condition of repair and 
well understood by the engine man who handles them. 

Mr. Hodeige (State Railroads, Belgium) gave an abstract 
of the report presented by the lamented M. E. Hubert, re- 
cently deceased, the text of which has appeared in the Bul- 
letin of the International Commission of the Railway Con- 
gress, Vol. XIX., 1905. It appears from this report that out 
of 50 roads which have replied to the questions of the re- 
porter, 16 use single crews only, except in switching opera- 
tions at the yards, where some of them use double crews aud 

June, 1905. 



that 24 roads, representing about 45 per cent of the total mile- 
age, prefer without exception the use of single crews. After 
the single crew the system most used is the double crew. 
A great majority of railroads which regularly use (his system 
recognize that the advantages which it affords, in the annual 
number of kilometers run by their locomotives, in the reduc- 
tion and regulation of the number of working hours of the 
employees and in lighting up and banking are only obtained 
at the expense of increasing the consumption of fuel and 
lubricating materials and also at the cost of a poorer main- 
tenance of the engines. 

The three men and multiple crews are not used except for 
yard switching operations or under special conditions. Fin- 
ally complete pooling is little in favor, and outside of the 
Taff Vale Railway (England), which seems to be pleased 
with it, and the Trausbaikal (Russia), which operates un- 
der peculiar conditions, this system is not used if it can be 
avoided. The reporter is of the opinion that this system can- 
not be well judged except after studying the results obtained 
by important companies using it on their systems, in a per- 
manent and general manner. 

The secretary then, summed up the report of Mr. O. W. 
Rhodes (Burlington & Missouri River Railroad), the text of 
which was published in the Bulletin of the International Com- 
mission of the Railway Congress, Vol. XVIII., 1904. It ap- 
pears from this report that out of 84 replies obtained, 48 were 
against and 36 in favor of the complete pooling system. 

The reporter stated that two important points controlled 
this matter 30 years ago and still exert the same influence 
today : 

1. That complete pooling system increases the cost of 

2. The main advantage of the complete pooling system, 
which is of a nature to compensate for the increase in ex- 
penses, is the possibility of doing the work with fewer loco- 
motives which effects a reduction of the capital investment. 

The reporter reaches the conclusion that the essentials for 
a properly conducted engine pool are as follows: 

1. An engine house inspector, or inspectors, whose duty 
it is to report all work on incoming engines, which shall be 
checked up with the engiueman's incoming report. Provision 
should be made to have all work properly attended to; neglect 
in this matter has done more to injure and discredit pooling 
than any other feature. Men in a pool, when they report, 
work, and 10 days later get on the same engine and find the 
same thing which requires repair still not attended to, drop 
into careless habits. If a regular man had the engine he 
would raise objections until the work as reported was done. 
In a pool the foreman or workman has a chance to say: "An- 
other man will get this engine who will not know whether 
this work was reported or not." 

2. A sufficient engine house force to attend all cleaning of 
engines both below and above the footboard and in the cab. 
Provision to be made also for cleaning and filling all engine 

3. All lanterns to be maintained and kept under a too! 
room check system. Under this system lanterns are pooled 
in the same way that engines are, and each incoming crew 
has to account for its lanterns. The number of lanterns under 
this system is materially minimized through a large propor- 
tion being in constant service. 

4. Heavy engine tools to be kept in a sealed box on the 
engine, the seal to be carefully inspected on each arrival. Each 
engineman to be supplied with a portable tool box. 

5. A kit of oil cans should be assigned to each engineer and 
returned to him after each trip and placed in the oil room, to 
be properly filled, cleaned and cared for. 

6. A set of enginemen's lockers or boxes should be at the 
disposal of the engine crew. 

The report concluded with the statement that no hard and 
fast ride can be made that will lil all railroads in the mailer 
of pooling engines; the condtions of traffic, together with (he 
quality of equipment, on each road, aloie can determine the 
expediency for or against gQOling. 

'Mr. Alfred W. Gibbs (Pennsylvania Railroad) began the 
discussion by stating that the pooling system has been gen- 
erally used on his lines for the last 28 years, except for some 
passenger trains which have single or double crews. The 
round-houses are organized for this system, and do not afford, 
on an average, more covered space than is required for four 
engines. He would be pleased to know how the single cre,w 
system is organized in Europe— that is, who takes care of the 
engines while the employees in charge are resting, how the 
crews of the engines in repair are utilized, and how the en- 
gines repaired are distributed. 

M. Tordeux (Eastern Railroads of France) reported on the 
poor results obtained on his system by the use of a double 
crew. The number of accidents caused were so great that it 
finally required the service of a greater number of engines 
to straighten out these accidents. 

M. Asselin (Northern Railroad of France) replied to Mr. 
Gibbs that engines are inspected on arrival at the round- 
house by the machinist and the station masters, and that 
special firemen take care of them. When an engine goes into 
the shop a supplementary engine is turned over to its crew 
until the latter can again take up the engine, which is regu- 
larly assigned to it. On the. average, the number of covered 
places available at the round house is equal to half of the 
engines belonging to it. 

Replying to a question by M. Asselin, Mr. Gibbs stated that 
the longest continuous run ever made by a locomotive in 
America was, to his knowledge, 281 miles on a freight train 
with a double crew. 

M. Sabouret (Western Railroads of" France) stated that the 
great difference which exists between American and European 
practice can be explained by the differenc in the cost of fuel, 
which costs from $1 to $2 on the tender in America and from 
$3 to $4 in France. In France the consumption of fuel repre- 
sents an expense double that of the wages of the engine crew; 
it would be interesting to know what this proportion is in 

Mi-. A. E. Mitchell (Lehigh Valley Railroad) stated that for 
modern locomotives the cost of fuel on his system exceeds the 
wages of the employees by 10 per cent and that on other 
systems this expense is practically the same. 

Mr. Dugald Drummond (London & Southwestern Railway, 
England) reported that pooling is unusual in his country, ex- 
cept for certain suburban traffic; the maintenance and fuel 
consumption of the pooled engines being 10 per cent higher 
than that of the single crew". Monev prizes encourage the 
engineers to be economical with fuel and to take care of 
the engines. 

Mr. J. F. Deems (New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road) remarked that pooling would give better results when 
practiced in a general and continuous way than when used 
only at certain times to suit the requirements of the traffic. 

Mi*. Asselin replied that in spite of all precautions taken 
by the Northern Railroad when it tried to introduce pooling 
the results attained were entirely unsatisfactory. 

Mr. Arthur Pilkington (Madras Railway, India) explained 
that his road, having stations great distances apart, would 
very much like to find a system which would enable it to run 
its locomotives much greater distances than can be accom- 
plished by its crews. He would be pleased to get some in- 
formation on the working of the "caboose" system, which 
consists in taking along on the train a second engine crew. 

Mr. O. F. A. Busse (State Railroads, Denmark) reported 
that in a country with severe climate all engines must be 

1 86 


June, 1905. 

provided with shelter, and that on his road if an engine 
enters for repair the crew in charge of it takes another 
engine. On his road the double crew is used on many pas- 
senger trains, which enables them to reduce the number 
of necessary engines without noticeably increasing the ex- 
penses. The cost of lubrication alone increases, but this 
increase in expense is small if the economy realized on the 
capital is considered. The only difficulty is in the division 
of the labor of the engines and the crews and this difficulty 
varies with the service to be performed. 

Mr. Asselin stated that at a previous meeting Mr. Gibbs 
had expressed his regrets that the engine crew in America 
does not get money prizes for economy as in Fra-nce. The 
system of prizes is not practicable with pooling, and be 
asked Mr. Gibbs whether the tendency in America is to in- 
crease or reduce pooling. 

Mr. Gil>bs replied that at the present time the sentiment 
in America seems to be favorable to putting locomotives in 
charge of certain crews, as shown by the example of several 
roads. In expressing his regrets that there are no money 
prizes in America, he repeated the opinion of an engineer 
sent by him to France. If he were sure to obtain the same 
results by applying the same system, he would be well 
pleased to do so. 

Mr. W. W. Hoy (president South African Railways) sup- 
plied some information on the working of the "caboose sys- 
tem" on his lines which consists in employing two complete 
crews, others by double crews, but on the most busy sections 
and giving them a complete rest of about ten hours after 
a run of about five hundred miles. 

Mr. W. Mcintosh (Central Railroad of New Jersey) stated 
that he was of the opinion that pooling is the most suitable 
system for the operation of a great railroad system with 
heavy traffic but it is difficult to organize and requires closer 
attention to the inspection service which renders the system 
unpopular. Certain sections of his road are served by single 
crews others by double crews, but on the most busy sections 
pooling dominates absolutely, and tb ? nature of the traffic 
does not permit of the use of any other organization. 

Mr. H. J. Small (Southern Pacific Railway) reported that 
the use of crude petroleum as a fuel for several years past 
has increased the difficulties of pooling to such an extent 
tbat his company had to go back to the single crew system, 
with the result of a considerable reduction in the number of 

Mr. A. Lovell (Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry.) confirmed 
the statement of Mr. Small. For the same reason his com- 
pany had to return to the single crew system as engines 
using liquid fuel cannot be conveniently maintained if they 
do not stay at the roundhouse a sufficiently long time. More- 
over, the bad quality of the water compels them to wash 
the boilers after a run of six to eight hours. He added that 
these conditions are not the same throughout the whole 

Mr. Thomas Ronayne (New Zealand Railroads) maintained 
that the single crew system gives more satisfactory results 
because the men take better care of the engines. The double 
crew gives equally good results if its crews are suitably 
selected. The three-men crew is much used on his system 
under the same conditions. The multiple crew and the'system 
of mixed crews are little used, and complete pooling, which 
has given poor results in all points, is employed as little as 
possible except for station operations. 

Messrs. C. Noltein (Moscow Kanzan Railroad, Russia) and 
Holier) (Northern Railroad of Spain) declare themselves also 
opposed to Hie complete pooling system. 

Mr. Gibbs supplied some information on the measures taken 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad as a consequence of traffic 
fluctuations. It is, of course, understood that the system 
needs a sufficient number of engines to enable it to handle 

the greatest requirements of its traffic; when the traffic de- 
creases, all locomotives which are not necessary are put 
aside and carefully oiled to avoid unnecessary maintenance 
expenses. As to the employees who cannot be utilized, they 
are laid off temporarily. 

The chairman then read the following draft of the con- 

"The Congress finds that in Europe and in countries other 
that North America the general sentiment is very much 
in favor of the single crew system rnd unfavorable to com- 
plete pooling, which is used only when necessitated by a 
sudden increase in traffic. However for certain services 
various combinations of double or multiple crews or of mixed 
crews are used, according to circumstances. 

In North America pooling is, on the contrary, very general, 
though little used for passenger service, and a tendency to 
using single crews is generally manifest. 

"It is, however, in place to remark that the organization 
of train service depends to a large extent on local conditions." 

These conclusions were approved. 


Progress made in electric traction on important lines of 
railways. Continuous current, alternating polyphase current. 
Experiments made with high tension currents. 

The reporters, Messrs. F. Paul-Dubois (Paris-Orleans Rail- 
way), E. Gerard (Belgian State Railways) and W. D. Young 
(Baltimore & Ohio Railroad), each read an abstract and the 
conclusions of their reports. One of the secretaries also read 
the conclusions of Mr. V. Tremontani (Italian Railroads of 
the Mediterranean ) , who was absent. 

Mr. Schulz (Railway of the German Empire) gave some 
information on the experiments made in Germany Avith high 
speed electric traction, to which some of the reporters have 
referred. Mr. Schulz explained that the object of these ex- 
periments was to determine scientifically if high speed electric 
traction were possible and satisfactory on main railway lines. 
In a great number of trial runs speeds of 200 to 210 kilo- 
meters per hour were attained, which are much higher than 
those previously reached. The experiments have shown that 
the ordinary type of superstructure, properly strengthened, 
would completely suffice for speeds of 200 kilometers per 
hour and more, and that on the other hand, the general ar- 
rangement of express passenger cars is well adapted to great 
speeds, provided the wheel base be sufficiently increased. 
Because of the great amount of energy to be transmitted 
to the motors, it has been found convenient to use the three- 
phase current with a tension of 10 to 12 thousand volts. 

The current was transmitted by three copper wires of 100 
square millimeters sectional area each, place one above the 
other in a vertical plane, on one side of the patform. The 
bow-like pole for taking the current was very light and pro- 
vided with double acting springs which pressed the pole 
against the wires with a sufficient pressure to assure a good 
contact at the highest speed. The experiments have shown 
that it is thus possible to transmit a great amount of energy 
to an electric car going at a high speed. The arrangements 
used have, in fact, permitted the transmission as many as 
2000 k. w. to the cars going at a speed of almost 60 meters 
per second, and this under unfavorable atmospheric conditions. 

The measurement of the total resistance of traction has 
given the following results: The resistance due to friction 
which is only 1.5 kilograms per ton at a speed of 5 kilometers 
per hour increases gradually with the speed and becomes 300 
kilometers at a speed of 200 kilometers per hour. The resist- 
ance due to the air increases much more rapidly than the 
speed; and, it can be said, that it is this resistance which 
really limits the speed which may be realized. The resistance 
of a trail car is much less than that of the first automotor 
car, so that it is more economical to make up the trains of 
several cars than to run single automotor cars at short in- 


tervals though the latter system is more satisfactory from are required to maintain a speed of 200 kilometers per hour, 

^ ' ■.'.. ._ + nf „- pw on a level stretch, for a single motor car weighing 90 tons 
the public point ot view. 

1 . 117 . „,. aoon „* whin, can and containing 50 seats. The cost of tins consumption is 

-\\r;Hi .i clnwiiio- flown of 1 V> HlOtClS 1)01 SeCOllU, VY 1U( 11 C.Ul o 

be^eSizedw^hout dinger to" the passengers, trains running enormous if it is remembered that in the high speed trains 

a ^d ZSo to 200 kilometers per hour can be stopped of the Orleans Company 1200-to 1300 horsepower engines are 

■n a Sstance of 660 to 1000 meters, respectively. At speeds sufficient to pull trains eon ammg about 400 first-class pas- 

ho e than 120 kilometers per hour, the signals could be angers at a speed of 100 to 120 k. outers per hour the 

msnei j-u „ fflniQT J Hmo T hi<= hi<s been question may then be asked whether, after the technical 

seen during bad weather in sufficient time, mis nas net n i •» 

Improved bv means of an electro-magnetic arrangement which Problem has been solved, the economic problem can also be 

places a red diskbefore the eyes of the motorman if the signal considered as admitting of solution. 

in front of him is at "danger" M - Sabouret (French Western. Railways) contributed details 

More than 300 trial runs were made without any accident. on the electric installation on the line from the Invalides 

Mr. Schulz held that this opens a great field to railroad en- to Versailles, similar to those on the line from Pans to 

gineers and electricians; and he expressed the wish that the Juvisy. The main reason which has induced he French 

operation of a high speed electric railroad may soon become Western Railway Company to introduce electric traction on 

1 .. . , , , this line is the existence of a terminal station at Pans winch 

an accomplished tact. • , . ., 

,,.„., , is partially underground and of a tunnel three and a halt 

J. A. F. Aspinall (Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway) gave ^ ou a oontinuous grade of .8, where it was 

some additional details on the electric line from Liverpool 

„_, , . ^ , , ,, . ,. necessary to avoid smoke, 
to Southport. Electric traction was not adopted on this line 

for the sake of economy, but to increase the receipts. Since Ten electric locomotives aud two automotor trains are in 

the twelve months during which the line has been operated service on this line with different types of motors, some 

electrically the results are most satisfactory as to increase in geared and some not geared. At the great speeds (82 to 100 

traffic, but the operation is more expensive than with steam. kilometers per hour) which the trains acquire while descend- 

The cost of coal per ton mile especially is greater; the running ™S, the ungeared motors, the armatures of which are mounted 

expenses, however, are less because of the greater mileage on a hollow shaft, engaging the wheels in a yielding, offer 

run by the crews. Mr. Aspinall added that the train staff of important advantages over the geared motors. It has also 

express trains (made up of four and sometimes five cars) boen stated tMt the " m " z ™t" lubrication is better than 

consists of a motorman and conductor, who stays during the the American way of lubricating with grease. Ihis service 

run in the motorman's compartment; that of local trains con- ccnslsts of fom ' to flve tvains P er hour in either direction, 

sists of a motorman and two conductors. The service is com- * lid while the kilowatt hour does hot cost more than five 

plicated owing to the fact that it has three classes and con- to six centimes, at the power station, the cost of operation of 

siderable baggage to transport. The run from Liverpool to eiectrlc traction is noticeably higher than that of steam trac- 

Southport takes 37 minutes, including 14 stops of 15 seconds tion. 

each; passengers open and close the doors themselves; the Mr. A. Wilson (North Eastern Railway, England) gave some 

boarding and leaving is done very rapidly owing to the information on the use of electric traction on the suburban 

special arrangement of the entrance and exit doors. lines' of Newcastle-on-Tyne. He also furnished some data 

One of the reasons for introducing electric traction on the on the cost of operation of these lines, mentioning, however, 

line was the necessity of decreasing the crowding of the the difficulty of making comparisons with steam traction. 

Liverpool terminus during the busy hours; the handling of an Electricity permits a better utilization of the existing lines 

inbound steam train and its redispatching requires four dis- an(1 experience shows that the improved service which follows 

tinct switching operations and eight signal operations, while generally leads to increased receipts. 

for an electric train two switching and four signal operations The cost of electric traction for the month of February, 

are sufficient. 1905, was as follows: 

The line has on a certain section four tracks, two of which Mileage of trains 92,541 

are at present used as freight tracks; the latter are to be Mileage of cars 254,938 

equipped electrically and will be partially utilized for pas- Average number of cars per train 2.75 

■ sengers during the busy hours because of the increase in Total energy consumed (kilowatt hours) 647,140 

traffic. - Energy consumed per train mile (kilowatt hours).... 6.993 

The cost of the electric installation on the Liverpool and Energy consumed per car mile (kilowatt hours) 2.538 

Southport line was as high as £20,000 sterling per mile, or Pence 

about three and one-half times the installation of a steam Average cost of power per car mile 1.601 

locomotive service. If the interest and sinking fund charges Engineeer's pay per car mile 297 

of this sum are added to the cost of operation, it is not sur- Conductor's pay per car mile 217 

prising that electric traction costs more than steam. 

Mr. Aspinall added that the weight of electric equipment Total cost of traction per car mile 2.115 

of the trains on the Liverpool-Southport line is not less than Total cost of traction per train mile 5.7 

the weight of corresponding locomotives, and that the. same Replying to an inquiry from Mr. Moffre (French Southern 

will hold true for trains on main lines. Railway), who wished to know whether monophase alternat- 

A discussion then developed between Mr. Schulz and Mr. E. ing current motors have been applied to traction in the 
Gerard on the usefulness of a guard rail with which the United States or elsewhere, Mr. K. Steinbiss (Royal Prussian 
road built for high speed experiments was provided. Mr. Railways) said that in addition to the trials made in Germany 
Schulz held that this guard rail is especially important be- with electric traction by continuous current motors (for in- 
cause of the strengthening of the track it affords, but it did stance, on the Wannsee Railway), some monophase motors 
not appear to him necessary for the prevention of derail- have been in operation since 1903 on the Niederschoeneweider- 
ments; the opinions on this subject were, however, divided Spindlerfeld line near Berlin. The motors employed are of 
and experience only will enajile a decision whether the guard the Winter-Eichberg system; the speed is from 40 to 60 kilo- 
rail is useful or not. meters per hour; trains are made up of one or two automotor 

Mr. T. H. Laurent (Paris-Orleans Railroad) was struck by cars, with or without trailers; the heaviest train contains 5 

the enormous increase in the consumption of the energy re- cars weighs 150 tons, 

quired for high speed; thus, not less than 1340 horsepower Encouraged by the results given by this trial, German en- 

1 88 


June, 1905. 

gineers are applying the same system to a line connecting 
Hamburg, Altona and Blankanese, which is 26 kilometers 
long. The trains in ordinary service will consist of two cars, 
with three axles each (one two-axle truck and one independ- 
ent axle), with a total of 100 seats; these trains will be run 
at a speed of 60 kilometers per hour, with three minutes' 
leeway between trains. The work of equipping the line has 
been begun; it is to be opened to traffic October 1 of next year. 

Mr. W. D. Young (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad) said that 
since his report was written two lines equipped with this 
type of motor have gone into operation in the United States 
—one near Indianapolis and the other between Bloomington 
and Pontiac, 111. 

As for the third rail, he did not believe it was as dangerous 
as people thought. Ten years ago there was installed in 
Baltimore, to avoid the third rail, a system of overhead 
wiring, which proved very expensive and gave a great deal 
of trouble, particularly in the tunnels, which extend over half 
the length of the line. The corrosion caused by the sulphur- 
ous smoke and vapors from the locomotives finally made it 
necessary to rewire this line throughout. As all the changes 
and repairs had to be made without interrupting the service, 
and working with live wires, the expense was very great. 
Consequently his company decided three years ago to replace 
this overhead wiring with a third rail. This third rail is 
protected between stations by guard boards; at stations it is 
entirely enclosed, leaving a slot on top for the contact shoe. 
As an additional measure of safety, a system of automatic 
current breakers has been installed at the station and at 
points where the workmen most frequently cross the tracks, 
but this system works irregularly and, therefore, is not very 
reliable. Last year the line was extended across the North 
Baltimore station; where passing this station the third rail has 
merely been omitted for a distance of 700 ft. over which the 
trains are carried by momentum. In a new station all danger 
could be avoided by using elevated platforms. 

In reply to a question put by Mr. Luarent, Mr. Young ex- 
plained the means employed in America to prevent trouble 
from sleet on the third rail. The Manhattan Elevated Rail- 
way Company uses for this purpose, and apparently with 
success, scrapers held against the rail by compressed air. 
Mr. Young prefers using a solution of chloride of lime, regulat- 
ing the density to the temperature, which is very cheap and 
entirely efficient. 

Mr. Young pointed out the importance for the different 
railroad companies of arriving at a definite agreement on the 
question of the location of the third rail. On the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad the horizontal distance between the axis of 
the third rail and the axis of the track rail nearest to it is 
31% ins.; the height of the third rail above the track rail is 
3% ins. This height is almost the same everywhere, but the 
horizontal distance varies much with the different companies, 
and it would be very desirable to make these dimensions 

The meeting adopted the following conclusions proposed 
by the section: 

The section recognizes that electric traction should be con- 
sidered at present as an important auxiliary of steam trac- 
tion, being capable of handling certain portions of railway 
traffic with advantage and economy. 

It is impossible in a general exposition to point out the 
exact service to which electricity can be most readily applied, 
the application being essentially a question of local conditions, 
each particular case requiring special study. In this study 
there must be taken into account the expense of electrifica- 
tion and the following points: First, condition of service — 
that is, the frequency and weight of trains; second, the 
physical conditions of the line, such as length, profile and 
plan. In comparing the expenses of operation by electricity 
and by steam, the interest and depreciation on the electrical 
installation must be considered. 

The increase in revenue which the improvements in service 
will generally produce should also be given consideration. An 
important point in the use of electricity is the increase in the 
present station facilities resulting from the reducing number 
of movements in the stations by the use of electric traction. 

From the information furnished to the congress it would 
seem that with the third rail as now Used, security can be 
assured under favorable conditions without it being necessary 
to cover or protect the third rail for its entire length. 
The congress has heard with much interest the results ex- 
perienced with high-speed electric traction between Marien- 
fcld and Zossen, and also of the tests and first applications 
for traction purposes of the alternating monophase motors 
in several countries. 

Finally, the congress recommends that on account of their 
future usefulness exact data on the cost of eletric traction 
be obtained. 

June, 1905. 



Railway Appliances at Washington 

IN the exhibit of Railway Appliances, the general arrange- the exhibits will convey the impression that the show was 

nient and character of the display was very similar to an extensive one. 

that at St. Louis, though on a lesser scale, but what was The Perry Side Bearing, of Joliet, 111., was shown with 

lost in magnificent distances was more than compensated bearings, new and also worn, in the main pavilion. One 

General Entrance. 

Oliver Machinery Co. 

for in the selection of specialties exhibited. The same care 
to make the most of the space allotted, was to be seen in 
the smaller pavilions on the ground, as was shown in the 
main building. The lighting facilities were on a most ex- 
tensive plan, making the evening show fully as effective as 
that of the day, for the outside exhibits as well as those in 
the pavilions, large and small. A brief resume of some of 

of those which had seen a wear due to two years service 
under an 80,000 lb. car, looked as new as those out of the 
shop— no signs of abrasion whatever on the stud rollers, or on 
the cap against which the rollers bear. Another of these 
bearings which had carried a load of 134,000 lbs. on a 
tender through 80,000 miles of service gave no indication 
of wear. 

H. B. Underwood & Co. 

Pittsburg Spring & Steel Co. 



June, 1905. 


Ajax Mfg. Co. — Railway Materials Co. — Draper 
Manufacturing Co. ' 

The Flannery Bolt Co., Pittsburg, had an instructive ex- 
hibit of their Gate Flexible staybolts for fireboxes. All de- 
tails of application were shown in full sized bolts and sheets, 
aud bolts and sleeves were also shown in section, by which 
the action of the ball joint was made plain, illustrating the 
impossibility of transverse stresses affecting the strength 
of this staybolt. 

The Homestead Valve Co., Pittsburg, exhibited a full line 
of their valves, including the blow-off valves in which the 
locking system was shown in section. Valves which had 
seen long service and were still in fir3t class working condi- 
tion, added interest to this exhibit. 

In the exhibit of the Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., Cuyahoga 
Falls, O., was shown the iron furnished in their staybolts. 
This iron has a small hole through its center, full length 
of the bolt, by means of which air is admitted to the firebox, 
also making- an unerring telltale in case of failure of a 

Armstrong Brothers Tool Co., Chicago, had a comprehen- 
sive exhibit of their tool holders and holders for grinding 

S. F. Bowser & Co., and Their Representatives. 

tools and inserted cutters. Among their exhibits was a claw 
bar having two inserted teeth side by side let into the head 
of the bar. This device had the strong point that it need 
never be out of commission when two inserted teeth are 
available, as the bar itself is made on a design that defies 
the roughest usage. The tool holders for turning and boring 
were complete and ready to go from the exhibit to the shop. 
They also showed the only machine made expressly for 
grinding inserted tool cutters. 

The Old Dominion Nail and Iron Works, Richmond, Va., 
had samples of their staybolt iron on show, called the special 
vibratory staybolt iron. The special feature of this iron 
is the high elastic limit, some tests showing 40.P00 lbs. per 
square inch. 

The Ashton Valve Co., Boston, exhibited their muffler pop 
valves, blow-off valves, open pop-valves and gage's, besides 
their chime whistles, in an extensive display. The steam 
gages having two springs were the subject of great interest 
to railroad men. 

In the Manning, Maxwell and Moore, New York, exhibit, 

Landis Tool Co. 

Landis Machine Company. 

June, 1905. 



Bettendorf Axle Co. 

Acme White Lead & Color Co. 

was to be seeu their pop valves, whistles, steam gages and 
injectors, practically the same as at the World's Fair, making 
one of the most attractive shows in the main building. 

The Hageman Metallic Hose for train line connections, 
steam or air, was a novelty in mechanical construction which 
made the exhibit well patronized. This hose is flexible in 
every plane of actiou and perfectly tight under all conditions 
of service. It cannot uncouple in service, but will easily 
pull apart in case of derailment of break-in-two, and cannot 
burst like a rubber hose. It is made of galvanized metallic 
tubing and has four swiveling joints. 

One of the interesting things to a shop man was the Cling 
Surface belt on exhibit by working model, showing in com- 
parison an ordinary belt as run in every shop using a belt 
drive. A small weighing scale served as a dynamometer to 
measure the pull on each system, showing to the eye how 
power was transmitted through each belt, also the force 
at work on the journal bearings when, the ordinary belt was 
tightened up to the point where it could not slip, which was 
plainly the point of rupture, after short service, as well as 

the condition for abnormal friction load. The belt treated 
with Cling Surface was shown to give its maximum pull 
when running loose. 

In jack construction the Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburg, had on 
exhibition some samples of roller bearing ratchet "screw jacks 
that represented advanced ideas in devices for lifting loads. 
These jacks are made of malleable iron and steel, with a 
ratchet of special construction, the direction of motion being 
instantly changed. The bevel gears and screw are of steel. 

A car propeller or pinch bar was shown by its inventor, 
Mr. H. G. Gehr, of Waynesboro, Pa. This bar is pivoted to 
a falcrum which fits over and. slides 'on the rail head, the 
bar not coming in contact with rail, which obviates the 
vexatious slipping off the rail, as with the old style bar, 
since the fulcrum always guides the bar correctly to the 
wheel tread. 

The Pittsburg Spring & Steel Co., had a flue exhibit of 
locomotive and car springs, also extension and compression 
springs for various special uses. While no novelties are 
looked for in a collection of this kind, the quality of work 

Exhibit of Western Tube Co., and Representatives. 

Aurora Automatic Machinery Co. Exhibit. 



June, 1905. 

Norton Grinding Co. 

Vacuum Cleaner Co. 

stands to receive a rigid inspection, and this was invited by 
the exhibitors. 

In pipe fittings, the Western Tube Co., had an exhibit of 
their several kinds, embracing the brass and iron ball joint 
union elbows, and tees and unions, and their union swing 
check. The screw joint is non-corrosive, while the ground 
brass joint, and iron self-seating joint does away with the 
need of a gasket. These are adapted for steam, water, gas 
or air service. All these fittings come under the trade head 
of "Kewanee." This firm also makes the Eureina, Y, or 
straightway valves. 

The Lunkenheimer Co., of Cincinnati, 0., were to the fore 
as usual, having an exhibit of valves, whistles, water gages, 
oil cups and lubricators. The blow-off valves of this firm 
are arranged with the seat separate from the body, making- 
it easy to detach for renewal. This blow-off has two valves, 
one of which has a direct lift, while the other has a rotary 
action around the first. 

Pipe fittings and valves of the Jenkins Brothers, New York, 

were on exhibit in their pavilion, in a collection that com- 
prised the best of their product in globe valves, gate valves 
and general pipe accessories. 

The Baker Car Heating Co., New York, had on exhibit 
their new shut steel heater, which is a riveted creation and 
an improved construction over the earlier heaters of this 

The Norton Grinding Co., Worcester, Mass., exhibited some 
beautiful samples of high art in grinding of locomotive de- 
tails, such as crank pins, valve stems and piston rods. It 
would be impossible to conceive a finer fit in metal than 
was seen in the brass sleeve shown on a heavy piston rod 
which had been ground and the sleeve bored to fit. The fit 
was so close that the temperature of the hand was necessary 
to free it to a sliding fit. At a temperature lower than that 
of the body the sleeve would remain where placed on the 
rod. The resistance to movement was uniform the whole 
length of the rod, showing it to have a true straight cylin- 
drical surface. As a lesson in refined fitting it could not be 

Morse Twist Drill & Machine Co. 
Duff Mfg. Co. 

Flannery Bolt Company's Exhi-bit and Representa- 

June, 1905. 



United States Light & Heating Co. 

Erie All Steel Mail Car. 

In the line of wood-working machinery, the Oliver Machinery 
Co., Grand Rapids, Mich., had a large exhibit in their im- 
mense pavilion. These tools comprised the heavier equipment 
for a railway shop, and also lighter tools for pattern and cabi- 
net shop work. Improved features were prominent in all 
the tools exhibited. A swing saw had a vertical adjustment 
for the preservation of aligment of the saw to cut, to com- 
pensate for wear of the teeth. A universal saw bench re- 
vealed some conveniences that made it a valuable accessory 
to the wood working shop, the most noticeable of 'which 
was the sliding table 16 inches wide, and the fixed table 20 
inches wide, besides which the top could be inclined through 
an angle of 135 degrees, and be secured to position at any 

In the Manning-Maxwell & Moore, exhibit was seen the 
Automatic Grinding Machine at work on plug cocks, such as 
are used for blow-off and air brake work. The machine is 
made to give the cock plug a vertical as well as a rotary 
motion in the cock shell or body which is fixed in a frame. 

The action produced imitates very closely that in hand grind- 
ing. The machine handles several valves at the same time, 
having multiple spindles on which the plugs are mounted. 

The exhibit of the Acme White Lead and Color Works, of 
Detroit, Mich., was an attractive one, made so by the ar- 
tistic arrangement of paneling around the exhibit space. 
These panels were of many woods, and finished as for pas- 
senger train cars inside and outside. Their "Pandect," which 
is a rust preventive for metal structures and cars, is a spe- 
cific for the ravages of alkali, acid or gas, preventing their 
attack of metal most effectually, was well exploited. 

The Gold Car. Heating & Lighting Co., New York, had a 
complete showing of their heating systems for passenger 
trains. These comprised steam, hot water and electricity, 
the latter being recently adopted by the Underground Rail- 
way Co. of London, the heater for which was shown in 
model. All the accessories going with the several systems 
were shown,! and in operation. Their improved regulating 
system, which reduces the pressure in each car, giving a tem- 

Paul Dickinson — Geo. P. Nichols & Bro. 

Washburn Co. — Merritt & Co. 



June, 1905. 

Chicago Railway Equipment Co. 

Gould Coupler Co. 

peratufe to accord with weather conditions, is a solution of 
the problem of healthful car heating. In this exhibit was 
also the Edison Storage Battery System for train lighting, 
the exclusive selling agency of which is controlled in this 
country by the Gold Co. This battery is complete in itself, 
giving the maximum output with low weight and small 
space. The lamps have direct connection with the battery in 
this system. 

The Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York, had 
their exhibit of the new mantle Pintsch lamps at the Hotel 
Raleigh, and also in a Pennsylvania car, in full operation 
during the congress. The beautiful soft glow of these lamps 
gave an impression of fairyland to the surroundings such as 
no rub of Aladdin's lamp could produce. These lamps are 
used with the ordinary Pintsch system, but with the advan- 
tage of more and better light at a less cost. 

The Chicago Car Heating Co. had their vapor system of car 
heating in full operation in their exhibit. By this system 
there is no pressure in the radiating pipes, which are open 

to the atmosphere. Steam traps and drip valves are there- 
fore, not used, and the freezing of these parts is eliminated. 
The radiating pipes in the train are automatically filled with 
steam at 212 degrees, with a uniform temperature through- 
out the train, regardless of the train pipe pressure. 

The Pyle National Electric Headlight Co. had an interest- 
ing exhibit of their lightning system, with its generator, the 
current being taken by their automatic adjustable arc located 
in the focal point of the reflector. The working of this lamp 
is automatic in the most complete sense, the carbon being 
thus held in the focal plane, and the turbine being governed 
to a close regulation, so that no attention is required other 
than to start and stop. One of these lamps was set so as to 
spot the apex of the Washington monument at night, pro- 
ducing an effect on that grand old shaft which was visible 
for miles. 

The General Electric Co. was, as usual, in a conspicuous 
place in it own pavilion, showing many of the specialties 
for which this company is famed. Among these was a com- 

Sherwin-Williams Co. 

Miller Wrecking Anchor. 

June. 1905. 



The Homestead Valve. 

plete working system of the multiple control for trains, the 
semaphore being of full size and operated by a small car on 
the. track. One of the attractive features to .the railroad man 
was the mutoscope exhibit of the speed trials at Hoffman's, 
of the electric locomotives built for the New York Central, 
in competition with the steam locomotives of the same road. 
To those who have been on an engine in speed tests, this ex- 
hibit was a thriller, showing these machines, each with pas- 
senger trains, bearing down side by side at an apparent 
speed of more than 70 miles an hour. Many old time loco- 
motive men were seen with eyes glued to these mutoscopes. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works had on exhibit in their 
pavilion their steel wheels made from the solid ingot, also 
those having tires, both of which were cut in sections, as 
well as solid. The Vauclain system of compounding, and 
their balanced locomotive was covered by literature and 
drawings. On the track outside of the grounds was one of 
the new Baldwin balanced four cylinder compounds built for 
the Pennsylvania road. This machine excited much favor- 
able comment on its size and workmanship. 

mw^, •"" 



.«&*'** AMk$ 

' *» . . - :>_- ■ ■■ 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

The American Locomotive Co. had a pavilion for the enter- 
tainment of their friends, and also had an exhibit on the 
tracks a consolidation engine built for the Lake Shore road. 
A distinctive feature of this engine was the Walschaert valve 
gear which is receiving considerable attention at this time 
by American roads. There were some improved points of 
design seen in this gear that will be likely to give it a more 
extended vogue. This gear is one of those having a constant 
lead at all points of cut-off, and is located entirely outside of 
the frames. 

The Aurora Automatic Machinery Co. had an exhibit in 
their pavilion of their "Thor" pneumatic tools. These em- 
braced drills, reversible and non-reversible, of capacities 
ranging from a 2%-inch drill down to watchmaker's sizes. 
Air machines for reaming and tapping and wood boring 
were seen in a large number of sizes, also a full line of ham- 
mer for riveting, caulking and chipping, all of which were in 
operation. One of the novelties of the "Thor" tools was an 
air turbine driving a portable cut-off saw, the uses of which 
in car work were obvious, as the little tool could be carried 

Exhibits of National Malleable Castings Co., and 
Philip Carey Mfg. Co. 

Exhibits of the Cllng-Surface Co., and Dilworth 

Porter and Co. 




Crane Company Exhibit. 

and operated anywhere. For dressing the edges of car floor- 
ing and roofing, this machine will fill a place now ready for it. 
These tools represent the best product in their line, in point 
of workmanship and in the amount of air used in the motors. 

The Electro-Dynamic Co., Bayonne, N. J., is one of the as- 
pirants for honors in the electric field that had an exhibit of 
some good things in their line. Among these was their 5-S 
four to one interpole variable speed motor, driving by belt a 
generator, to demonstrate the flexibility of working capacity, 
in the speed variations of from 250 to 1,200 revolutions per 
minute, from no load to 100 per cent overload. These motors 
are reversible under all conditions of service, and were in 
use furnishing power for various tool exhibits on the ground. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. exhibited their Little Giant 
motors, the Keller riveters and drills, the Bayer speed record- 
ers, and the Bayer and Chicago drills, their paint spraying 
machines, besides their pneumatic geared hoists and trolleys. 
In connection with the latter is an automatic brake worked 

by air, which is used to hold the load in a given position 
and for any length of time desired. 

The F. E. Reed Co., Worcester, Mass., had a 16-inch and 18- 
inch lathe on exhibit, the first, driven by a motor which was 
located over the headstock, while the second was belt driven. 
The provision for furnishing soda and oil to the machine 
was very complete. The work laid out on these machines 
was not for exhibition purposes, as some seemed to think, 
but just simply the everyday finish of chese builders. 

Merritt & Co., Philadelphia, the expanded metal people, ex- 
hibited their expanded sheet steel lockers, showing designs of 
various sizes for offices and shops, which were intended to 
cover all possible needs for wardrobes and cabinets. 

The Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O., had a 
24-inch lathe on exhibit in the main building, having an elec- 
tric drive by a Bullock motor of eight horse power. This 
machine was put through its paces with Novo tool steel, tak- 
ing cuts with a feed of from 1-32 to 1-8 inch on high carbon 

American Steam Gauge & Valve Mfg. Co. 

Exhibit of American Valve & Meter Co. 

June, 190$. 



Mason Regulator Company. 

Barker Mail Crane & Catcher. 

steel. The machine and motor stood up to the mark, leaving 
the burden of proof to the tool steel. This lathe is an im- 
proved tool in the fullest sense. 

The T. H. Symington Co., Baltimore, had an exhibit in their 
pavilion, showing the Baltimore ball bearing center plates 
and side bearings in full size details, also the Symington jour- 
nal box and other specialties. 

The Schoen Steel Wheel Co., Philadelphia, exhibited their 
steel wheels, both solid forged and rolled, ' and illustrated 
the various stages of construction of these wheels by the 
actual object, from the billet to the finished wheel ready for 

The Victor Locomotive Stoker Co., Cincinnati, O., had their 
stoker in active operation as a practical exhibit, showing 
what the stoker could do in crossing a large grate area. A 
wired enclosure 11 feet long by 7 feet wide served as a fire- 
box, while the stoker was mounted on a dummy boiler head 
in a large steel cab of the Chesapeake & Ohio road. Condi- 
tions closely approaching those of actual road service were 

met by the stoker, which distributed coal evenly over the 84 
square feet representing the grate. The demonstrations of 
the stoker were of great interest to the foreign delegates as 
well as others to whom it was no stranger. Maximum con- 
ditions were chosen by the owners. This is the Kincaid 
stoker with a new name. 

The Railway Appliance Co., Chicago, had in their exhibit 
in the main building two motor cars' operated by gasoline. 
One of these was for railway inspection service and made 
to carry four persons. A novelty in this line was the larger 
of these vehicles which was designed to carry eight passen- 
gers. A still larger one is constructed for operation on rail- 
way tracks, with a capacity for 30 passengers, but was not 
shown. They have a radius of action only limited by the 
means to obtain gasoline and are good for speeds above 40 
miles an hour. The Oldsmobile Co. are the builders of these 

The Bettendorf Axle Co., Davenport, la., had in their pa- 
vilion an exhibit of the Bettendorf trucks and other of their 


' 44.46 WASHINGTON 5 


The Wells Light Exhibit. 

Detroit Lubricator Co. 



June, 1905. 

Armstrong Bros, Tool Co. 

products, among which was the combined steel arch frame 
and journal box. This was a decided novelty, and attracted 
a great deal of attention. 

The monster hydraulic riveter of the R. D. Wood Co., Phila- 
delphia, made one of the most impressive exhibits on the 
ground. The capacity of this tool was sufficient to take in 
the longest boiler shell, the gap being over 18 feet long. 
Though the opening was of such an immense depth, the de- 
flection was only y. 2 inch when exercising its maximum 

One of the interesting exhibits to the motive power people 
was that of the Sectional Automatic car journal lubricator, 
which is an oil tight journal box, having the space usually 
given to waste filled with oil, -in which was a small frame 
resting on the bottom of the box and carrying disks which 
had contact with the under side of the journal. These disks 
revolved by frictional contact with the journal, and kept it 
flooded with oil. An electric motor drove the axle at a speed 
as high as eighty miles an hour in the demonstrations given, 
to show the operation of the device, which was exhibited in 

Railway Master Mechanic. 

a journal box having glass sides. This scheme of lubrica- 
tion was tested on the Great Northern Ry. on a Pacific coast 
train and showed an immense saving in oil, and brass and 
journal wear, without a hot box in the run of over 2,000 
miles. Several thousand of these lubricators have been or- 
dered by the Japanese government. 

The Crane Co., Chicago, had an exhibit of their valves, 
which comprised every variety of valve used for locomotive 
and stationary purposes. In these were pop, angle, globe and 
gate valves. All of these were designed for high pressure 
work. The removable disk seat is an important improve- 
ment in valves, since it enables the renewal of both the seat 
and disk at pleasure without disturbing the other points of 
the valve. 

The Landis Machine Co., Waynesboro, Pa., had an interest- 
ing exhibit of their bolt cutting and nut tapping machines, 
with their dies and chasers, and examples of the high class 
of thread work turned out, which in point of excellence 
equalled the best lead screw products. 

The Landis Tool Co., Waynesboro, Pa., had their very effi- 

The Standard Sectional Automatic Car Journal Consolidated Ry. Electric Lighting & Equipment 

Lubricator. Co. 

June, 1905. 



Buda Foundry & Mfg. Co. 

The King-Lawson Car. 

c-ient grinding machines and grinding appliances on exhibit, 
with examples of their accuracy in fine grinding, such as 
crank pins, round